Abstract

We observed narrow-linewidth lasing spikes in a coherent Brillouin random fiber laser, which uses a continuous-wave fiber laser as the pump source. In this random laser configuration, stimulated Brillouin scattering in a section of conventional single-mode fiber acts as the gain mechanism, while Rayleigh scattering in another section of the nonuniform fiber provides randomly distributed feedback. Above the lasing threshold, coherent random lasing spikes, with a linewidth of 10Hz, are measured at the top of the Brillouin gain spectrum. It results from high quality coherent resonance of the Brillouin Stokes light in this open laser cavity.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2012

Z. Hu, Q. Zhang, B. Miao, Q. Fu, G. Zou, Y. Chen, Y. Luo, D. Zhang, P. Wang, H. Ming, and Q. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 253901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Kessler, C. Hagemann, C. Grebing, T. Legero, U. Sterr, F. Riehle, M. J. Martin, L. Chen, and J. Ye, Nat. Photonics 6, 687 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Xie, M. Pang, X. Bao, and L. Chen, Opt. Express 20, 6385 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Pang, S. Xie, X. Bao, D. Zhou, Y. Lu, and L. Chen, Opt. Lett. 37, 3129 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

2010

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castanon, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, Nat. Photonics 4, 231 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2007

C. J. S. de Matos, L. de, S. Menezes, A. M. Brito-Silva, M. A. M. Gamez, A. S. L. Gomes, and C. B. de Araujo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 153903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Foster, A. Tikhomirov, and M. Milnes, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 378 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

S. Gottardo, O. Cavalieri, O. Yaroshchuk, and D. S. Wiersma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 263901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1289 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Spiegelberg, J. Geng, Y. Hu, Y. Kaneda, S. Jiang, and N. Peyghambarian, J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 57 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

H. Cao, Waves Random Media 13, R1 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

2001

G. R. Williams, S. B. Bayram, S. C. Rand, T. Hinklin, and R. M. Laine, Phys. Rev. A 65, 013807 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1994

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sanvain, Nature 368, 436 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1990

R. W. Boyd and K. Rzazewski, Phys. Rev. A 42, 5514 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987

D. W. Allan, IEEE Trans. Ultrason., Ferroelectr., Freq. Control 34, 647 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1984

A. H. Hartog and M. P. Gold, J. Lightwave Technol. 2, 76 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1966

N. G. Ambartsumyan, N. G. Basov, P. G. Kryukov, and V. S. Letokhov, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2, 442 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1958

A. L. Schawlow and C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. 112, 1940 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Allan, D. W.

D. W. Allan, IEEE Trans. Ultrason., Ferroelectr., Freq. Control 34, 647 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ambartsumyan, N. G.

N. G. Ambartsumyan, N. G. Basov, P. G. Kryukov, and V. S. Letokhov, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2, 442 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Ania-Castanon, J. D.

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castanon, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, Nat. Photonics 4, 231 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Babin, S. A.

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castanon, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, Nat. Photonics 4, 231 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Balachandran, R. M.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sanvain, Nature 368, 436 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bao, X.

Basov, N. G.

N. G. Ambartsumyan, N. G. Basov, P. G. Kryukov, and V. S. Letokhov, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2, 442 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Bayram, S. B.

G. R. Williams, S. B. Bayram, S. C. Rand, T. Hinklin, and R. M. Laine, Phys. Rev. A 65, 013807 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R. W.

R. W. Boyd and K. Rzazewski, Phys. Rev. A 42, 5514 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Brito-Silva, A. M.

C. J. S. de Matos, L. de, S. Menezes, A. M. Brito-Silva, M. A. M. Gamez, A. S. L. Gomes, and C. B. de Araujo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 153903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cao, H.

H. Cao, Opt. Photonics News 16, 24 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Cao, Waves Random Media 13, R1 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cavalieri, O.

S. Gottardo, O. Cavalieri, O. Yaroshchuk, and D. S. Wiersma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 263901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chaikina, E. I.

