Abstract

The emitters at the edges of high-power laser bars tend to produce less power than emitters that are near the center of the bar. We suggest that shear strain, which owes to strain induced by bonding, creates through a photoelastic effect a weak birefringence that rotates the plane of polarization of the light. A rotation of the plane of polarization reduces the net gain for the lasing modes and hence leads to a lower output power for the emitters at the edges of the bars, where the shear strain is dominant.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Xia, E. C. Larkins, I. Harrison, S. R. A. Dodds, A. Andrianov, J. Morgan, and J.-P. Landesman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 893 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Bull, J. W. Tomm, M. Oudart, J. Nagle, C. Scholz, K. Boucke, I. Harrison, and E. C. Larkins, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 063101 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Bull, J. J. Lim, C. K. Amuzuvi, J. W. Tomm, J. Nagle, B. Sumpf, G. Erbert, N. Michel, M. Krakowski, and E. C. Larkins, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27, 094012 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. K. Amuzuvi, S. Bull, J. W. Tomm, J. Nagle, B. Sumpf, G. Erbert, N. Michel, M. Krakowski, and E. C. Larkins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 241108 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  5. O. Rehioui, “Fiabilité de diodes laser de forte puissance 808 nm microassemblées pour des applications spatiales: approche expérimentale et modélisations par éléments finis,” Ph.D. thesis (Université Bordeaux 1, 2011).
  6. D. T. Cassidy, S. K. K. Lam, B. Lakshmi, and D. M. Bruce, Appl. Opt. 43, 1811 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. Lakshmi, D. T. Cassidy, and B. J. Robinson, J. Appl. Phys. 79, 7640 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. F. Nye, Physical Properties of Crystals (Oxford University, 1985), pp. 243–254.
  9. R. W. Dixon, J. Appl. Phys. 38, 5149 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  10. N. Suzuki and K. Tada, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 23, 1011 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Hempel, M. Ziegler, S. Schwirzke, J. W. Tomm, D. Jankowski, and D. Schröder, Appl. Phys. A 107, 371 (2012).
    [CrossRef]

2012

S. Bull, J. J. Lim, C. K. Amuzuvi, J. W. Tomm, J. Nagle, B. Sumpf, G. Erbert, N. Michel, M. Krakowski, and E. C. Larkins, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27, 094012 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Hempel, M. Ziegler, S. Schwirzke, J. W. Tomm, D. Jankowski, and D. Schröder, Appl. Phys. A 107, 371 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

C. K. Amuzuvi, S. Bull, J. W. Tomm, J. Nagle, B. Sumpf, G. Erbert, N. Michel, M. Krakowski, and E. C. Larkins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 241108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2005

S. Bull, J. W. Tomm, M. Oudart, J. Nagle, C. Scholz, K. Boucke, I. Harrison, and E. C. Larkins, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 063101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

2002

R. Xia, E. C. Larkins, I. Harrison, S. R. A. Dodds, A. Andrianov, J. Morgan, and J.-P. Landesman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 893 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1996

B. Lakshmi, D. T. Cassidy, and B. J. Robinson, J. Appl. Phys. 79, 7640 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1984

N. Suzuki and K. Tada, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 23, 1011 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1967

R. W. Dixon, J. Appl. Phys. 38, 5149 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Amuzuvi, C. K.

S. Bull, J. J. Lim, C. K. Amuzuvi, J. W. Tomm, J. Nagle, B. Sumpf, G. Erbert, N. Michel, M. Krakowski, and E. C. Larkins, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27, 094012 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Amuzuvi, S. Bull, J. W. Tomm, J. Nagle, B. Sumpf, G. Erbert, N. Michel, M. Krakowski, and E. C. Larkins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 241108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Andrianov, A.

R. Xia, E. C. Larkins, I. Harrison, S. R. A. Dodds, A. Andrianov, J. Morgan, and J.-P. Landesman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 893 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Boucke, K.

