Abstract

We design high-quality-factor photonic crystal nanobeam cavities formed by two mechanically isolated cantilevers. These “split-beam” cavities have a physical gap at the center, allowing mechanical excitations of one or both of the cavity halves. They are designed by analyzing the optical band structures and mode profiles of waveguides perforated by elliptical holes and rectangular gaps and are predicted to support optical resonances with quality factors exceeding 106 at wavelengths of 1.6μm.

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  1. M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, and H. Taniyama, Opt. Express 16, 11095 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, J. Chan, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, Nature 459, 550 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Eichenfield, J. Chan, R. M. Camacho, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, Nature 462, 78 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. B. Deotare, I. Bulu, I. W. Frank, Q. Quan, Y. Zhang, R. Ilic, and M. Loncar, Nat. Commun. 3, 846 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. Gavartin, P. Verlot, and T. Kippenberg, Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 509 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. G. Krause, M. Winger, T. D. Blasius, Q. Lin, and O. Painter, Nat. Photonics 6, 768 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Srinivasan, H. Miao, M. T. Rakher, M. Davanço, and V. Aksyuk, Nano Lett. 11, 791 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. P. Davis, D. Vick, D. C. Fortin, J. A. J. Burgess, W. K. Hiebert, and M. R. Freeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 72513 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. H. Kim, C. Doolin, B. D. Hauer, A. J. R. MacDonald, M. Freeman, P. E. Barclay, and J. P. Davis, “Nanoscale torsional optomechanics,” http://arxiv.org/abs/1210.1852 (2012).
  10. M. Li, W. Pernice, and H. Tang, Nat. Nanotechnol. 4, 377 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. H. Wu, A. C. Hryciw, and P. E. Barclay are preparing a manuscript to be called “Torque optomechanics in photonic crystal nanocavities.”
  12. Q. Quan and M. Lončar, Opt. Express 19, 18529 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Q. Quan, P. Deotare, and M. Lončar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 203102 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. G. Johnson and J. D. Joannopoulos, Opt. Express 8, 173 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Joannopoulos, S. Johnson, J. Winn, and R. Meade, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton University, 2008).
  16. S. G. Johnson, M. Ibanescu, M. A. Skorobogatiy, O. Weisberg, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, Phys. Rev. E 65, 66611 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, Comput. Phys. Commun. 181, 687 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. G. Johnson, P. Bienstman, M. A. Skorobogatiy, M. Ibanescu, E. Lidorikis, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. E 66, 66608 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (3)

P. B. Deotare, I. Bulu, I. W. Frank, Q. Quan, Y. Zhang, R. Ilic, and M. Loncar, Nat. Commun. 3, 846 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Gavartin, P. Verlot, and T. Kippenberg, Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 509 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Krause, M. Winger, T. D. Blasius, Q. Lin, and O. Painter, Nat. Photonics 6, 768 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

K. Srinivasan, H. Miao, M. T. Rakher, M. Davanço, and V. Aksyuk, Nano Lett. 11, 791 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. Quan and M. Lončar, Opt. Express 19, 18529 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, Comput. Phys. Commun. 181, 687 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Davis, D. Vick, D. C. Fortin, J. A. J. Burgess, W. K. Hiebert, and M. R. Freeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 72513 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. Quan, P. Deotare, and M. Lončar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 203102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, J. Chan, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, Nature 459, 550 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Eichenfield, J. Chan, R. M. Camacho, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, Nature 462, 78 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Li, W. Pernice, and H. Tang, Nat. Nanotechnol. 4, 377 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2002 (2)

S. G. Johnson, P. Bienstman, M. A. Skorobogatiy, M. Ibanescu, E. Lidorikis, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. E 66, 66608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Johnson, M. Ibanescu, M. A. Skorobogatiy, O. Weisberg, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, Phys. Rev. E 65, 66611 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

Aksyuk, V.

K. Srinivasan, H. Miao, M. T. Rakher, M. Davanço, and V. Aksyuk, Nano Lett. 11, 791 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Barclay, P. E.

