Abstract

We demonstrate an experimental observation of soliton rains in an all normal dispersion Yb-fiber laser. The cavity consists of a narrow bandwidth filter and a birefringent plate (BP) filter. Soliton rain is obtained in the weak mode-locking regime, while multisolitons behaving as soliton bunches and harmonic mode-locking under strong mode-locking are also observed. Distinctive multisoliton interactions are observed via changing the pump power and adjustment of the waveplates as well as the BP. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of soliton rains in normal dispersion fiber lasers.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. Grelu and N. Akhmediev, Nat. Photonics 6, 84 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  2. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and G. Town, Phys. Rev. E 63, 056602 (2001).
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  3. A. Zaviyalov, P. Grelu, and F. Lederer, Opt. Lett. 37, 175 (2012).
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  4. J. Soto-Crespo, M. Grapinet, P. Grelu, and N. Akhmediev, Phys. Rev. E 70, 066612 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Olivier, V. Roy, M. Piché, and F. Babin, Opt. Lett. 29, 1461 (2004).
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  6. S. T. Cundiff, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 59 (2002).
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  7. X. Wu, D. Tang, H. Zhang, and L. Zhao, Opt. Express 17, 5580 (2009).
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  8. A. Grudinin and S. Gray, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 144 (1997).
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  9. F. Amrani, A. Haboucha, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, Appl. Phys. B 99, 107 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Chouli and P. Grelu, Phys. Rev. A 81, 063829 (2010).
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  12. A. Komarov, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, Phys. Rev. A 71, 053809 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. F. W. Wise, A. Chong, and W. H. Renninger, Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 58 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. W. H. Renninger, A. Chong, and F. W. Wise, Phys. Rev. A 82, 021805 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  15. W. H. Renninger, A. Chong, and F. W. Wise, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 1978 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Haboucha, A. Komarov, H. Leblond, F. Sanchez, and G. Martel, Opt. Fiber Technol. 14, 262 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (3)

2010 (4)

W. H. Renninger, A. Chong, and F. W. Wise, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 1978 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Amrani, A. Haboucha, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, Appl. Phys. B 99, 107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Chouli and P. Grelu, Phys. Rev. A 81, 063829 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Renninger, A. Chong, and F. W. Wise, Phys. Rev. A 82, 021805 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

F. W. Wise, A. Chong, and W. H. Renninger, Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 58 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Haboucha, A. Komarov, H. Leblond, F. Sanchez, and G. Martel, Opt. Fiber Technol. 14, 262 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

A. Komarov, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, Phys. Rev. A 71, 053809 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

J. Soto-Crespo, M. Grapinet, P. Grelu, and N. Akhmediev, Phys. Rev. E 70, 066612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Olivier, V. Roy, M. Piché, and F. Babin, Opt. Lett. 29, 1461 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

S. T. Cundiff, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 59 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and G. Town, Phys. Rev. E 63, 056602 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

Akhmediev, N.

P. Grelu and N. Akhmediev, Nat. Photonics 6, 84 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Soto-Crespo, M. Grapinet, P. Grelu, and N. Akhmediev, Phys. Rev. E 70, 066612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Cundiff, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 59 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and G. Town, Phys. Rev. E 63, 056602 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Amrani, F.

F. Amrani, A. Haboucha, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, Appl. Phys. B 99, 107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Babin, F.

Chong, A.

W. H. Renninger, A. Chong, and F. W. Wise, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 1978 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Renninger, A. Chong, and F. W. Wise, Phys. Rev. A 82, 021805 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. W. Wise, A. Chong, and W. H. Renninger, Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 58 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chouli, S.

S. Chouli and P. Grelu, Phys. Rev. A 81, 063829 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cundiff, S. T.

S. T. Cundiff, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 59 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Grapinet, M.

J. Soto-Crespo, M. Grapinet, P. Grelu, and N. Akhmediev, Phys. Rev. E 70, 066612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gray, S.

Grelu, P.

A. Zaviyalov, P. Grelu, and F. Lederer, Opt. Lett. 37, 175 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Grelu and N. Akhmediev, Nat. Photonics 6, 84 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Chouli and P. Grelu, Phys. Rev. A 81, 063829 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Soto-Crespo, M. Grapinet, P. Grelu, and N. Akhmediev, Phys. Rev. E 70, 066612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grudinin, A.

Haboucha, A.

F. Amrani, A. Haboucha, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, Appl. Phys. B 99, 107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Haboucha, A. Komarov, H. Leblond, F. Sanchez, and G. Martel, Opt. Fiber Technol. 14, 262 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ivanenko, A.