Chen, L.

S. Xie, M. Pang, X. Bao, and L. Chen, Opt. Express 20, 6385 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Kessler, C. Hagemann, C. Grebing, T. Legero, U. Sterr, F. Riehle, M. J. Martin, L. Chen, and J. Ye, Nat. Photonics 6, 687 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Pang, S. Xie, X. Bao, D. Zhou, Y. Lu, and L. Chen, Opt. Lett. 37, 3129 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Z. Hu, Q. Zhang, B. Miao, Q. Fu, G. Zou, Y. Chen, Y. Luo, D. Zhang, P. Wang, H. Ming, and Q. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 253901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Churkin, D. V.

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castanon, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, Nat. Photonics 4, 231 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cranch, G. A.

de, L.

C. J. S. de Matos, L. de, S. Menezes, A. M. Brito-Silva, M. A. M. Gamez, A. S. L. Gomes, and C. B. de Araujo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 153903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

de Araujo, C. B.

C. J. S. de Matos, L. de, S. Menezes, A. M. Brito-Silva, M. A. M. Gamez, A. S. L. Gomes, and C. B. de Araujo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 153903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

de Matos, C. J. S.

C. J. S. de Matos, L. de, S. Menezes, A. M. Brito-Silva, M. A. M. Gamez, A. S. L. Gomes, and C. B. de Araujo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 153903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Delavaux, J. M.

Derickson, D.

D. Derickson, Fiber Optic Test and Measurement (Prentice-Hall PTR, 1998).

El-Taher, A. E.

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castanon, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, Nat. Photonics 4, 231 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Foster, S.

S. Foster, A. Tikhomirov, and M. Milnes, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 378 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fu, Q.

Z. Hu, Q. Zhang, B. Miao, Q. Fu, G. Zou, Y. Chen, Y. Luo, D. Zhang, P. Wang, H. Ming, and Q. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 253901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gagne, M.

Gamez, M. A. M.

C. J. S. de Matos, L. de, S. Menezes, A. M. Brito-Silva, M. A. M. Gamez, A. S. L. Gomes, and C. B. de Araujo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 153903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Geng, J.

Gold, M. P.

A. H. Hartog and M. P. Gold, J. Lightwave Technol. 2, 76 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Gomes, A. S. L.

C. J. S. de Matos, L. de, S. Menezes, A. M. Brito-Silva, M. A. M. Gamez, A. S. L. Gomes, and C. B. de Araujo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 153903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sanvain, Nature 368, 436 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gottardo, S.

S. Gottardo, O. Cavalieri, O. Yaroshchuk, and D. S. Wiersma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 263901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grebing, C.

T. Kessler, C. Hagemann, C. Grebing, T. Legero, U. Sterr, F. Riehle, M. J. Martin, L. Chen, and J. Ye, Nat. Photonics 6, 687 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hagemann, C.

T. Kessler, C. Hagemann, C. Grebing, T. Legero, U. Sterr, F. Riehle, M. J. Martin, L. Chen, and J. Ye, Nat. Photonics 6, 687 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Harper, P.

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castanon, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, Nat. Photonics 4, 231 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hartog, A. H.

A. H. Hartog and M. P. Gold, J. Lightwave Technol. 2, 76 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Hinklin, T.

G. R. Williams, S. B. Bayram, S. C. Rand, T. Hinklin, and R. M. Laine, Phys. Rev. A 65, 013807 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Y.

Hu, Z.

Z. Hu, Q. Zhang, B. Miao, Q. Fu, G. Zou, Y. Chen, Y. Luo, D. Zhang, P. Wang, H. Ming, and Q. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 253901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, S.

Kablukov, S. I.

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castanon, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, Nat. Photonics 4, 231 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kaneda, Y.

Karalekas, V.

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castanon, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, Nat. Photonics 4, 231 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kashyap, R.

Kessler, T.

