Abstract

Silicon waveguide asymmetric Y junction mode multiplexers and demultiplexers are demonstrated for applications in on-chip mode-division multiplexing (MDM). We measure demultiplexed crosstalk as low as 30dB, <9dB over the C band, and insertion loss <1.5dB for multimode links up to 1.2 mm in length. The frequency response of these devices is shown to depend upon Y junction angle and multimode interconnect length. Interference effects are shown to be advantageous for low-crosstalk MDM, even while using compact Y junctions designed to be outside the mode-sorting regime.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013 (1)

2012 (4)

2011 (2)

2009 (1)

D. Miller, Proc. IEEE 97, 1166 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

B. G. Lee, X. Chen, A. Biberman, X. Liu, I.-W. Hsieh, C.-Y. Chou, J. I. Dadap, F. Xia, W. M. Green, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, R. M. Osgood, and K. Bergman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, IEEE Trans. Comput. 57, 1246 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

R. Ho, K. W. Mai, and M. A. Horowitz, Proc. IEEE 89, 490 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1982 (2)

1975 (1)

W. Burns and A. Milton, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11, 32 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Al Amin, A.

Baehr-Jones, T.

Bagheri, S.

S. Bagheri and W. Green, in Proceedings of 6th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2009), pp. 166–168.

Bass, R.

Berdagué, S.

Bergman, K.

J. B. Driscoll, N. Ophir, R. R. Grote, J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, K. Bergman, and R. M. Osgood, Opt. Express 20, 9227 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, X. Chen, A. Biberman, X. Liu, I.-W. Hsieh, C.-Y. Chou, J. I. Dadap, F. Xia, W. M. Green, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, R. M. Osgood, and K. Bergman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, IEEE Trans. Comput. 57, 1246 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Biberman, A.

B. G. Lee, X. Chen, A. Biberman, X. Liu, I.-W. Hsieh, C.-Y. Chou, J. I. Dadap, F. Xia, W. M. Green, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, R. M. Osgood, and K. Bergman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Boos, J. B.

Burns, W.

W. Burns and A. Milton, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11, 32 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Carloni, L. P.

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, IEEE Trans. Comput. 57, 1246 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.

Chen, X.

A. Al Amin, A. Li, S. Chen, X. Chen, G. Gao, and W. Shieh, Opt. Express 19, 16672 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, X. Chen, A. Biberman, X. Liu, I.-W. Hsieh, C.-Y. Chou, J. I. Dadap, F. Xia, W. M. Green, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, R. M. Osgood, and K. Bergman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chou, C.-Y.

B. G. Lee, X. Chen, A. Biberman, X. Liu, I.-W. Hsieh, C.-Y. Chou, J. I. Dadap, F. Xia, W. M. Green, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, R. M. Osgood, and K. Bergman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dadap, J. I.

J. B. Driscoll, N. Ophir, R. R. Grote, J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, K. Bergman, and R. M. Osgood, Opt. Express 20, 9227 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, X. Chen, A. Biberman, X. Liu, I.-W. Hsieh, C.-Y. Chou, J. I. Dadap, F. Xia, W. M. Green, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, R. M. Osgood, and K. Bergman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dai, D.

D. Dai, in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper ATh3B.3.

Driscoll, J. B.

Facq, P.

Gabrielli, L. H.

L. H. Gabrielli, D. Liu, S. G. Johnson, and M. Lipson, Nat. Commun. 3, 1217 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Galland, C.

Gao, G.

Green, W.

S. Bagheri and W. Green, in Proceedings of 6th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2009), pp. 166–168.

Green, W. M.

B. G. Lee, X. Chen, A. Biberman, X. Liu, I.-W. Hsieh, C.-Y. Chou, J. I. Dadap, F. Xia, W. M. Green, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, R. M. Osgood, and K. Bergman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grote, R. R.

Hanzawa, N.

N. Hanzawa, K. Saitoh, T. Sakamoto, T. Matsui, S. Tomita, and M. Koshiba, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OWA4.

Ho, R.

R. Ho, K. W. Mai, and M. A. Horowitz, Proc. IEEE 89, 490 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hochberg, M.

Horowitz, M. A.

R. Ho, K. W. Mai, and M. A. Horowitz, Proc. IEEE 89, 490 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, I.-W.

B. G. Lee, X. Chen, A. Biberman, X. Liu, I.-W. Hsieh, C.-Y. Chou, J. I. Dadap, F. Xia, W. M. Green, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, R. M. Osgood, and K. Bergman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ishizaka, Y.

Izutsu, M.

Johnson, S. G.

L. H. Gabrielli, D. Liu, S. G. Johnson, and M. Lipson, Nat. Commun. 3, 1217 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kawaguchi, Y.

Khurgin, J. B.

Koshiba, M.

T. Uematsu, Y. Ishizaka, Y. Kawaguchi, K. Saitoh, and M. Koshiba, J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 2421 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Hanzawa, K. Saitoh, T. Sakamoto, T. Matsui, S. Tomita, and M. Koshiba, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OWA4.

Lee, B. G.

B. G. Lee, X. Chen, A. Biberman, X. Liu, I.-W. Hsieh, C.-Y. Chou, J. I. Dadap, F. Xia, W. M. Green, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, R. M. Osgood, and K. Bergman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, A.

Lim, A. E.-J.

Lipson, M.

L. H. Gabrielli, D. Liu, S. G. Johnson, and M. Lipson, Nat. Commun. 3, 1217 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, D.

L. H. Gabrielli, D. Liu, S. G. Johnson, and M. Lipson, Nat. Commun. 3, 1217 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

B. G. Lee, X. Chen, A. Biberman, X. Liu, I.-W. Hsieh, C.-Y. Chou, J. I. Dadap, F. Xia, W. M. Green, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, R. M. Osgood, and K. Bergman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lo, G.-Q.

