Abstract

In this Letter, we present the interesting results of photodarkening (PD), transition toward photostability, and a slow crossover from PD to photobleaching when composition of the chalcogenide glassy thin film changes from Ge-deficient to rich. A subsequent Raman analysis on these as-prepared and irradiated samples provide the direct evidence of photoinduced structural rearrangement, i.e., photocrystallization of Se and the removal of edge-sharing GeSe4 tetrahedra. Further, our experimental results clearly demonstrate that light-induced effects can be effectively controlled by choosing the right composition and provide valuable information on synthesizing photostable/sensitive glasses.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. J. Eggleton, B. L. Davies, and K. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 5, 141 (2011).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  8. V. Lyubin, M. Klebanov, A. Bruner, N. Shitrit, and B. Sfez, Opt. Mater. 33, 949 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

2011 (5)

V. Lyubin, M. Klebanov, A. Bruner, N. Shitrit, and B. Sfez, Opt. Mater. 33, 949 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. Yan, H. Jain, J. Ren, D. Zhao, and G. Chen, J. Phys. Chem. C 115, 21390 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Eggleton, B. L. Davies, and K. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 5, 141 (2011).

A. R. Barik, K. V. Adarsh, R. Naik, C. S. Suchand Sandeep, R. Philip, D. Zhao, and H. Jain, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 201111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Barik, K. V. Adarsh, R. Naik, R. Ganesan, G. Yang, D. Zhao, H. Jain, and K. Shimakawa, Opt. Express 19, 13158 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

R. Naik, R. Ganesan, K. V. Adarsh, K. S. Sangunni, V. Takats, and S. Kokenyesi, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355, 1943 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

M. Huges, W. Yang, and D. Hewak, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 131113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

A. Ganjoo, K. Shimakawa, K. Kitano, and E. A. Davis, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 299–302, 917 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

K. Shimakawa, A. Kolobov, and S. R. Elliot, Adv. Phys. 44, 475 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

S. Sugai, Phys. Rev. B 35, 1345 (1987).

1981 (1)

J. E. Griffiths and W. R. Sinclair, Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 551 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Adarsh, K. V.

P. Khan, A. R. Barik, E. M. Vinod, K. S. Sangunni, H. Jain, and K. V. Adarsh, Opt. Express 20, 12416 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Barik, K. V. Adarsh, R. Naik, R. Ganesan, G. Yang, D. Zhao, H. Jain, and K. Shimakawa, Opt. Express 19, 13158 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Barik, K. V. Adarsh, R. Naik, C. S. Suchand Sandeep, R. Philip, D. Zhao, and H. Jain, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 201111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Naik, R. Ganesan, K. V. Adarsh, K. S. Sangunni, V. Takats, and S. Kokenyesi, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355, 1943 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barik, A. R.

Bruner, A.

V. Lyubin, M. Klebanov, A. Bruner, N. Shitrit, and B. Sfez, Opt. Mater. 33, 949 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G.

Q. Yan, H. Jain, J. Ren, D. Zhao, and G. Chen, J. Phys. Chem. C 115, 21390 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Davies, B. L.

B. J. Eggleton, B. L. Davies, and K. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 5, 141 (2011).

Davis, E. A.

A. Ganjoo, K. Shimakawa, K. Kitano, and E. A. Davis, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 299–302, 917 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

B. J. Eggleton, B. L. Davies, and K. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 5, 141 (2011).

Elliot, S. R.

K. Shimakawa, A. Kolobov, and S. R. Elliot, Adv. Phys. 44, 475 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ganesan, R.

A. R. Barik, K. V. Adarsh, R. Naik, R. Ganesan, G. Yang, D. Zhao, H. Jain, and K. Shimakawa, Opt. Express 19, 13158 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Naik, R. Ganesan, K. V. Adarsh, K. S. Sangunni, V. Takats, and S. Kokenyesi, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355, 1943 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ganjoo, A.

A. Ganjoo, K. Shimakawa, K. Kitano, and E. A. Davis, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 299–302, 917 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Griffiths, J. E.

J. E. Griffiths and W. R. Sinclair, Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 551 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Hewak, D.

M. Huges, W. Yang, and D. Hewak, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 131113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ho, N.

Huges, M.

M. Huges, W. Yang, and D. Hewak, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 131113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jain, H.

P. Khan, A. R. Barik, E. M. Vinod, K. S. Sangunni, H. Jain, and K. V. Adarsh, Opt. Express 20, 12416 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Barik, K. V. Adarsh, R. Naik, R. Ganesan, G. Yang, D. Zhao, H. Jain, and K. Shimakawa, Opt. Express 19, 13158 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Barik, K. V. Adarsh, R. Naik, C. S. Suchand Sandeep, R. Philip, D. Zhao, and H. Jain, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 201111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. Yan, H. Jain, J. Ren, D. Zhao, and G. Chen, J. Phys. Chem. C 115, 21390 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Khan, P.

Kitano, K.

A. Ganjoo, K. Shimakawa, K. Kitano, and E. A. Davis, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 299–302, 917 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Klebanov, M.

V. Lyubin, M. Klebanov, A. Bruner, N. Shitrit, and B. Sfez, Opt. Mater. 33, 949 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kokenyesi, S.

R. Naik, R. Ganesan, K. V. Adarsh, K. S. Sangunni, V. Takats, and S. Kokenyesi, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355, 1943 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kolobov, A.

