Abstract

We report lasing in airborne, rhodamine B-doped glycerol–water droplets with diameters ranging between 7.7 and 11.0 μm, which were localized using optical tweezers. While being trapped near the focal point of an infrared laser, the droplets were pumped with a Q-switched green laser. Our experiments revealed nonlinear dependence of the intensity of the droplet whispering gallery modes (WGMs) on the pump laser fluence, indicating dye lasing. The average wavelength of the lasing WGMs could be tuned between 600 and 630 nm by changing the droplet size. These results may lead to new ways of probing airborne particles, exploiting the high sensitivity of stimulated emission to small perturbations in the droplet laser cavity and the gain medium.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013

M. Aas, A. Jonáš, and A. Kiraz, Opt. Commun. 290, 183 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2011

2009

M. Humar, M. Ravnik, S. Pajk, and I. Musevic, Nat. Photonics 3, 595 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

M. Tanyeri and I. M. Kennedy, Sensor Lett. 6, 326 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. McGloin, D. R. Burnham, M. D. Summers, D. Rudd, N. Dewar, and S. Anand, Faraday Discuss. 137, 335 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

J. P. Reid, H. Meresman, L. Mitchem, and R. Symes, Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 26, 139 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Kiraz, A. Sennaroglu, S. Doganay, M. A. Dundar, A. Kurt, H. Kalaycoglu, and A. L. Demirel, Opt. Commun. 276, 145 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

2004

R. J. Hopkins, L. Mitchem, A. D. Ward, and J. P. Reid, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 6, 4924 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000

M. Tona and M. Kimura, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 69, 3533 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997

K. Sasaki, H. Fujiwara, and H. Masuhara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2647 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1992

1991

A. J. Campillo, J. D. Eversole, and H. B. Lin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 437 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1984

1978

P. Chylek, J. T. Kiehl, and M. K. W. Ko, Phys. Rev. A 18, 2229 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Aas, M.

M. Aas, A. Jonáš, and A. Kiraz, Opt. Commun. 290, 183 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Acker, W. P.

Alkhafadiji, L.

Anand, S.

D. McGloin, D. R. Burnham, M. D. Summers, D. Rudd, N. Dewar, and S. Anand, Faraday Discuss. 137, 335 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Azzouz, H.

Balslev, S.

Burnham, D. R.

D. McGloin, D. R. Burnham, M. D. Summers, D. Rudd, N. Dewar, and S. Anand, Faraday Discuss. 137, 335 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Burnham and D. McGloin, Opt. Express 14, 4176 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Campillo, A. J.

A. J. Campillo, J. D. Eversole, and H. B. Lin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 437 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R. K.

Chylek, P.

P. Chylek, J. T. Kiehl, and M. K. W. Ko, Phys. Rev. A 18, 2229 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Demirel, A. L.

A. Kiraz, A. Sennaroglu, S. Doganay, M. A. Dundar, A. Kurt, H. Kalaycoglu, and A. L. Demirel, Opt. Commun. 276, 145 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Derda, R.

Dewar, N.

D. McGloin, D. R. Burnham, M. D. Summers, D. Rudd, N. Dewar, and S. Anand, Faraday Discuss. 137, 335 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Doganay, S.

A. Kiraz, A. Sennaroglu, S. Doganay, M. A. Dundar, A. Kurt, H. Kalaycoglu, and A. L. Demirel, Opt. Commun. 276, 145 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dundar, M. A.

A. Kiraz, A. Sennaroglu, S. Doganay, M. A. Dundar, A. Kurt, H. Kalaycoglu, and A. L. Demirel, Opt. Commun. 276, 145 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Eversole, J. D.

A. J. Campillo, J. D. Eversole, and H. B. Lin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 437 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, H.

K. Sasaki, H. Fujiwara, and H. Masuhara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2647 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hopkins, R. J.

R. J. Hopkins, L. Mitchem, A. D. Ward, and J. P. Reid, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 6, 4924 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Humar, M.

M. Humar and I. Musevic, Opt. Express 19, 19836 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Humar, M. Ravnik, S. Pajk, and I. Musevic, Nat. Photonics 3, 595 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Johansson, J.

Jonáš, A.

M. Aas, A. Jonáš, and A. Kiraz, Opt. Commun. 290, 183 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kalaycoglu, H.

A. Kiraz, A. Sennaroglu, S. Doganay, M. A. Dundar, A. Kurt, H. Kalaycoglu, and A. L. Demirel, Opt. Commun. 276, 145 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kennedy, I. M.

M. Tanyeri and I. M. Kennedy, Sensor Lett. 6, 326 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kiehl, J. T.

P. Chylek, J. T. Kiehl, and M. K. W. Ko, Phys. Rev. A 18, 2229 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Kimura, M.

M. Tona and M. Kimura, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 69, 3533 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kiraz, A.

M. Aas, A. Jonáš, and A. Kiraz, Opt. Commun. 290, 183 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Kiraz, A. Sennaroglu, S. Doganay, M. A. Dundar, A. Kurt, H. Kalaycoglu, and A. L. Demirel, Opt. Commun. 276, 145 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ko, M. K. W.

P. Chylek, J. T. Kiehl, and M. K. W. Ko, Phys. Rev. A 18, 2229 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Kristensen, A.

H. Azzouz, L. Alkhafadiji, S. Balslev, J. Johansson, N. A. Mortensen, S. Nilsson, and A. Kristensen, Opt. Express 14, 4374 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Mølhave, A. Kristensen, and N. A. Mortensen, Advanced Photonic Structures for Biological and Chemical Detection (Springer, 2009), pp. 471–486.

Kurt, A.

