Abstract

We demonstrate intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging with frame rate up to 3.2 kHz (192,000 rpm scanning). This was achieved by using a custom-built catheter in which the circumferential scanning was actuated by a 1.0 mm diameter synchronous motor. The OCT system, with an imaging depth of 3.7 mm (in air), is based on a Fourier domain mode locked laser operating at an A-line rate of 1.6 MHz. The diameter of the catheter is 1.1 mm at the tip. Ex vivo images of human coronary artery (78.4 mm length) were acquired at a pullback speed of 100mm/s. True 3D volumetric imaging of the entire artery, with dense and isotropic sampling in all dimensions, was performed in <1 second acquisition time.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
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    [CrossRef]
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2012 (3)

2011 (3)

D. C. Adler, W. Wieser, F. Trepanier, J. M. Schmitt, and R. A. Huber, Opt. Express 19, 20930 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Okamura, Y. Onuma, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, R. J. van Geuns, J. J. Wykrzykowska, C. Schultz, W. J. van der Giessen, J. Ligthart, E. Regar, and P. W. Serruys, EuroIntervention 6, 1037 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Regar, J. Ligthart, N. Bruining, and G. van Soest, Herz 36, 417 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2007 (1)

D. C. Alder, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, Nat. Photonics 1, 709 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2004 (2)

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

C. T. Lancee, N. Bom, and J. Roelandt, Echocardiography 12, 275 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Adler, D. C.

Aguirre, A. D.

Akasaka, T.

G. J. Tearney, E. Regar, and T. Akasaka, and the International Working Group for Intravascular OCT Standardization and Validation, J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 59, 1058 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Alder, D. C.

D. C. Alder, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, Nat. Photonics 1, 709 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Biedermann, B. R.

Bom, N.

C. T. Lancee, N. Bom, and J. Roelandt, Echocardiography 12, 275 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. T. Lancee and N. Bom, “Ultrasonic instrument with a micro motor,” U.S. patent 5,375,602 (December24, 1994).

Boppart, S. A.

Bouma, B. E.

Brenner, M.

Brezinski, M. E.

Bruining, N.

E. Regar, J. Ligthart, N. Bruining, and G. van Soest, Herz 36, 417 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Chen, Z.

Connolly, J.

D. C. Alder, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, Nat. Photonics 1, 709 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Daniels, J. M.

de Boer, J. F.

de Groot, M.

Eigenwillig, C. M.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. C. Alder, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, Nat. Photonics 1, 709 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Express 14, 3225 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Herz, Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, K. Schneider, P. Hsiung, J. G. Fujimoto, K. Madden, J. Schmitt, J. Goodnow, and C. Petersen, Opt. Lett. 29, 2261 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. E. Brezinski, N. J. Weissman, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 21, 543 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Garcia, H. M.

T. Okamura, Y. Onuma, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, R. J. van Geuns, J. J. Wykrzykowska, C. Schultz, W. J. van der Giessen, J. Ligthart, E. Regar, and P. W. Serruys, EuroIntervention 6, 1037 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Goodnow, J.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Grunberg, K.

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Helderman, F.

Herz, P. R.

Hsiung, P.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Huber, R.

Huber, R. A.

Karpf, S.

Klein, T.

Lancee, C. T.

C. T. Lancee, N. Bom, and J. Roelandt, Echocardiography 12, 275 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. T. Lancee and N. Bom, “Ultrasonic instrument with a micro motor,” U.S. patent 5,375,602 (December24, 1994).

Li, J.

Ligthart, J.

T. Okamura, Y. Onuma, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, R. J. van Geuns, J. J. Wykrzykowska, C. Schultz, W. J. van der Giessen, J. Ligthart, E. Regar, and P. W. Serruys, EuroIntervention 6, 1037 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Regar, J. Ligthart, N. Bruining, and G. van Soest, Herz 36, 417 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Madden, K.

Mo, J.

Mukai, D. S.

Okamura, T.

T. Okamura, Y. Onuma, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, R. J. van Geuns, J. J. Wykrzykowska, C. Schultz, W. J. van der Giessen, J. Ligthart, E. Regar, and P. W. Serruys, EuroIntervention 6, 1037 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Onuma, Y.

T. Okamura, Y. Onuma, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, R. J. van Geuns, J. J. Wykrzykowska, C. Schultz, W. J. van der Giessen, J. Ligthart, E. Regar, and P. W. Serruys, EuroIntervention 6, 1037 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Petersen, C.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Regar, E.

