Abstract

We propose and fabricate a five-port silicon optical router based on Mach–Zehnder interferometer switches. Only 10 switching elements and five low-loss waveguide crossings are required in our design. Through thermal control of the switching network, we successfully demonstrate 20 possible I/O paths of the five-port optical router at a data transmission rate of 32Gb/s. The results here show great potential for application in ultrahigh-capacity optical interconnects.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013 (1)

2012 (3)

A. Biberman and K. Bergman, Rep. Prog. Phys. 75, 046402 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Chen, W. J. Wang, Z. Gong, Q. Zhou, X. Q. Jiang, J. Y. Yang, and H. Q. Zhou, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1313 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Chen, W. J. Wang, W. F. Guo, Z. Gong, H. Q. Zhou, Q. Zhou, X. Q. Jiang, and J. Y. Yang, Opt. Express 20, 12593 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (4)

2010 (2)

P. Dong, W. Qian, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, D. Feng, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, Opt. Express 18, 20298 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

K. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, IEEE Trans. Comput. 57, 1246 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ang, K.-W.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Asghari, M.

Assefa, S.

Bergman, K.

A. Biberman and K. Bergman, Rep. Prog. Phys. 75, 046402 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, IEEE Trans. Comput. 57, 1246 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Biberman, A.

A. Biberman and K. Bergman, Rep. Prog. Phys. 75, 046402 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Carloni, L. P.

K. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, IEEE Trans. Comput. 57, 1246 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

A. W. Poon, X. S. Luo, F. Xu, and H. Chen, Proc. IEEE 97, 1216 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. T.

Chen, W. W.

W. W. Chen, W. J. Wang, W. F. Guo, Z. Gong, H. Q. Zhou, Q. Zhou, X. Q. Jiang, and J. Y. Yang, Opt. Express 20, 12593 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Chen, W. J. Wang, Z. Gong, Q. Zhou, X. Q. Jiang, J. Y. Yang, and H. Q. Zhou, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1313 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chu, T.

Cunningham, J. E.

Ding, J. F.

Ding, Y. H.

Doany, F. E.

Dong, P.

Fang, Q.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Feng, D.

Gong, Z.

W. W. Chen, W. J. Wang, Z. Gong, Q. Zhou, X. Q. Jiang, J. Y. Yang, and H. Q. Zhou, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1313 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Chen, W. J. Wang, W. F. Guo, Z. Gong, H. Q. Zhou, Q. Zhou, X. Q. Jiang, and J. Y. Yang, Opt. Express 20, 12593 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Green, W. M. J.

Gu, H. X.

H. X. Gu, K. H. Mo, J. Xu, and W. Zhang, in 2009 IEEE Computer Society Annual Symposium on VlSI (IEEE, 2009), pp. 19–24.

Guo, W. F.

Hu, T.

T. Hu, H. Y. Qiu, P. Yu, C. Qiu, W. J. Wang, X. Q. Jiang, M. Yang, and J. Y. Yang, Opt. Lett 36, 4710 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huang, D. X.

Jahnes, C. V.

Ji, R. Q.

Jiang, X. Q.

W. W. Chen, W. J. Wang, Z. Gong, Q. Zhou, X. Q. Jiang, J. Y. Yang, and H. Q. Zhou, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1313 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Chen, W. J. Wang, W. F. Guo, Z. Gong, H. Q. Zhou, Q. Zhou, X. Q. Jiang, and J. Y. Yang, Opt. Express 20, 12593 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Hu, H. Y. Qiu, P. Yu, C. Qiu, W. J. Wang, X. Q. Jiang, M. Yang, and J. Y. Yang, Opt. Lett 36, 4710 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kash, J. A.

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Kwong, D.-L.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. G.

Li, G.

Li, X. Y.

Li, Z. Y.

Liang, H.

Liow, T.-Y.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, L.

Lo, G.-Q.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y. Y.

Luo, X. S.

A. W. Poon, X. S. Luo, F. Xu, and H. Chen, Proc. IEEE 97, 1216 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mo, K. H.

H. X. Gu, K. H. Mo, J. Xu, and W. Zhang, in 2009 IEEE Computer Society Annual Symposium on VlSI (IEEE, 2009), pp. 19–24.

Ou, H. Y.

Peucheret, C.

Poon, A. W.

A. W. Poon, X. S. Luo, F. Xu, and H. Chen, Proc. IEEE 97, 1216 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pu, M. H.

Qian, W.

Qiu, C.

T. Hu, H. Y. Qiu, P. Yu, C. Qiu, W. J. Wang, X. Q. Jiang, M. Yang, and J. Y. Yang, Opt. Lett 36, 4710 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, H. Y.

T. Hu, H. Y. Qiu, P. Yu, C. Qiu, W. J. Wang, X. Q. Jiang, M. Yang, and J. Y. Yang, Opt. Lett 36, 4710 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schow, C. L.

Shacham, K.

K. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, IEEE Trans. Comput. 57, 1246 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shafiiha, R.

Song, J.-F.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tian, Y. H.

Van Campenhout, J.

Vlasov, Y. A.

Wang, W. J.

W. W. Chen, W. J. Wang, Z. Gong, Q. Zhou, X. Q. Jiang, J. Y. Yang, and H. Q. Zhou, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1313 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Chen, W. J. Wang, W. F. Guo, Z. Gong, H. Q. Zhou, Q. Zhou, X. Q. Jiang, and J. Y. Yang, Opt. Express 20, 12593 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Hu, H. Y. Qiu, P. Yu, C. Qiu, W. J. Wang, X. Q. Jiang, M. Yang, and J. Y. Yang, Opt. Lett 36, 4710 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, X.

Xiong, Y.-Z.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xu, F.

A. W. Poon, X. S. Luo, F. Xu, and H. Chen, Proc. IEEE 97, 1216 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, H.

Xu, J.

Y. H. Ding, M. H. Pu, L. Liu, J. Xu, C. Peucheret, X. L. Zhang, D. X. Huang, and H. Y. Ou, Opt. Express 19, 6462 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. X. Gu, K. H. Mo, J. Xu, and W. Zhang, in 2009 IEEE Computer Society Annual Symposium on VlSI (IEEE, 2009), pp. 19–24.

Yang, J. Y.

W. W. Chen, W. J. Wang, Z. Gong, Q. Zhou, X. Q. Jiang, J. Y. Yang, and H. Q. Zhou, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1313 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Chen, W. J. Wang, W. F. Guo, Z. Gong, H. Q. Zhou, Q. Zhou, X. Q. Jiang, and J. Y. Yang, Opt. Express 20, 12593 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Hu, H. Y. Qiu, P. Yu, C. Qiu, W. J. Wang, X. Q. Jiang, M. Yang, and J. Y. Yang, Opt. Lett 36, 4710 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yang, L.

Yang, M.

Yu, J. Z.

Yu, M.-B.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu, P.

T. Hu, H. Y. Qiu, P. Yu, C. Qiu, W. J. Wang, X. Q. Jiang, M. Yang, and J. Y. Yang, Opt. Lett 36, 4710 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Y. D.

Zhang, L.

Zhang, W.

H. X. Gu, K. H. Mo, J. Xu, and W. Zhang, in 2009 IEEE Computer Society Annual Symposium on VlSI (IEEE, 2009), pp. 19–24.

Zhang, X. L.

Zhou, H. Q.

W. W. Chen, W. J. Wang, Z. Gong, Q. Zhou, X. Q. Jiang, J. Y. Yang, and H. Q. Zhou, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1313 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Chen, W. J. Wang, W. F. Guo, Z. Gong, H. Q. Zhou, Q. Zhou, X. Q. Jiang, and J. Y. Yang, Opt. Express 20, 12593 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, P.

Zhou, Q.

W. W. Chen, W. J. Wang, W. F. Guo, Z. Gong, H. Q. Zhou, Q. Zhou, X. Q. Jiang, and J. Y. Yang, Opt. Express 20, 12593 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Chen, W. J. Wang, Z. Gong, Q. Zhou, X. Q. Jiang, J. Y. Yang, and H. Q. Zhou, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1313 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, W. W.

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

W. W. Chen, W. J. Wang, Z. Gong, Q. Zhou, X. Q. Jiang, J. Y. Yang, and H. Q. Zhou, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1313 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Comput. (1)

K. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, IEEE Trans. Comput. 57, 1246 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (7)

Opt. Lett (1)

T. Hu, H. Y. Qiu, P. Yu, C. Qiu, W. J. Wang, X. Q. Jiang, M. Yang, and J. Y. Yang, Opt. Lett 36, 4710 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

A. W. Poon, X. S. Luo, F. Xu, and H. Chen, Proc. IEEE 97, 1216 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

A. Biberman and K. Bergman, Rep. Prog. Phys. 75, 046402 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

H. X. Gu, K. H. Mo, J. Xu, and W. Zhang, in 2009 IEEE Computer Society Annual Symposium on VlSI (IEEE, 2009), pp. 19–24.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the five-port nonblocking optical router based on 10 MZIs (M1M10) and five low-loss waveguide crossings (green dots). The five ports are labeled center (C), east (E), west (W), north (N), and south (S) (with subscripts “i” and “o” indicating the input and output, respectively.).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Micrograph of the MZI-based five-port nonblocking optical router, and scanning electron microscope images of (b) MMI-based waveguide crossing, (c) 2×2 MMI-based power splitter, and (d) grating couplers.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) MZI switching test element with 300 μm long phase shifters. (b) Transmission spectra of the MZI switching element.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

32Gb/s eye diagrams for the 20 possible optical links of the nonblocking five-port optical router (data were taken at a wavelength of 1550 nm).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Routing Paths of the Nonblocking 5×5 Router

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