T. Kessler, C. Hagemann, C. Grebing, T. Legero, U. Sterr, F. Riehle, M. J. Martin, L. Chen, and J. Ye, Nat. Photonics 6, 687 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kryukov, P. G.

N. G. Ambartsumyan, N. G. Basov, P. G. Kryukov, and V. S. Letokhov, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2, 442 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Laine, R. M.

G. R. Williams, S. B. Bayram, S. C. Rand, T. Hinklin, and R. M. Laine, Phys. Rev. A 65, 013807 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lawandy, N. M.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sanvain, Nature 368, 436 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Legero, T.

T. Kessler, C. Hagemann, C. Grebing, T. Legero, U. Sterr, F. Riehle, M. J. Martin, L. Chen, and J. Ye, Nat. Photonics 6, 687 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Leskova, T. A.

Letokhov, V. S.

N. G. Ambartsumyan, N. G. Basov, P. G. Kryukov, and V. S. Letokhov, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2, 442 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Li, M.

Li, S.

Lizarraga, N.

Lu, Y.

Luo, Y.

Z. Hu, Q. Zhang, B. Miao, Q. Fu, G. Zou, Y. Chen, Y. Luo, D. Zhang, P. Wang, H. Ming, and Q. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 253901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Martin, M. J.

T. Kessler, C. Hagemann, C. Grebing, T. Legero, U. Sterr, F. Riehle, M. J. Martin, L. Chen, and J. Ye, Nat. Photonics 6, 687 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Medndez, E. R.

Menezes, S.

C. J. S. de Matos, L. de, S. Menezes, A. M. Brito-Silva, M. A. M. Gamez, A. S. L. Gomes, and C. B. de Araujo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 153903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Miao, B.

Z. Hu, Q. Zhang, B. Miao, Q. Fu, G. Zou, Y. Chen, Y. Luo, D. Zhang, P. Wang, H. Ming, and Q. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 253901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Miller, G. A.

Milnes, M.

S. Foster, A. Tikhomirov, and M. Milnes, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 378 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ming, H.

Z. Hu, Q. Zhang, B. Miao, Q. Fu, G. Zou, Y. Chen, Y. Luo, D. Zhang, P. Wang, H. Ming, and Q. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 253901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nolan, D. A.

Pang, M.

Peyghambarian, N.

Podivilov, E. V.

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castanon, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, Nat. Photonics 4, 231 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Polson, R. C.

R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1289 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Puente, N. P.

Rand, S. C.

G. R. Williams, S. B. Bayram, S. C. Rand, T. Hinklin, and R. M. Laine, Phys. Rev. A 65, 013807 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Riehle, F.

T. Kessler, C. Hagemann, C. Grebing, T. Legero, U. Sterr, F. Riehle, M. J. Martin, L. Chen, and J. Ye, Nat. Photonics 6, 687 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rzazewski, K.

R. W. Boyd and K. Rzazewski, Phys. Rev. A 42, 5514 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sanvain, E.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sanvain, Nature 368, 436 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schawlow, A. L.

A. L. Schawlow and C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. 112, 1940 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Spiegelberg, C.

Sterr, U.

T. Kessler, C. Hagemann, C. Grebing, T. Legero, U. Sterr, F. Riehle, M. J. Martin, L. Chen, and J. Ye, Nat. Photonics 6, 687 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tikhomirov, A.

S. Foster, A. Tikhomirov, and M. Milnes, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 378 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Toulouse, J.

Townes, C. H.

A. L. Schawlow and C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. 112, 1940 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Turitsyn, S. K.

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castanon, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, Nat. Photonics 4, 231 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vardeny, Z. V.

R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1289 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P.

Z. Hu, Q. Zhang, B. Miao, Q. Fu, G. Zou, Y. Chen, Y. Luo, D. Zhang, P. Wang, H. Ming, and Q. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 253901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wiersma, D. S.

S. Gottardo, O. Cavalieri, O. Yaroshchuk, and D. S. Wiersma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 263901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Williams, G. R.