G. J. Tearney, E. Regar, and T. Akasaka, and the International Working Group for Intravascular OCT Standardization and Validation, J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 59, 1058 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Okamura, Y. Onuma, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, R. J. van Geuns, J. J. Wykrzykowska, C. Schultz, W. J. van der Giessen, J. Ligthart, E. Regar, and P. W. Serruys, EuroIntervention 6, 1037 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Regar, J. Ligthart, N. Bruining, and G. van Soest, Herz 36, 417 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Roelandt, J.

C. T. Lancee, N. Bom, and J. Roelandt, Echocardiography 12, 275 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, J.

Schmitt, J. M.

Schneider, K.

Schultz, C.

T. Okamura, Y. Onuma, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, R. J. van Geuns, J. J. Wykrzykowska, C. Schultz, W. J. van der Giessen, J. Ligthart, E. Regar, and P. W. Serruys, EuroIntervention 6, 1037 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Serruys, P. W.

T. Okamura, Y. Onuma, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, R. J. van Geuns, J. J. Wykrzykowska, C. Schultz, W. J. van der Giessen, J. Ligthart, E. Regar, and P. W. Serruys, EuroIntervention 6, 1037 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Southern, J. F.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sutedja, T. G.

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tearney, G. J.

G. J. Tearney, E. Regar, and T. Akasaka, and the International Working Group for Intravascular OCT Standardization and Validation, J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 59, 1058 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. E. Brezinski, N. J. Weissman, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 21, 543 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tran, P. H.

Trepanier, F.

van der Giessen, W. J.

T. Okamura, Y. Onuma, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, R. J. van Geuns, J. J. Wykrzykowska, C. Schultz, W. J. van der Giessen, J. Ligthart, E. Regar, and P. W. Serruys, EuroIntervention 6, 1037 (2011).
[CrossRef]

van Geuns, R. J.

T. Okamura, Y. Onuma, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, R. J. van Geuns, J. J. Wykrzykowska, C. Schultz, W. J. van der Giessen, J. Ligthart, E. Regar, and P. W. Serruys, EuroIntervention 6, 1037 (2011).
[CrossRef]

van Soest, G.

E. Regar, J. Ligthart, N. Bruining, and G. van Soest, Herz 36, 417 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Weissman, N. J.

Wieser, W.

Wojtkowski, M.

Wykrzykowska, J. J.

T. Okamura, Y. Onuma, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, R. J. van Geuns, J. J. Wykrzykowska, C. Schultz, W. J. van der Giessen, J. Ligthart, E. Regar, and P. W. Serruys, EuroIntervention 6, 1037 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Echocardiography (1)

C. T. Lancee, N. Bom, and J. Roelandt, Echocardiography 12, 275 (1995).
[CrossRef]

EuroIntervention (1)

T. Okamura, Y. Onuma, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, R. J. van Geuns, J. J. Wykrzykowska, C. Schultz, W. J. van der Giessen, J. Ligthart, E. Regar, and P. W. Serruys, EuroIntervention 6, 1037 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Herz (1)

E. Regar, J. Ligthart, N. Bruining, and G. van Soest, Herz 36, 417 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1)

G. J. Tearney, E. Regar, and T. Akasaka, and the International Working Group for Intravascular OCT Standardization and Validation, J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 59, 1058 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

D. C. Alder, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, Nat. Photonics 1, 709 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

C. T. Lancee and N. Bom, “Ultrasonic instrument with a micro motor,” U.S. patent 5,375,602 (December24, 1994).

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: AVI (7841 KB)     

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Photograph of the catheter tip. The scale bar presents 1.0 mm. (b) Detailed schematic drawing of the catheter. The OD of the catheter is 1.1 mm at the tip. GRIN lens, Gradient index lens. (c) Diagram of the experiment setup (optics, black; electronics, gray). AMP, current amplifier; AWG, arbitrary waveform generator; BPD, balanced photodiodes; DAQ, data acquisition; PC, polarization controller.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Cross sectional images of human coronary artery at (a) 400 Hz (1002 lines averaged from 4010 lines), (b) 3.2 kHz (496 lines) frame rate, and (c) 3D reconstruction of the artery cut along the vertical plane. In (a) and (b), calcified plaque was observed at 4 to 7 o’clock, which was also illustrated in (c). The reflection at 4 o’clock was caused by an impurity. The ring artifacts at approximately 2 mm were caused by the internal reflection on the interface between GRIN lens and fiber. The rulers in (a) and (b) represent 6.0 mm. A pullback video recording of the calcified plaque at 3.2 kHz is available on line (Media 1).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Advantage of high frame rate: Longitudinal images of coronary artery (78.4 mm) at (a) 400 Hz frame rate and (b) 3.2 kHz frame rate. The A-line rate was 1.6 MHz. The magnified parts in (a) and (b) display the same calcified plaque as in Fig. 2. The pullback speed was 100mm/s. The arrow shows the pullback direction.

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