A. Kiraz, A. Sennaroglu, S. Doganay, M. A. Dundar, A. Kurt, H. Kalaycoglu, and A. L. Demirel, Opt. Commun. 276, 145 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H. B.

A. J. Campillo, J. D. Eversole, and H. B. Lin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 437 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Loncar, M.

Long, M. B.

Masuhara, H.

K. Sasaki, H. Fujiwara, and H. Masuhara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2647 (1997).
[CrossRef]

McGloin, D.

D. McGloin, D. R. Burnham, M. D. Summers, D. Rudd, N. Dewar, and S. Anand, Faraday Discuss. 137, 335 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Burnham and D. McGloin, Opt. Express 14, 4176 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Meresman, H.

J. P. Reid, H. Meresman, L. Mitchem, and R. Symes, Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 26, 139 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mitchem, L.

J. P. Reid, H. Meresman, L. Mitchem, and R. Symes, Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 26, 139 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Hopkins, L. Mitchem, A. D. Ward, and J. P. Reid, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 6, 4924 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mølhave, K.

K. Mølhave, A. Kristensen, and N. A. Mortensen, Advanced Photonic Structures for Biological and Chemical Detection (Springer, 2009), pp. 471–486.

Mortensen, N. A.

H. Azzouz, L. Alkhafadiji, S. Balslev, J. Johansson, N. A. Mortensen, S. Nilsson, and A. Kristensen, Opt. Express 14, 4374 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Mølhave, A. Kristensen, and N. A. Mortensen, Advanced Photonic Structures for Biological and Chemical Detection (Springer, 2009), pp. 471–486.

Musevic, I.

M. Humar and I. Musevic, Opt. Express 19, 19836 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Humar, M. Ravnik, S. Pajk, and I. Musevic, Nat. Photonics 3, 595 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nilsson, S.

Pajk, S.

M. Humar, M. Ravnik, S. Pajk, and I. Musevic, Nat. Photonics 3, 595 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Quan, Q.

Ravnik, M.

M. Humar, M. Ravnik, S. Pajk, and I. Musevic, Nat. Photonics 3, 595 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Reid, J. P.

J. P. Reid, H. Meresman, L. Mitchem, and R. Symes, Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 26, 139 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Hopkins, L. Mitchem, A. D. Ward, and J. P. Reid, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 6, 4924 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rudd, D.

D. McGloin, D. R. Burnham, M. D. Summers, D. Rudd, N. Dewar, and S. Anand, Faraday Discuss. 137, 335 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, K.

K. Sasaki, H. Fujiwara, and H. Masuhara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2647 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sennaroglu, A.

A. Kiraz, A. Sennaroglu, S. Doganay, M. A. Dundar, A. Kurt, H. Kalaycoglu, and A. L. Demirel, Opt. Commun. 276, 145 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Serpengüzel, A.

Summers, M. D.

D. McGloin, D. R. Burnham, M. D. Summers, D. Rudd, N. Dewar, and S. Anand, Faraday Discuss. 137, 335 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Swindal, J. C.

Symes, R.

J. P. Reid, H. Meresman, L. Mitchem, and R. Symes, Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 26, 139 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tang, S. K. Y.

Tanyeri, M.

M. Tanyeri and I. M. Kennedy, Sensor Lett. 6, 326 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tona, M.

M. Tona and M. Kimura, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 69, 3533 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tzeng, H.-M.

Wall, K. F.

Ward, A. D.

R. J. Hopkins, L. Mitchem, A. D. Ward, and J. P. Reid, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 6, 4924 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Whitesides, G. M.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

K. Sasaki, H. Fujiwara, and H. Masuhara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2647 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Faraday Discuss.

D. McGloin, D. R. Burnham, M. D. Summers, D. Rudd, N. Dewar, and S. Anand, Faraday Discuss. 137, 335 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Int. Rev. Phys. Chem.

J. P. Reid, H. Meresman, L. Mitchem, and R. Symes, Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 26, 139 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Soc. Jpn.

M. Tona and M. Kimura, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 69, 3533 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

M. Humar, M. Ravnik, S. Pajk, and I. Musevic, Nat. Photonics 3, 595 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

A. Kiraz, A. Sennaroglu, S. Doganay, M. A. Dundar, A. Kurt, H. Kalaycoglu, and A. L. Demirel, Opt. Commun. 276, 145 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Aas, A. Jonáš, and A. Kiraz, Opt. Commun. 290, 183 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.

R. J. Hopkins, L. Mitchem, A. D. Ward, and J. P. Reid, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 6, 4924 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

P. Chylek, J. T. Kiehl, and M. K. W. Ko, Phys. Rev. A 18, 2229 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

A. J. Campillo, J. D. Eversole, and H. B. Lin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 437 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sensor Lett.

M. Tanyeri and I. M. Kennedy, Sensor Lett. 6, 326 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other

K. Mølhave, A. Kristensen, and N. A. Mortensen, Advanced Photonic Structures for Biological and Chemical Detection (Springer, 2009), pp. 471–486.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Excitation fluence-dependent emission spectra recorded from a 9.4 μm diameter glycerol/water droplet at three different excitation fluences: (a) 0.49mJ/cm2, (b) 1.70mJ/cm2, and (c) 3.06mJ/cm2. WGM A and WGM B denote lasing WGMs. Inset: optical microscope image of the trapped lasing droplet.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Excitation fluence-dependent intensities of the lasing WGMs and background emissions in a 9.4 μm diameter glycerol/water aerosol droplet.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Lasing spectra recorded from six different aerosols with diameters 7.7, 8.4, 9.0, 9.6, 10.1, and 11.0 μm (bottom to top) at constant excitation fluence of 2.41mJ/cm2. (b) Free spectral ranges of 34 lasing aerosols as a function of the mean lasing wavelength, λ¯.

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