G. R. Williams, S. B. Bayram, S. C. Rand, T. Hinklin, and R. M. Laine, Phys. Rev. A 65, 013807 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Xie, S.

Yaroshchuk, O.

S. Gottardo, O. Cavalieri, O. Yaroshchuk, and D. S. Wiersma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 263901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ye, J.

T. Kessler, C. Hagemann, C. Grebing, T. Legero, U. Sterr, F. Riehle, M. J. Martin, L. Chen, and J. Ye, Nat. Photonics 6, 687 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yeniay, A.

Zhang, D.

Z. Hu, Q. Zhang, B. Miao, Q. Fu, G. Zou, Y. Chen, Y. Luo, D. Zhang, P. Wang, H. Ming, and Q. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 253901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q.

Z. Hu, Q. Zhang, B. Miao, Q. Fu, G. Zou, Y. Chen, Y. Luo, D. Zhang, P. Wang, H. Ming, and Q. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 253901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Hu, Q. Zhang, B. Miao, Q. Fu, G. Zou, Y. Chen, Y. Luo, D. Zhang, P. Wang, H. Ming, and Q. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 253901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, D.

Zou, G.

Z. Hu, Q. Zhang, B. Miao, Q. Fu, G. Zou, Y. Chen, Y. Luo, D. Zhang, P. Wang, H. Ming, and Q. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 253901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1289 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

N. G. Ambartsumyan, N. G. Basov, P. G. Kryukov, and V. S. Letokhov, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2, 442 (1966).
[CrossRef]

S. Foster, A. Tikhomirov, and M. Milnes, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 378 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Ultrason., Ferroelectr., Freq. Control

D. W. Allan, IEEE Trans. Ultrason., Ferroelectr., Freq. Control 34, 647 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Nat. Photonics

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castanon, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, Nat. Photonics 4, 231 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Kessler, C. Hagemann, C. Grebing, T. Legero, U. Sterr, F. Riehle, M. J. Martin, L. Chen, and J. Ye, Nat. Photonics 6, 687 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nature

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sanvain, Nature 368, 436 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Photonics News

H. Cao, Opt. Photonics News 16, 24 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev.

A. L. Schawlow and C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. 112, 1940 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

R. W. Boyd and K. Rzazewski, Phys. Rev. A 42, 5514 (1990).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Williams, S. B. Bayram, S. C. Rand, T. Hinklin, and R. M. Laine, Phys. Rev. A 65, 013807 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

C. J. S. de Matos, L. de, S. Menezes, A. M. Brito-Silva, M. A. M. Gamez, A. S. L. Gomes, and C. B. de Araujo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 153903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Gottardo, O. Cavalieri, O. Yaroshchuk, and D. S. Wiersma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 263901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. Hu, Q. Zhang, B. Miao, Q. Fu, G. Zou, Y. Chen, Y. Luo, D. Zhang, P. Wang, H. Ming, and Q. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 253901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Waves Random Media

H. Cao, Waves Random Media 13, R1 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other

D. Derickson, Fiber Optic Test and Measurement (Prentice-Hall PTR, 1998).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the Brillouin RFL.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental results: (a) measured output power of the Brillouin RL as the function of pump power. (b) Emission spectra of the Brillouin RL at different pump powers, measured by heterodyne method. (c) Typical multispike lasing spectrum also measured by heterodyne method. (d) Measured frequency jitter of the lasing spike within 10 h, when the time step is 0.5 s.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental setup used to characterize the coherence of the Brillouin random emission. Output of pump fiber laser was divided into two light beams, the first one was modulated by an AOM with a frequency downshift of 40 MHz, while the second beam passed through a 25 km delay fiber to make it incoherent with the first beam.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Beat signal of the two random lasing emissions mixed down to 200Hz and recorded with a digital oscilloscope, when both of the pump light powers were 10 mW. (b) Power spectrum of the beat signal normalized to 40 MHz.

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