S. Bull, J. W. Tomm, M. Oudart, J. Nagle, C. Scholz, K. Boucke, I. Harrison, and E. C. Larkins, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 063101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bruce, D. M.

Bull, S.

S. Bull, J. J. Lim, C. K. Amuzuvi, J. W. Tomm, J. Nagle, B. Sumpf, G. Erbert, N. Michel, M. Krakowski, and E. C. Larkins, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27, 094012 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Amuzuvi, S. Bull, J. W. Tomm, J. Nagle, B. Sumpf, G. Erbert, N. Michel, M. Krakowski, and E. C. Larkins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 241108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Bull, J. W. Tomm, M. Oudart, J. Nagle, C. Scholz, K. Boucke, I. Harrison, and E. C. Larkins, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 063101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cassidy, D. T.

D. T. Cassidy, S. K. K. Lam, B. Lakshmi, and D. M. Bruce, Appl. Opt. 43, 1811 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Lakshmi, D. T. Cassidy, and B. J. Robinson, J. Appl. Phys. 79, 7640 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dixon, R. W.

R. W. Dixon, J. Appl. Phys. 38, 5149 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Dodds, S. R. A.

R. Xia, E. C. Larkins, I. Harrison, S. R. A. Dodds, A. Andrianov, J. Morgan, and J.-P. Landesman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 893 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Erbert, G.

S. Bull, J. J. Lim, C. K. Amuzuvi, J. W. Tomm, J. Nagle, B. Sumpf, G. Erbert, N. Michel, M. Krakowski, and E. C. Larkins, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27, 094012 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Amuzuvi, S. Bull, J. W. Tomm, J. Nagle, B. Sumpf, G. Erbert, N. Michel, M. Krakowski, and E. C. Larkins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 241108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Harrison, I.

S. Bull, J. W. Tomm, M. Oudart, J. Nagle, C. Scholz, K. Boucke, I. Harrison, and E. C. Larkins, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 063101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Xia, E. C. Larkins, I. Harrison, S. R. A. Dodds, A. Andrianov, J. Morgan, and J.-P. Landesman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 893 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hempel, M.

M. Hempel, M. Ziegler, S. Schwirzke, J. W. Tomm, D. Jankowski, and D. Schröder, Appl. Phys. A 107, 371 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jankowski, D.

M. Hempel, M. Ziegler, S. Schwirzke, J. W. Tomm, D. Jankowski, and D. Schröder, Appl. Phys. A 107, 371 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Krakowski, M.

S. Bull, J. J. Lim, C. K. Amuzuvi, J. W. Tomm, J. Nagle, B. Sumpf, G. Erbert, N. Michel, M. Krakowski, and E. C. Larkins, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27, 094012 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Amuzuvi, S. Bull, J. W. Tomm, J. Nagle, B. Sumpf, G. Erbert, N. Michel, M. Krakowski, and E. C. Larkins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 241108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lakshmi, B.

D. T. Cassidy, S. K. K. Lam, B. Lakshmi, and D. M. Bruce, Appl. Opt. 43, 1811 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Lakshmi, D. T. Cassidy, and B. J. Robinson, J. Appl. Phys. 79, 7640 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lam, S. K. K.

Landesman, J.-P.

R. Xia, E. C. Larkins, I. Harrison, S. R. A. Dodds, A. Andrianov, J. Morgan, and J.-P. Landesman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 893 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Larkins, E. C.

S. Bull, J. J. Lim, C. K. Amuzuvi, J. W. Tomm, J. Nagle, B. Sumpf, G. Erbert, N. Michel, M. Krakowski, and E. C. Larkins, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27, 094012 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Amuzuvi, S. Bull, J. W. Tomm, J. Nagle, B. Sumpf, G. Erbert, N. Michel, M. Krakowski, and E. C. Larkins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 241108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Bull, J. W. Tomm, M. Oudart, J. Nagle, C. Scholz, K. Boucke, I. Harrison, and E. C. Larkins, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 063101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Xia, E. C. Larkins, I. Harrison, S. R. A. Dodds, A. Andrianov, J. Morgan, and J.-P. Landesman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 893 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lim, J. J.