K. Shimakawa, A. Kolobov, and S. R. Elliot, Adv. Phys. 44, 475 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lopez, C.

Lyubin, V.

V. Lyubin, M. Klebanov, A. Bruner, N. Shitrit, and B. Sfez, Opt. Mater. 33, 949 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Naik, R.

A. R. Barik, K. V. Adarsh, R. Naik, C. S. Suchand Sandeep, R. Philip, D. Zhao, and H. Jain, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 201111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Barik, K. V. Adarsh, R. Naik, R. Ganesan, G. Yang, D. Zhao, H. Jain, and K. Shimakawa, Opt. Express 19, 13158 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Naik, R. Ganesan, K. V. Adarsh, K. S. Sangunni, V. Takats, and S. Kokenyesi, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355, 1943 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Philip, R.

A. R. Barik, K. V. Adarsh, R. Naik, C. S. Suchand Sandeep, R. Philip, D. Zhao, and H. Jain, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 201111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ren, J.

Q. Yan, H. Jain, J. Ren, D. Zhao, and G. Chen, J. Phys. Chem. C 115, 21390 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, K.

B. J. Eggleton, B. L. Davies, and K. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 5, 141 (2011).

Richardson, K. A.

Richardson, M.

Rivero, C.

Sangunni, K. S.

P. Khan, A. R. Barik, E. M. Vinod, K. S. Sangunni, H. Jain, and K. V. Adarsh, Opt. Express 20, 12416 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Naik, R. Ganesan, K. V. Adarsh, K. S. Sangunni, V. Takats, and S. Kokenyesi, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355, 1943 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schulte, A.

Sfez, B.

V. Lyubin, M. Klebanov, A. Bruner, N. Shitrit, and B. Sfez, Opt. Mater. 33, 949 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shimakawa, K.

A. R. Barik, K. V. Adarsh, R. Naik, R. Ganesan, G. Yang, D. Zhao, H. Jain, and K. Shimakawa, Opt. Express 19, 13158 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Ganjoo, K. Shimakawa, K. Kitano, and E. A. Davis, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 299–302, 917 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Shimakawa, A. Kolobov, and S. R. Elliot, Adv. Phys. 44, 475 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shitrit, N.

V. Lyubin, M. Klebanov, A. Bruner, N. Shitrit, and B. Sfez, Opt. Mater. 33, 949 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sinclair, W. R.

J. E. Griffiths and W. R. Sinclair, Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 551 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Suchand Sandeep, C. S.

A. R. Barik, K. V. Adarsh, R. Naik, C. S. Suchand Sandeep, R. Philip, D. Zhao, and H. Jain, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 201111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sugai, S.

S. Sugai, Phys. Rev. B 35, 1345 (1987).

Takats, V.

R. Naik, R. Ganesan, K. V. Adarsh, K. S. Sangunni, V. Takats, and S. Kokenyesi, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355, 1943 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vallee, R.

Vinod, E. M.

Yan, Q.

Q. Yan, H. Jain, J. Ren, D. Zhao, and G. Chen, J. Phys. Chem. C 115, 21390 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yang, G.

Yang, W.

M. Huges, W. Yang, and D. Hewak, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 131113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, D.

A. R. Barik, K. V. Adarsh, R. Naik, C. S. Suchand Sandeep, R. Philip, D. Zhao, and H. Jain, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 201111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. Yan, H. Jain, J. Ren, D. Zhao, and G. Chen, J. Phys. Chem. C 115, 21390 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Barik, K. V. Adarsh, R. Naik, R. Ganesan, G. Yang, D. Zhao, H. Jain, and K. Shimakawa, Opt. Express 19, 13158 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zoubir, A.

Adv. Phys. (1)

K. Shimakawa, A. Kolobov, and S. R. Elliot, Adv. Phys. 44, 475 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

M. Huges, W. Yang, and D. Hewak, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 131113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Barik, K. V. Adarsh, R. Naik, C. S. Suchand Sandeep, R. Philip, D. Zhao, and H. Jain, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 201111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Griffiths and W. R. Sinclair, Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 551 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (2)

R. Naik, R. Ganesan, K. V. Adarsh, K. S. Sangunni, V. Takats, and S. Kokenyesi, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355, 1943 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Ganjoo, K. Shimakawa, K. Kitano, and E. A. Davis, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 299–302, 917 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

Q. Yan, H. Jain, J. Ren, D. Zhao, and G. Chen, J. Phys. Chem. C 115, 21390 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

B. J. Eggleton, B. L. Davies, and K. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 5, 141 (2011).

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. (1)

V. Lyubin, M. Klebanov, A. Bruner, N. Shitrit, and B. Sfez, Opt. Mater. 33, 949 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

S. Sugai, Phys. Rev. B 35, 1345 (1987).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Transmission spectra of GexSe100-x with x=5, 10, 20, and 30 before (solid black line) and after (solid red line) illumination with 532 nm laser light. Inset in Fig. 1(d) shows expanded bandgap region that shows PB.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Raman spectra of as-prepared and illuminated samples that clearly validate structural changes due to light illumination.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Time evolution of Tf/Ti for the selected single-probe wavelength at 560 nm, when illuminated with the pump beam (532 nm) of intensity 0.5W/cm2. Here the hollow circles and solid red line represent the experimental data and theoretical fit [7,13], respectively.

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