Abstract

By using 0.25 μm high-voltage CMOS technology, we have designed and fabricated a structure of single-photon detectors. The new single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) has (to our knowledge) the lowest dark count rate per unit area at room temperature without any technology customization. Our design is promising for realizing low-cost and high-performance SPAD arrays for imaging applications.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. D. Eisaman, J. Fan, A. Migdall, and S. V. Polyyakov, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 071101 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. H. Hadfield, Nat. Photonics 3, 696 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. T. Yen, S. D. Lin, and C. M. Tsai, J. Appl. Phys. 104, 054504 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. E. Schwartz, E. Charbon, and K. L. Shepard, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43, 2546 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. U. Li, J. Arlt, J. Richardson, R. Walker, A. Buts, D. Stoppa, E. Charbon, and R. Henderson, Opt. Express 18, 10257 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. Niclass, C. Favi, T. Kluter, M. Gersbach, and E. Charbon, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43, 2977 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. Niclass, C. Favi, T. Kluter, F. Monnier, and E. Charbon, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 44, 1977 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Cova, M. Ghioni, A. Lacaita, C. Samori, and F. Zappa, Appl. Opt. 35, 1956 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Finkelstein, M. J. Hsu, and S. C. Esener, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 27, 887 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. A. Richardson, E. A. G. Webster, L. A. Grant, and R. K. Henderson, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 58, 2028(2011).
    [CrossRef]
  11. “TCAD,” Synopsys, http://www.synopsys.com/Tools/TCAD/Pages/default.aspx .
  12. L. Pancheri and D. Stoppa, in Proceedings of the European Solid-State Device Research Conference (ESSDERC) (IEEE, 2011), p. 179.
  13. Z. Xiao, D. Pantic, and R. S. Popovic, in Solid-State Sensors, Actuator and Microsystems Conference (IEEE, 2007), p. 1365.
  14. E. A. G. Webster, J. A. Richardson, L. A. Grant, D. Renshaw, and R. Henderson, IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 33, 694 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. M. Sze and K. K. Ng, Physics of Semicondcutor Devices, 3rd ed. (John Wiley & Sons, 2007), p. 103.
  16. M. A. Marwick and A. G. Andreou, Electron. Lett. 44, 643 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. Mandai, M. Fishburn, Y. Maruyama, and E. Charbon, Opt. Express 20, 5849 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. Tisa, F. Zappa, and I. Labanca, in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting, Technical Digest (IEEE, 2005), p. 815.
  19. R. M. Field, J. Lary, J. Cohn, L. Paninski, and K. L. Shepard, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211111 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (2)

E. A. G. Webster, J. A. Richardson, L. A. Grant, D. Renshaw, and R. Henderson, IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 33, 694 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Mandai, M. Fishburn, Y. Maruyama, and E. Charbon, Opt. Express 20, 5849 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

J. A. Richardson, E. A. G. Webster, L. A. Grant, and R. K. Henderson, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 58, 2028(2011).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Eisaman, J. Fan, A. Migdall, and S. V. Polyyakov, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 071101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

D. U. Li, J. Arlt, J. Richardson, R. Walker, A. Buts, D. Stoppa, E. Charbon, and R. Henderson, Opt. Express 18, 10257 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Field, J. Lary, J. Cohn, L. Paninski, and K. L. Shepard, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

R. H. Hadfield, Nat. Photonics 3, 696 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Niclass, C. Favi, T. Kluter, F. Monnier, and E. Charbon, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 44, 1977 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

M. A. Marwick and A. G. Andreou, Electron. Lett. 44, 643 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Niclass, C. Favi, T. Kluter, M. Gersbach, and E. Charbon, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43, 2977 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Yen, S. D. Lin, and C. M. Tsai, J. Appl. Phys. 104, 054504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Schwartz, E. Charbon, and K. L. Shepard, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43, 2546 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

H. Finkelstein, M. J. Hsu, and S. C. Esener, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 27, 887 (2006).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

Andreou, A. G.