S. Bull, J. J. Lim, C. K. Amuzuvi, J. W. Tomm, J. Nagle, B. Sumpf, G. Erbert, N. Michel, M. Krakowski, and E. C. Larkins, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27, 094012 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Michel, N.

S. Bull, J. J. Lim, C. K. Amuzuvi, J. W. Tomm, J. Nagle, B. Sumpf, G. Erbert, N. Michel, M. Krakowski, and E. C. Larkins, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27, 094012 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Amuzuvi, S. Bull, J. W. Tomm, J. Nagle, B. Sumpf, G. Erbert, N. Michel, M. Krakowski, and E. C. Larkins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 241108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Morgan, J.

R. Xia, E. C. Larkins, I. Harrison, S. R. A. Dodds, A. Andrianov, J. Morgan, and J.-P. Landesman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 893 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nagle, J.

S. Bull, J. J. Lim, C. K. Amuzuvi, J. W. Tomm, J. Nagle, B. Sumpf, G. Erbert, N. Michel, M. Krakowski, and E. C. Larkins, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27, 094012 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Amuzuvi, S. Bull, J. W. Tomm, J. Nagle, B. Sumpf, G. Erbert, N. Michel, M. Krakowski, and E. C. Larkins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 241108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Bull, J. W. Tomm, M. Oudart, J. Nagle, C. Scholz, K. Boucke, I. Harrison, and E. C. Larkins, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 063101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nye, J. F.

J. F. Nye, Physical Properties of Crystals (Oxford University, 1985), pp. 243–254.

Oudart, M.

S. Bull, J. W. Tomm, M. Oudart, J. Nagle, C. Scholz, K. Boucke, I. Harrison, and E. C. Larkins, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 063101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rehioui, O.

O. Rehioui, “Fiabilité de diodes laser de forte puissance 808 nm microassemblées pour des applications spatiales: approche expérimentale et modélisations par éléments finis,” Ph.D. thesis (Université Bordeaux 1, 2011).

Robinson, B. J.

B. Lakshmi, D. T. Cassidy, and B. J. Robinson, J. Appl. Phys. 79, 7640 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Scholz, C.

S. Bull, J. W. Tomm, M. Oudart, J. Nagle, C. Scholz, K. Boucke, I. Harrison, and E. C. Larkins, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 063101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schröder, D.

M. Hempel, M. Ziegler, S. Schwirzke, J. W. Tomm, D. Jankowski, and D. Schröder, Appl. Phys. A 107, 371 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Schwirzke, S.

M. Hempel, M. Ziegler, S. Schwirzke, J. W. Tomm, D. Jankowski, and D. Schröder, Appl. Phys. A 107, 371 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sumpf, B.

S. Bull, J. J. Lim, C. K. Amuzuvi, J. W. Tomm, J. Nagle, B. Sumpf, G. Erbert, N. Michel, M. Krakowski, and E. C. Larkins, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27, 094012 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Amuzuvi, S. Bull, J. W. Tomm, J. Nagle, B. Sumpf, G. Erbert, N. Michel, M. Krakowski, and E. C. Larkins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 241108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, N.

N. Suzuki and K. Tada, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 23, 1011 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Tada, K.

N. Suzuki and K. Tada, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 23, 1011 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Tomm, J. W.

M. Hempel, M. Ziegler, S. Schwirzke, J. W. Tomm, D. Jankowski, and D. Schröder, Appl. Phys. A 107, 371 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Bull, J. J. Lim, C. K. Amuzuvi, J. W. Tomm, J. Nagle, B. Sumpf, G. Erbert, N. Michel, M. Krakowski, and E. C. Larkins, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27, 094012 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Amuzuvi, S. Bull, J. W. Tomm, J. Nagle, B. Sumpf, G. Erbert, N. Michel, M. Krakowski, and E. C. Larkins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 241108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Bull, J. W. Tomm, M. Oudart, J. Nagle, C. Scholz, K. Boucke, I. Harrison, and E. C. Larkins, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 063101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xia, R.

