Abstract

We propose a method to measure light transmittance of layered metamaterials by placing the metamaterials directly on a Si photodiode. Our measurement method enables the direct detection of transmitted light that appears as an evanescent wave in natural materials. Here, we report the transmittance measurements of a typical metamaterial using this method. The metamaterial was composed of Ag/Al2O3 layers and was fabricated by direct evaporation on the Si photodiode. The measured transmittance agrees with the simulated transmittance. Our results confirmed that this measurement method can determine the transmittance properties of metamaterials and that it is applicable to other types of metamaterials.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2011

2008

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 455, 376 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 308, 534 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. O. S. Melville and R. J. Blaikie, Opt. Express 13, 2127 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

M. Gel and I. Shimoyama, J. Micromech. Microeng. 14, 423 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

S. A. Ramakrishna, J. B. Pendry, M. C. K. Wiltshire, and W. J. Stewart, J. Mod. Opt. 50, 1419 (2003).

N. Fang, Z. W. Liu, T. J. Yen, and X. Zhang, Opt. Express 11, 682 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000

J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

H. Yao and C. H. Yan, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6717 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

1986

Alekseyev, L. V.

Bartal, G.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 455, 376 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Blaikie, R. J.

Djurisic, A. B.

Elazar, J. M.

Engheta, N.

A. Salandrino and N. Engheta, Phys. Rev. B 74, 5 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fang, N.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 308, 534 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Fang, Z. W. Liu, T. J. Yen, and X. Zhang, Opt. Express 11, 682 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gaylord, T. K.

Gel, M.

M. Gel and I. Shimoyama, J. Micromech. Microeng. 14, 423 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Genov, D. A.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 455, 376 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grzegorczyk, T. M.

S. A. Ramakrishna and T. M. Grzegorczyk, Physics and Applications of Negative Refractive Index Materials (CRC Press, 2009).

Jacob, Z.

Lee, H.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 308, 534 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z. W.

Lopez, R.

Majewski, M. L.

Melville, D. O. S.

Moharam, M. G.

Narimanov, E.

Pendry, J. B.

S. A. Ramakrishna, J. B. Pendry, M. C. K. Wiltshire, and W. J. Stewart, J. Mod. Opt. 50, 1419 (2003).

J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Raether, H.

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer Tracts in Modern Physics, 1988).

Rakic, A. D.

Ramakrishna, S. A.

S. A. Ramakrishna, J. B. Pendry, M. C. K. Wiltshire, and W. J. Stewart, J. Mod. Opt. 50, 1419 (2003).

S. A. Ramakrishna and T. M. Grzegorczyk, Physics and Applications of Negative Refractive Index Materials (CRC Press, 2009).

Ray, E.

Salandrino, A.

A. Salandrino and N. Engheta, Phys. Rev. B 74, 5 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shimoyama, I.

M. Gel and I. Shimoyama, J. Micromech. Microeng. 14, 423 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, W. J.

S. A. Ramakrishna, J. B. Pendry, M. C. K. Wiltshire, and W. J. Stewart, J. Mod. Opt. 50, 1419 (2003).

Sun, C.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 308, 534 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ulin-Avila, E.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 455, 376 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Valentine, J.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 455, 376 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wiltshire, M. C. K.

S. A. Ramakrishna, J. B. Pendry, M. C. K. Wiltshire, and W. J. Stewart, J. Mod. Opt. 50, 1419 (2003).

Yan, C. H.

H. Yao and C. H. Yan, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6717 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yao, H.

H. Yao and C. H. Yan, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6717 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yen, T. J.

Zentgraf, T.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 455, 376 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 455, 376 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 455, 376 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 308, 534 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Fang, Z. W. Liu, T. J. Yen, and X. Zhang, Opt. Express 11, 682 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

J. Appl. Phys.

H. Yao and C. H. Yan, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6717 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Micromech. Microeng.

M. Gel and I. Shimoyama, J. Micromech. Microeng. 14, 423 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt.

S. A. Ramakrishna, J. B. Pendry, M. C. K. Wiltshire, and W. J. Stewart, J. Mod. Opt. 50, 1419 (2003).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Nature

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 455, 376 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. B

A. Salandrino and N. Engheta, Phys. Rev. B 74, 5 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Science

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 308, 534 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other

S. A. Ramakrishna and T. M. Grzegorczyk, Physics and Applications of Negative Refractive Index Materials (CRC Press, 2009).

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer Tracts in Modern Physics, 1988).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Concept for the measurement of the metamaterial’s light transmittance. The metamaterial was directly formed on Si photodiodes.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Isofrequency curves for the layered metamaterial at 300, 350, and 675 nm (ellipse and hyperbolas). Isofrequency curves in air at 675 nm (circles) for the 0th, 1st, and 2nd orders of diffraction generated by a grating with a 400 nm period.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Fabrication process, (b) the sensitivity of the photodiode, and (c) SEM images of the layered metamaterial and Ag grating.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Experimental setup and (b) the experimental (dots) and simulation (solid line) results of devices no. 1 and 2 for the TM-polarized incident light.

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