M. H. Wu, A. C. Hryciw, and P. E. Barclay are preparing a manuscript to be called “Torque optomechanics in photonic crystal nanocavities.”

Bermel, P.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, Comput. Phys. Commun. 181, 687 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bienstman, P.

S. G. Johnson, P. Bienstman, M. A. Skorobogatiy, M. Ibanescu, E. Lidorikis, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. E 66, 66608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Blasius, T. D.

A. G. Krause, M. Winger, T. D. Blasius, Q. Lin, and O. Painter, Nat. Photonics 6, 768 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bulu, I.

P. B. Deotare, I. Bulu, I. W. Frank, Q. Quan, Y. Zhang, R. Ilic, and M. Loncar, Nat. Commun. 3, 846 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Burgess, J. A. J.

J. P. Davis, D. Vick, D. C. Fortin, J. A. J. Burgess, W. K. Hiebert, and M. R. Freeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 72513 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Camacho, R.

M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, J. Chan, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, Nature 459, 550 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Camacho, R. M.

M. Eichenfield, J. Chan, R. M. Camacho, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, Nature 462, 78 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chan, J.

M. Eichenfield, J. Chan, R. M. Camacho, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, Nature 462, 78 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, J. Chan, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, Nature 459, 550 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Davanço, M.

K. Srinivasan, H. Miao, M. T. Rakher, M. Davanço, and V. Aksyuk, Nano Lett. 11, 791 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Davis, J. P.

J. P. Davis, D. Vick, D. C. Fortin, J. A. J. Burgess, W. K. Hiebert, and M. R. Freeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 72513 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Deotare, P.

Q. Quan, P. Deotare, and M. Lončar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 203102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Deotare, P. B.

P. B. Deotare, I. Bulu, I. W. Frank, Q. Quan, Y. Zhang, R. Ilic, and M. Loncar, Nat. Commun. 3, 846 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Eichenfield, M.

M. Eichenfield, J. Chan, R. M. Camacho, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, Nature 462, 78 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, J. Chan, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, Nature 459, 550 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fink, Y.

S. G. Johnson, M. Ibanescu, M. A. Skorobogatiy, O. Weisberg, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, Phys. Rev. E 65, 66611 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fortin, D. C.

J. P. Davis, D. Vick, D. C. Fortin, J. A. J. Burgess, W. K. Hiebert, and M. R. Freeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 72513 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Frank, I. W.

P. B. Deotare, I. Bulu, I. W. Frank, Q. Quan, Y. Zhang, R. Ilic, and M. Loncar, Nat. Commun. 3, 846 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, M. R.

J. P. Davis, D. Vick, D. C. Fortin, J. A. J. Burgess, W. K. Hiebert, and M. R. Freeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 72513 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gavartin, E.

E. Gavartin, P. Verlot, and T. Kippenberg, Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 509 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hiebert, W. K.

J. P. Davis, D. Vick, D. C. Fortin, J. A. J. Burgess, W. K. Hiebert, and M. R. Freeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 72513 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hryciw, A. C.

M. H. Wu, A. C. Hryciw, and P. E. Barclay are preparing a manuscript to be called “Torque optomechanics in photonic crystal nanocavities.”

Ibanescu, M.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, Comput. Phys. Commun. 181, 687 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Johnson, P. Bienstman, M. A. Skorobogatiy, M. Ibanescu, E. Lidorikis, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. E 66, 66608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Johnson, M. Ibanescu, M. A. Skorobogatiy, O. Weisberg, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, Phys. Rev. E 65, 66611 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ilic, R.

P. B. Deotare, I. Bulu, I. W. Frank, Q. Quan, Y. Zhang, R. Ilic, and M. Loncar, Nat. Commun. 3, 846 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J.

J. Joannopoulos, S. Johnson, J. Winn, and R. Meade, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton University, 2008).