R. Xia, E. C. Larkins, I. Harrison, S. R. A. Dodds, A. Andrianov, J. Morgan, and J.-P. Landesman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 893 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ziegler, M.

M. Hempel, M. Ziegler, S. Schwirzke, J. W. Tomm, D. Jankowski, and D. Schröder, Appl. Phys. A 107, 371 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. A

M. Hempel, M. Ziegler, S. Schwirzke, J. W. Tomm, D. Jankowski, and D. Schröder, Appl. Phys. A 107, 371 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

C. K. Amuzuvi, S. Bull, J. W. Tomm, J. Nagle, B. Sumpf, G. Erbert, N. Michel, M. Krakowski, and E. C. Larkins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 241108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

R. Xia, E. C. Larkins, I. Harrison, S. R. A. Dodds, A. Andrianov, J. Morgan, and J.-P. Landesman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 893 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

S. Bull, J. W. Tomm, M. Oudart, J. Nagle, C. Scholz, K. Boucke, I. Harrison, and E. C. Larkins, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 063101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Lakshmi, D. T. Cassidy, and B. J. Robinson, J. Appl. Phys. 79, 7640 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Dixon, J. Appl. Phys. 38, 5149 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

N. Suzuki and K. Tada, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 23, 1011 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Sci. Technol.

S. Bull, J. J. Lim, C. K. Amuzuvi, J. W. Tomm, J. Nagle, B. Sumpf, G. Erbert, N. Michel, M. Krakowski, and E. C. Larkins, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27, 094012 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Other

O. Rehioui, “Fiabilité de diodes laser de forte puissance 808 nm microassemblées pour des applications spatiales: approche expérimentale et modélisations par éléments finis,” Ph.D. thesis (Université Bordeaux 1, 2011).

J. F. Nye, Physical Properties of Crystals (Oxford University, 1985), pp. 243–254.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Polarizer angle for maximum Lx(E) as a function of emitter position for bars bonded to a Cu or a CuW submount.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) DOP of the EL as a function of emitter position. (b) Optical power as a function of emitter position. Emitter 8 for the Cu bar was partially blocked by a solder bump.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

DOP and ROP of the photoluminescence (PL) from the substrate for bars bonded to Cu and CuW. The images are composites of 19 measurements. The areas shown are 0.13×9.5mm2. The color bar indicates the false color mapping. Values of zero are shaded green at the midpoint of the bar. Negative numbers are shown in red and positive numbers are shown in blue.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Calculated shear strain and tensile components of strain across the width of a bar at a distance of 0.25 mm behind the facet and 5 μm above the bonding surface. Note the antisymmetric nature of the shear stress and the relative magnitudes of the strains near the center of the bar and near the edges of the bar. The thick lines on the right plot the strains near the right-hand side of the chip on a horizontal scale that is expanded 50×.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

DOPy=0R(E)(Lx(E)Lz(E))dE0R(E)(Lx(E)+Lz(E))dE,
Lx(E)=1T0T(cos(θ)TE+sin(θ)TM)2dt,
[B1BB2BB3BB4B5B6]=[p11p12p12000p12p11p12000p12p12p11000000p44000000p44000000p66][ε1ε2ε3ε4ε5ε6],
Ex=cos(θ)cos(ωtky)Ez=sin(θ)cos(ωtky+ϕ),
Ex=cos2(θ)cos(ωtky)+sin2(θ)cos(ωtky+ϕ)Ez=sin(2θ)sin(ϕ/2)sin(ωtky).
LTE(θ)=1/2sin2(2θ)sin2(ϕ/2)/2LTM(θ)=sin2(2θ)sin2(ϕ/2)/2.
LTE(θ=π4)=0.5×cos2(ϕ/2)LTM(θ=π4)=0.5×sin2(ϕ/2).

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