Love, J. D.

Mai, K. W.

R. Ho, K. W. Mai, and M. A. Horowitz, Proc. IEEE 89, 490 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Matsui, T.

N. Hanzawa, K. Saitoh, T. Sakamoto, T. Matsui, S. Tomita, and M. Koshiba, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OWA4.

Miller, D.

D. Miller, Proc. IEEE 97, 1166 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Milton, A.

W. Burns and A. Milton, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11, 32 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Nakai, Y.

Ophir, N.

Osgood, R. M.

J. B. Driscoll, N. Ophir, R. R. Grote, J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, K. Bergman, and R. M. Osgood, Opt. Express 20, 9227 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, X. Chen, A. Biberman, X. Liu, I.-W. Hsieh, C.-Y. Chou, J. I. Dadap, F. Xia, W. M. Green, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, R. M. Osgood, and K. Bergman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Panoiu, N. C.

Pruessner, M. W.

Rabinovich, W. S.

Ramaswami, R.

R. Ramaswami, K. N. Sivarajan, and G. H. Sasaki, Optical Networks: A Practical Perspective, 3rd ed. (Morgan Kaufmann, 2009).

Riesen, N.

Saitoh, K.

T. Uematsu, Y. Ishizaka, Y. Kawaguchi, K. Saitoh, and M. Koshiba, J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 2421 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Hanzawa, K. Saitoh, T. Sakamoto, T. Matsui, S. Tomita, and M. Koshiba, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OWA4.

Sakamoto, T.

N. Hanzawa, K. Saitoh, T. Sakamoto, T. Matsui, S. Tomita, and M. Koshiba, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OWA4.

Sasaki, G. H.

R. Ramaswami, K. N. Sivarajan, and G. H. Sasaki, Optical Networks: A Practical Perspective, 3rd ed. (Morgan Kaufmann, 2009).

Sekaric, L.

B. G. Lee, X. Chen, A. Biberman, X. Liu, I.-W. Hsieh, C.-Y. Chou, J. I. Dadap, F. Xia, W. M. Green, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, R. M. Osgood, and K. Bergman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shacham, A.

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, IEEE Trans. Comput. 57, 1246 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shieh, W.

Sivarajan, K. N.

R. Ramaswami, K. N. Sivarajan, and G. H. Sasaki, Optical Networks: A Practical Perspective, 3rd ed. (Morgan Kaufmann, 2009).

Stievater, T. H.

Sueta, T.

Tomita, S.

N. Hanzawa, K. Saitoh, T. Sakamoto, T. Matsui, S. Tomita, and M. Koshiba, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OWA4.

Uematsu, T.

Urick, V. J.

Vlasov, Y. A.

B. G. Lee, X. Chen, A. Biberman, X. Liu, I.-W. Hsieh, C.-Y. Chou, J. I. Dadap, F. Xia, W. M. Green, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, R. M. Osgood, and K. Bergman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xia, F.

B. G. Lee, X. Chen, A. Biberman, X. Liu, I.-W. Hsieh, C.-Y. Chou, J. I. Dadap, F. Xia, W. M. Green, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, R. M. Osgood, and K. Bergman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S.

Zhang, Y.

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. Burns and A. Milton, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11, 32 (1975).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

B. G. Lee, X. Chen, A. Biberman, X. Liu, I.-W. Hsieh, C.-Y. Chou, J. I. Dadap, F. Xia, W. M. Green, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, R. M. Osgood, and K. Bergman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Comput. (1)

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, IEEE Trans. Comput. 57, 1246 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Nat. Commun. (1)

L. H. Gabrielli, D. Liu, S. G. Johnson, and M. Lipson, Nat. Commun. 3, 1217 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. IEEE (2)

D. Miller, Proc. IEEE 97, 1166 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Ho, K. W. Mai, and M. A. Horowitz, Proc. IEEE 89, 490 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

R. Ramaswami, K. N. Sivarajan, and G. H. Sasaki, Optical Networks: A Practical Perspective, 3rd ed. (Morgan Kaufmann, 2009).

N. Hanzawa, K. Saitoh, T. Sakamoto, T. Matsui, S. Tomita, and M. Koshiba, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OWA4.

S. Bagheri and W. Green, in Proceedings of 6th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2009), pp. 166–168.

D. Dai, in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper ATh3B.3.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Illustration of mode mux/demux using asymmetric Y junctions. For a 1 μm wide waveguide at λ=1550nm, Re{Ey} component of (b) first even QTM mode, neff,e=2.20, ng,e=4.44 and (c) first odd QTM mode, neff,o=1.90, ng,o=4.70. (d) SEM image showing fabricated device with θ=1°.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Measured Pt and Px for 3dBm input when Arm-A or Arm-B is excited, and the measured output of a straight 550 nm wide waveguide. (b) Measured crosstalk and estimated receiver sensitivity power penalties from Eq. (2). Dotted red line indicates modeling result. Insets: outputs of Arm-C and Arm-D captured at the endfacet of the cleaved chip by an infrared camera, for 23dBm input to Arm-A, demonstrating difference in crosstalk at different operating wavelengths.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured and theoretical crosstalk for LMM=100μm: (a) θ=3°, (b) θ=6°, and (c) θ=9°.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured and theoretical crosstalk for θ=1°: (a) LMM=300μm, (b) LMM=600μm, (c) LMM=900μm, and (d) LMM=1.2mm.

Equations (2)

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MCF=|βAβB|θ[radians]γAB
PP[dB]=10log(12ε).

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