Joannopoulos, J. D.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, Comput. Phys. Commun. 181, 687 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Johnson, P. Bienstman, M. A. Skorobogatiy, M. Ibanescu, E. Lidorikis, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. E 66, 66608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Johnson, M. Ibanescu, M. A. Skorobogatiy, O. Weisberg, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, Phys. Rev. E 65, 66611 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Johnson and J. D. Joannopoulos, Opt. Express 8, 173 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, S.

J. Joannopoulos, S. Johnson, J. Winn, and R. Meade, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton University, 2008).

Johnson, S. G.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, Comput. Phys. Commun. 181, 687 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Johnson, P. Bienstman, M. A. Skorobogatiy, M. Ibanescu, E. Lidorikis, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. E 66, 66608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Johnson, M. Ibanescu, M. A. Skorobogatiy, O. Weisberg, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, Phys. Rev. E 65, 66611 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Johnson and J. D. Joannopoulos, Opt. Express 8, 173 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kippenberg, T.

E. Gavartin, P. Verlot, and T. Kippenberg, Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 509 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Krause, A. G.

A. G. Krause, M. Winger, T. D. Blasius, Q. Lin, and O. Painter, Nat. Photonics 6, 768 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kuramochi, E.

Li, M.

M. Li, W. Pernice, and H. Tang, Nat. Nanotechnol. 4, 377 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lidorikis, E.

S. G. Johnson, P. Bienstman, M. A. Skorobogatiy, M. Ibanescu, E. Lidorikis, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. E 66, 66608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Q.

A. G. Krause, M. Winger, T. D. Blasius, Q. Lin, and O. Painter, Nat. Photonics 6, 768 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Loncar, M.

P. B. Deotare, I. Bulu, I. W. Frank, Q. Quan, Y. Zhang, R. Ilic, and M. Loncar, Nat. Commun. 3, 846 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Q. Quan and M. Lončar, Opt. Express 19, 18529 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. Quan, P. Deotare, and M. Lončar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 203102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Meade, R.

J. Joannopoulos, S. Johnson, J. Winn, and R. Meade, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton University, 2008).

Miao, H.

K. Srinivasan, H. Miao, M. T. Rakher, M. Davanço, and V. Aksyuk, Nano Lett. 11, 791 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Notomi, M.

Oskooi, A. F.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, Comput. Phys. Commun. 181, 687 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Painter, O.

A. G. Krause, M. Winger, T. D. Blasius, Q. Lin, and O. Painter, Nat. Photonics 6, 768 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, J. Chan, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, Nature 459, 550 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Eichenfield, J. Chan, R. M. Camacho, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, Nature 462, 78 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pernice, W.

M. Li, W. Pernice, and H. Tang, Nat. Nanotechnol. 4, 377 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Quan, Q.

P. B. Deotare, I. Bulu, I. W. Frank, Q. Quan, Y. Zhang, R. Ilic, and M. Loncar, Nat. Commun. 3, 846 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Q. Quan and M. Lončar, Opt. Express 19, 18529 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. Quan, P. Deotare, and M. Lončar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 203102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rakher, M. T.

K. Srinivasan, H. Miao, M. T. Rakher, M. Davanço, and V. Aksyuk, Nano Lett. 11, 791 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Roundy, D.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, Comput. Phys. Commun. 181, 687 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Skorobogatiy, M. A.

S. G. Johnson, P. Bienstman, M. A. Skorobogatiy, M. Ibanescu, E. Lidorikis, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. E 66, 66608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Johnson, M. Ibanescu, M. A. Skorobogatiy, O. Weisberg, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, Phys. Rev. E 65, 66611 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Srinivasan, K.

K. Srinivasan, H. Miao, M. T. Rakher, M. Davanço, and V. Aksyuk, Nano Lett. 11, 791 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tang, H.

M. Li, W. Pernice, and H. Tang, Nat. Nanotechnol. 4, 377 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Taniyama, H.

Vahala, K. J.

