Abstract

We report stereolithographic polymer-based fabrication and experimental operation of a microwave X-band cloaking device. The device is a relatively thin (about one wavelength thick) shell of an air-dielectric composite, in which the dielectric component has negligible loss and dispersion. In a finite band (9.7–10.1 GHz), the shell eliminates the shadow and strongly suppresses scattering from a conducting cylinder of six-wavelength diameter for TE-polarized free-space plane waves. The device does not require an immersion liquid or conducting ground planes for its operation. The dielectric constant of the polymer is low enough (ϵ=2.45) to suggest that this cloaking technique would be suitable for higher frequency radiation, including visible light.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  7. A. Alu and N. Engheta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 113901 (2008).
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    [CrossRef]
  9. B. Zhang, Y. Luo, X. Liu, and G. Barbastathis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 033901 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. A. Urzhumov and D. R. Smith, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 163901 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. A. Urzhumov and D. R. Smith, Opt. Lett. 37, 4471 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. T. A. Milligan, Modern Antenna Design, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 2005).
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    [CrossRef]

2012

N. Landy and D. R. Smith, Nat. Mater. 12, 25 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Andkær, N. A. Mortensen, and O. Sigmund, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 101106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. A. Urzhumov and D. R. Smith, Opt. Lett. 37, 4471 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

J. Andkær and O. Sigmund, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 021112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. A. Urzhumov, N. B. Kundtz, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, J. Opt. 13, 024002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, Y. Luo, J. Zhang, K. Jiang, J. B. Pendry, and S. Zhang, Nat. Commun. 2, 176 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Zhang, Y. Luo, X. Liu, and G. Barbastathis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 033901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

Y. A. Urzhumov and D. R. Smith, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 163901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

S. Tretyakov, P. Alitalo, O. Luukkonen, and C. Simovski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 103905 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

A. Alu and N. Engheta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 113901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, Nat. Photonics 1, 224 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, Science 314, 977 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, Science 312, 1780 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Justice, J. J. Mock, L. Guo, A. Degiron, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, Opt. Express 14, 8694 (2006).
[CrossRef]

1982

D. E. Aspnes, Am. J. Phys. 50, 704 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Alitalo, P.

S. Tretyakov, P. Alitalo, O. Luukkonen, and C. Simovski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 103905 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Alu, A.

A. Alu and N. Engheta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 113901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Andkær, J.

J. Andkær, N. A. Mortensen, and O. Sigmund, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 101106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Andkær and O. Sigmund, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 021112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Aspnes, D. E.

D. E. Aspnes, Am. J. Phys. 50, 704 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Barbastathis, G.

B. Zhang, Y. Luo, X. Liu, and G. Barbastathis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 033901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bendsøe, M. P.

M. P. Bendsøe and O. Sigmund, Topology Optimization: Theory, Methods and Applications (Springer, 2003).

Cai, W.

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, Nat. Photonics 1, 224 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

X. Chen, Y. Luo, J. Zhang, K. Jiang, J. B. Pendry, and S. Zhang, Nat. Commun. 2, 176 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chettiar, U. K.

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, Nat. Photonics 1, 224 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cummer, S. A.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, Science 314, 977 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Degiron, A.

Engheta, N.

A. Alu and N. Engheta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 113901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Guo, L.

Jiang, K.

X. Chen, Y. Luo, J. Zhang, K. Jiang, J. B. Pendry, and S. Zhang, Nat. Commun. 2, 176 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Justice, B.

Justice, B. J.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, Science 314, 977 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kildishev, A. V.

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, Nat. Photonics 1, 224 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kundtz, N. B.

Y. A. Urzhumov, N. B. Kundtz, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, J. Opt. 13, 024002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Landy, N.

N. Landy and D. R. Smith, Nat. Mater. 12, 25 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

B. Zhang, Y. Luo, X. Liu, and G. Barbastathis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 033901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Y.

B. Zhang, Y. Luo, X. Liu, and G. Barbastathis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 033901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, Y. Luo, J. Zhang, K. Jiang, J. B. Pendry, and S. Zhang, Nat. Commun. 2, 176 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Luukkonen, O.

S. Tretyakov, P. Alitalo, O. Luukkonen, and C. Simovski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 103905 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Milligan, T. A.

T. A. Milligan, Modern Antenna Design, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 2005).

Mock, J. J.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, Science 314, 977 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Justice, J. J. Mock, L. Guo, A. Degiron, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, Opt. Express 14, 8694 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mortensen, N. A.

J. Andkær, N. A. Mortensen, and O. Sigmund, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 101106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pendry, J.

J. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, Science 312, 1780 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pendry, J. B.

