Abstract

We demonstrate that the two basic physical mechanisms of terahertz (THz) generation in a femtosecond filament, namely, the free electron photocurrent and the nonlinear polarization of neutrals, can be identified through the spectral analysis of THz radiation. The contribution from the photocurrent peaks at the units of THz, while the neutrals yield the peak at the tens of THz. We suggest the practical implementation of such spectral analysis by varying the initial transform-limited laser pulse duration.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013

L. Berge, S. Skupin, C. Kohler, I. Babushkin, and J. Herrmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 073901 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2010

2009

N. Karpowicz, X. F. Lu, and X. C. Zhang, J. Mod. Opt. 56, 1137 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, T.-J. Wang, C. Marceau, F. Théberge, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, O. Kosareva, and S. L. Chin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 101101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Karpowicz and X.-C. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 093001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X .Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).

2007

2006

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X. C. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 075005 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

P. Sprangle, J. R. Penano, B. Hafizi, and C. A. Kapetanakos, Phys. Rev. E 69, 066415 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, Appl. Phys. B 71, 877 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Cook and R. M. Hochstrasser, Opt. Lett. 25, 1210 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Babushkin, I.

L. Berge, S. Skupin, C. Kohler, I. Babushkin, and J. Herrmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 073901 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Balakin, A. V.

Berge, L.

L. Berge, S. Skupin, C. Kohler, I. Babushkin, and J. Herrmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 073901 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Borodin, A. V.

Châteauneuf, M.

Y. Chen, T.-J. Wang, C. Marceau, F. Théberge, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, O. Kosareva, and S. L. Chin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 101101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, T.-J. Wang, C. Marceau, F. Théberge, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, O. Kosareva, and S. L. Chin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 101101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X .Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).

Chin, S. L.

Y. Chen, T.-J. Wang, C. Marceau, F. Théberge, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, O. Kosareva, and S. L. Chin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 101101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, Appl. Phys. B 71, 877 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, in Advances in Multi-Photon Processes and Spectroscopy (World Scientific, 2004), Vol. 16, p. 432.

Cook, D. J.

Dai, J.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X .Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X. C. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 075005 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dakovski, G. L.

Dubois, J.

Y. Chen, T.-J. Wang, C. Marceau, F. Théberge, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, O. Kosareva, and S. L. Chin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 101101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fletcher, C.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X .Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).

Glownia, J. H.

Hafizi, B.

P. Sprangle, J. R. Penano, B. Hafizi, and C. A. Kapetanakos, Phys. Rev. E 69, 066415 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Herrmann, J.

L. Berge, S. Skupin, C. Kohler, I. Babushkin, and J. Herrmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 073901 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hochstrasser, R. M.

Johnson, K.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X .Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).

Kapetanakos, C. A.

P. Sprangle, J. R. Penano, B. Hafizi, and C. A. Kapetanakos, Phys. Rev. E 69, 066415 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Karpowicz, N.

N. Karpowicz and X.-C. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 093001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Karpowicz, X. F. Lu, and X. C. Zhang, J. Mod. Opt. 56, 1137 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X .Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).

Kasparian, J.

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, Appl. Phys. B 71, 877 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. Y.

Kohler, C.

L. Berge, S. Skupin, C. Kohler, I. Babushkin, and J. Herrmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 073901 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kosareva, O.

Y. Chen, T.-J. Wang, C. Marceau, F. Théberge, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, O. Kosareva, and S. L. Chin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 101101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kotelnikov, I. A.

Lesimple, A.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X .Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).

Lu, X. F.

N. Karpowicz, X. F. Lu, and X. C. Zhang, J. Mod. Opt. 56, 1137 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mamer, O.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X .Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).

Marceau, C.

Y. Chen, T.-J. Wang, C. Marceau, F. Théberge, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, O. Kosareva, and S. L. Chin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 101101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Penano, J. R.

P. Sprangle, J. R. Penano, B. Hafizi, and C. A. Kapetanakos, Phys. Rev. E 69, 066415 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Price-Gallagher, M.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X .Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).

Rodriguez, G.

Sauerbrey, R.

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, Appl. Phys. B 71, 877 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shkurinov, A. P.

Skupin, S.

L. Berge, S. Skupin, C. Kohler, I. Babushkin, and J. Herrmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 073901 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sprangle, P.

P. Sprangle, J. R. Penano, B. Hafizi, and C. A. Kapetanakos, Phys. Rev. E 69, 066415 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

Théberge, F.

Y. Chen, T.-J. Wang, C. Marceau, F. Théberge, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, O. Kosareva, and S. L. Chin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 101101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T.-J.

Y. Chen, T.-J. Wang, C. Marceau, F. Théberge, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, O. Kosareva, and S. L. Chin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 101101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X .Lu,

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X .Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).

Xie, X.

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X. C. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 075005 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, M.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X .Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).

Zhang, C.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X .Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).

Zhang, L.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X .Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).

Zhang, X. C.

N. Karpowicz, X. F. Lu, and X. C. Zhang, J. Mod. Opt. 56, 1137 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X. C. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 075005 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-C.

N. Karpowicz and X.-C. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 093001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X .Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).

Zhao, H.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X .Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).

Appl. Phys. B

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, Appl. Phys. B 71, 877 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Y. Chen, T.-J. Wang, C. Marceau, F. Théberge, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, O. Kosareva, and S. L. Chin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 101101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X .Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).

J. Mod. Opt.

N. Karpowicz, X. F. Lu, and X. C. Zhang, J. Mod. Opt. 56, 1137 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. E

P. Sprangle, J. R. Penano, B. Hafizi, and C. A. Kapetanakos, Phys. Rev. E 69, 066415 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

N. Karpowicz and X.-C. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 093001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X. C. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 075005 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Berge, S. Skupin, C. Kohler, I. Babushkin, and J. Herrmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 073901 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Other

S. L. Chin, in Advances in Multi-Photon Processes and Spectroscopy (World Scientific, 2004), Vol. 16, p. 432.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Simulated spectra of the dual-frequency fs pulse (Eq. 1) producing filament in air. (a) and (b) Spectra calculated from the plasma current or (c) and (d) from the nonlinear polarization of neutrals.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimentally obtained in nitrogen and simulated spectra irradiated from either plasma current or the nonlinearity of neutrals. In the experiment the energy is 1 mJ and 100 μJ for ω and 2ω pulses, respectively.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Frequency νmax, at which the spectra take their maximum. (b) Experimentally obtained and (c) and (d) simulated spectra for different initial laser pulse duration. THz spectra from (c) free electron photocurrent and (d) Kerr-induced nonlinearity of neutrals.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E(t)=et2/2τ02[Eωsinω0t+E2ωsin(2ω0t+ψ)],
V˙e(t,t)=(e/m)E(t)Θ(tt)νcVe(t,t),
J(t)=etVe(t,t)dNe(t)dtdt,
J˙(t)=(e2/m)E(t)Ne(t)νcJ(t)+eVe(t,t)N˙e(t),
F^(J˙)=ωω+iνc(e2mF^(ENe)+eF^(Ve(t,t)N˙e)),
F^(P¨)=ω2χ1111(3)F^(|E|2E),Spol(ω)=|F^(P¨)|2.
Spc(ω)=ω2ω2+νc2×f(ω),

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