M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, J. Chan, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, Nature 459, 550 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Eichenfield, J. Chan, R. M. Camacho, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, Nature 462, 78 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Verlot, P.

E. Gavartin, P. Verlot, and T. Kippenberg, Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 509 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Vick, D.

J. P. Davis, D. Vick, D. C. Fortin, J. A. J. Burgess, W. K. Hiebert, and M. R. Freeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 72513 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Weisberg, O.

S. G. Johnson, M. Ibanescu, M. A. Skorobogatiy, O. Weisberg, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, Phys. Rev. E 65, 66611 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Winger, M.

A. G. Krause, M. Winger, T. D. Blasius, Q. Lin, and O. Painter, Nat. Photonics 6, 768 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Winn, J.

J. Joannopoulos, S. Johnson, J. Winn, and R. Meade, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton University, 2008).

Wu, M. H.

M. H. Wu, A. C. Hryciw, and P. E. Barclay are preparing a manuscript to be called “Torque optomechanics in photonic crystal nanocavities.”

Zhang, Y.

P. B. Deotare, I. Bulu, I. W. Frank, Q. Quan, Y. Zhang, R. Ilic, and M. Loncar, Nat. Commun. 3, 846 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. P. Davis, D. Vick, D. C. Fortin, J. A. J. Burgess, W. K. Hiebert, and M. R. Freeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 72513 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. Quan, P. Deotare, and M. Lončar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 203102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Comput. Phys. Commun. (1)

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, Comput. Phys. Commun. 181, 687 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

K. Srinivasan, H. Miao, M. T. Rakher, M. Davanço, and V. Aksyuk, Nano Lett. 11, 791 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Commun. (1)

P. B. Deotare, I. Bulu, I. W. Frank, Q. Quan, Y. Zhang, R. Ilic, and M. Loncar, Nat. Commun. 3, 846 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (2)

E. Gavartin, P. Verlot, and T. Kippenberg, Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 509 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Li, W. Pernice, and H. Tang, Nat. Nanotechnol. 4, 377 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

A. G. Krause, M. Winger, T. D. Blasius, Q. Lin, and O. Painter, Nat. Photonics 6, 768 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, J. Chan, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, Nature 459, 550 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Eichenfield, J. Chan, R. M. Camacho, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, Nature 462, 78 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Phys. Rev. E (2)

S. G. Johnson, M. Ibanescu, M. A. Skorobogatiy, O. Weisberg, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, Phys. Rev. E 65, 66611 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Johnson, P. Bienstman, M. A. Skorobogatiy, M. Ibanescu, E. Lidorikis, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. E 66, 66608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

M. H. Wu, A. C. Hryciw, and P. E. Barclay are preparing a manuscript to be called “Torque optomechanics in photonic crystal nanocavities.”

J. Joannopoulos, S. Johnson, J. Winn, and R. Meade, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton University, 2008).

P. H. Kim, C. Doolin, B. D. Hauer, A. J. R. MacDonald, M. Freeman, P. E. Barclay, and J. P. Davis, “Nanoscale torsional optomechanics,” http://arxiv.org/abs/1210.1852 (2012).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Donor-mode PC nanobeam cavity with elliptical holes, (b) “split-beam” PC cavity with a central rectangular gap, and (c) “gap unit cell” band-edge frequencies and electric field profiles for TE-like (y-odd, z-even) modes versus nanobeam width.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Band structures of a “gap unit cell” and three elliptical hole unit cells with ω2ellipse=ω1gap. Unit cell geometries are shown in the inset (all units in nm), with t=220nm. Field profiles of the dielectric (lower) and air (upper) modes for the elliptical holes are shown next to their associated bands.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Mirror strength and design parameters for three split-beam cavities; a, t, and w and the three (Rxc,Ryc) values are as in Fig. 2. The half-cavity tapered ellipse shapes are shown by open circles. (b) Mode profiles (Ey, xy plane) of the three cavities in (a).

Equations (1)

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γ=[(ω2ω1ω2+ω1)2(ωresω0ω0)2]12,

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