X. Chen, Y. Luo, J. Zhang, K. Jiang, J. B. Pendry, and S. Zhang, Nat. Commun. 2, 176 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. A. Urzhumov, N. B. Kundtz, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, J. Opt. 13, 024002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, Science 314, 977 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schurig, D.

J. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, Science 312, 1780 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, Science 314, 977 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Justice, J. J. Mock, L. Guo, A. Degiron, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, Opt. Express 14, 8694 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shalaev, V. M.

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, Nat. Photonics 1, 224 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sigmund, O.

J. Andkær, N. A. Mortensen, and O. Sigmund, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 101106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Andkær and O. Sigmund, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 021112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Bendsøe and O. Sigmund, Topology Optimization: Theory, Methods and Applications (Springer, 2003).

Simovski, C.

S. Tretyakov, P. Alitalo, O. Luukkonen, and C. Simovski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 103905 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

N. Landy and D. R. Smith, Nat. Mater. 12, 25 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. A. Urzhumov and D. R. Smith, Opt. Lett. 37, 4471 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. A. Urzhumov, N. B. Kundtz, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, J. Opt. 13, 024002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. A. Urzhumov and D. R. Smith, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 163901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Justice, J. J. Mock, L. Guo, A. Degiron, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, Opt. Express 14, 8694 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, Science 312, 1780 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, Science 314, 977 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Starr, A. F.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, Science 314, 977 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tretyakov, S.

S. Tretyakov, P. Alitalo, O. Luukkonen, and C. Simovski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 103905 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Urzhumov, Y. A.

Y. A. Urzhumov and D. R. Smith, Opt. Lett. 37, 4471 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. A. Urzhumov, N. B. Kundtz, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, J. Opt. 13, 024002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. A. Urzhumov and D. R. Smith, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 163901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, B.

B. Zhang, Y. Luo, X. Liu, and G. Barbastathis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 033901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

X. Chen, Y. Luo, J. Zhang, K. Jiang, J. B. Pendry, and S. Zhang, Nat. Commun. 2, 176 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.

X. Chen, Y. Luo, J. Zhang, K. Jiang, J. B. Pendry, and S. Zhang, Nat. Commun. 2, 176 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Phys.

D. E. Aspnes, Am. J. Phys. 50, 704 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. Andkær, N. A. Mortensen, and O. Sigmund, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 101106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Andkær and O. Sigmund, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 021112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt.

Y. A. Urzhumov, N. B. Kundtz, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, J. Opt. 13, 024002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Commun.

X. Chen, Y. Luo, J. Zhang, K. Jiang, J. B. Pendry, and S. Zhang, Nat. Commun. 2, 176 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater.

N. Landy and D. R. Smith, Nat. Mater. 12, 25 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, Nat. Photonics 1, 224 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

A. Alu and N. Engheta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 113901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Zhang, Y. Luo, X. Liu, and G. Barbastathis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 033901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. A. Urzhumov and D. R. Smith, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 163901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Tretyakov, P. Alitalo, O. Luukkonen, and C. Simovski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 103905 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Science

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, Science 314, 977 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, Science 312, 1780 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other

T. A. Milligan, Modern Antenna Design, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 2005).

M. P. Bendsøe and O. Sigmund, Topology Optimization: Theory, Methods and Applications (Springer, 2003).

COMSOL AB, COMSOL Multiphysics User’s Guide, Version 4.2a (Burlington, 2011).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Photograph of the fabricated dielectric cloak; outer diameter 198 mm, inner diameter 138 mm. Aluminum foil annulus and an absorbing disk matching the inner diameter of the cloak are inserted for measurements. (b) ABS characterization: phase advance versus frequency in the X-band for a planar material slab of 120 mm thickness.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Single-dielectric multidirectional cloak simulated at 10 GHz frequency, with a plane wave incident along the symmetry plane. (b) Near-field scattering cross section (SCS) versus incidence angle.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Electric field maps at several frequencies (GHz): (a) 9.7, (b) 9.9, (c) 10.0, and (d) 10.1. Second row: simulation results at the corresponding frequencies.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Field intensity distributions around the cloaked cylinder measured at 9.9 GHz: (a) linear scale and (b) logarithmic intensity scale. Second row: field intensity (linear scale) for an uncloaked PEC cylinder of the same diameter, and a PEC cylinder cloaked with a homogeneous dielectric coating of the same thickness as the cloak (simulations).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Spatially-averaged scattered field in the Fresnel zone (experiment and simulation) versus frequency. For comparison, dotted and dash-dotted curves show the same figure of visibility for a bare PEC cylinder and a PEC cylinder coated with solid ABS of same thickness as the cloak. (b) Far field of the cloaked system at different frequencies in the 9.7–10.3 GHz range versus polar angle (ϕ=90° corresponds to the y axis and the incidence direction).

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