Kobtsev, S.

Komarov, A.

F. Amrani, A. Haboucha, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, Appl. Phys. B 99, 107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Haboucha, A. Komarov, H. Leblond, F. Sanchez, and G. Martel, Opt. Fiber Technol. 14, 262 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Komarov, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, Phys. Rev. A 71, 053809 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kukarin, S.

Leblond, H.

F. Amrani, A. Haboucha, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, Appl. Phys. B 99, 107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Haboucha, A. Komarov, H. Leblond, F. Sanchez, and G. Martel, Opt. Fiber Technol. 14, 262 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Komarov, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, Phys. Rev. A 71, 053809 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lederer, F.

Martel, G.

A. Haboucha, A. Komarov, H. Leblond, F. Sanchez, and G. Martel, Opt. Fiber Technol. 14, 262 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Olivier, M.

Piché, M.

Renninger, W. H.

W. H. Renninger, A. Chong, and F. W. Wise, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 1978 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Renninger, A. Chong, and F. W. Wise, Phys. Rev. A 82, 021805 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. W. Wise, A. Chong, and W. H. Renninger, Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 58 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Roy, V.

Salhi, M.

F. Amrani, A. Haboucha, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, Appl. Phys. B 99, 107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez, F.

F. Amrani, A. Haboucha, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, Appl. Phys. B 99, 107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Haboucha, A. Komarov, H. Leblond, F. Sanchez, and G. Martel, Opt. Fiber Technol. 14, 262 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Komarov, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, Phys. Rev. A 71, 053809 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Smirnov, S.

Soto-Crespo, J.

J. Soto-Crespo, M. Grapinet, P. Grelu, and N. Akhmediev, Phys. Rev. E 70, 066612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Soto-Crespo, J. M.

S. T. Cundiff, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 59 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and G. Town, Phys. Rev. E 63, 056602 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tang, D.

Town, G.

N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and G. Town, Phys. Rev. E 63, 056602 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wise, F. W.

W. H. Renninger, A. Chong, and F. W. Wise, Phys. Rev. A 82, 021805 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Renninger, A. Chong, and F. W. Wise, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 1978 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. W. Wise, A. Chong, and W. H. Renninger, Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 58 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, X.

Zaviyalov, A.

Zhang, H.

Zhao, L.

Appl. Phys. B (1)

F. Amrani, A. Haboucha, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, Appl. Phys. B 99, 107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

F. W. Wise, A. Chong, and W. H. Renninger, Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 58 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

P. Grelu and N. Akhmediev, Nat. Photonics 6, 84 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

A. Haboucha, A. Komarov, H. Leblond, F. Sanchez, and G. Martel, Opt. Fiber Technol. 14, 262 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (3)

W. H. Renninger, A. Chong, and F. W. Wise, Phys. Rev. A 82, 021805 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Chouli and P. Grelu, Phys. Rev. A 81, 063829 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Komarov, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, Phys. Rev. A 71, 053809 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (2)

N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and G. Town, Phys. Rev. E 63, 056602 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Soto-Crespo, M. Grapinet, P. Grelu, and N. Akhmediev, Phys. Rev. E 70, 066612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. T. Cundiff, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 59 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MOV (1203 KB)     

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup of the fiber laser. Laser consists merely of normal dispersion fibers. WDM, wavelength division multiplexer; SMF, single mode fiber; HWP, half-wave plate; QWP, quarter wave plate; PBS, polarization beam splitter; col, collimator; BP, birefringent plate; and LD, laser diode.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Effective filter for the dual-filter, there is a secondary transmission peak when the transmission peak gap between the dual-filter is 4 nm. (b) Relationship between the pulse energy, duration, and filter bandwidth. D, dispersion; Ω , filter bandwidth.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Output soliton rain from output1: (a) temporal trace of the soliton rain, small pulses are drifting toward the condensed phase, a video is attached (Media 1); (b) optical spectrum, the 3 dB bandwidth is 0.46 nm; (c) RF spectrum, there are multipeaks in the RF spectrum, the resolution bandwidth is 2 Hz; and (d) measured intensity autocorrelation, FWHM equals 3.63 ps, if a Gaussian shape is assumed.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Temporal trace under low pump power (300 mW), the noise is obvious. (b) Corresponding optical spectrum, there are cw spikes in the optical spectrum.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Output temporal trace of the condensed state, only soliton bunches exists. (b) Corresponding optical spectrum, 3 dB bandwidth is 0.62 nm.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Temporal trace of (a) second harmonic soliton rain and (b) harmonic mode-locking.

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