M. A. Marwick and A. G. Andreou, Electron. Lett. 44, 643 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Arlt, J.

Buts, A.

Charbon, E.

S. Mandai, M. Fishburn, Y. Maruyama, and E. Charbon, Opt. Express 20, 5849 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. U. Li, J. Arlt, J. Richardson, R. Walker, A. Buts, D. Stoppa, E. Charbon, and R. Henderson, Opt. Express 18, 10257 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Niclass, C. Favi, T. Kluter, F. Monnier, and E. Charbon, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 44, 1977 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Niclass, C. Favi, T. Kluter, M. Gersbach, and E. Charbon, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43, 2977 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Schwartz, E. Charbon, and K. L. Shepard, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43, 2546 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cohn, J.

R. M. Field, J. Lary, J. Cohn, L. Paninski, and K. L. Shepard, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cova, S.

Eisaman, M. D.

M. D. Eisaman, J. Fan, A. Migdall, and S. V. Polyyakov, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 071101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Esener, S. C.

H. Finkelstein, M. J. Hsu, and S. C. Esener, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 27, 887 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fan, J.

M. D. Eisaman, J. Fan, A. Migdall, and S. V. Polyyakov, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 071101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Favi, C.

C. Niclass, C. Favi, T. Kluter, F. Monnier, and E. Charbon, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 44, 1977 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Niclass, C. Favi, T. Kluter, M. Gersbach, and E. Charbon, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43, 2977 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Field, R. M.

R. M. Field, J. Lary, J. Cohn, L. Paninski, and K. L. Shepard, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Finkelstein, H.

H. Finkelstein, M. J. Hsu, and S. C. Esener, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 27, 887 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fishburn, M.

Gersbach, M.

C. Niclass, C. Favi, T. Kluter, M. Gersbach, and E. Charbon, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43, 2977 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ghioni, M.

Grant, L. A.

E. A. G. Webster, J. A. Richardson, L. A. Grant, D. Renshaw, and R. Henderson, IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 33, 694 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Richardson, E. A. G. Webster, L. A. Grant, and R. K. Henderson, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 58, 2028(2011).
[CrossRef]

Hadfield, R. H.

R. H. Hadfield, Nat. Photonics 3, 696 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Henderson, R.

E. A. G. Webster, J. A. Richardson, L. A. Grant, D. Renshaw, and R. Henderson, IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 33, 694 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. U. Li, J. Arlt, J. Richardson, R. Walker, A. Buts, D. Stoppa, E. Charbon, and R. Henderson, Opt. Express 18, 10257 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Henderson, R. K.

J. A. Richardson, E. A. G. Webster, L. A. Grant, and R. K. Henderson, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 58, 2028(2011).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, M. J.

H. Finkelstein, M. J. Hsu, and S. C. Esener, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 27, 887 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kluter, T.

C. Niclass, C. Favi, T. Kluter, F. Monnier, and E. Charbon, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 44, 1977 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Niclass, C. Favi, T. Kluter, M. Gersbach, and E. Charbon, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43, 2977 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Labanca, I.

S. Tisa, F. Zappa, and I. Labanca, in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting, Technical Digest (IEEE, 2005), p. 815.

Lacaita, A.

Lary, J.

R. M. Field, J. Lary, J. Cohn, L. Paninski, and K. L. Shepard, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, D. U.

Lin, S. D.

H. T. Yen, S. D. Lin, and C. M. Tsai, J. Appl. Phys. 104, 054504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mandai, S.

Maruyama, Y.

Marwick, M. A.

M. A. Marwick and A. G. Andreou, Electron. Lett. 44, 643 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Migdall, A.

M. D. Eisaman, J. Fan, A. Migdall, and S. V. Polyyakov, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 071101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Monnier, F.

C. Niclass, C. Favi, T. Kluter, F. Monnier, and E. Charbon, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 44, 1977 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ng, K. K.

S. M. Sze and K. K. Ng, Physics of Semicondcutor Devices, 3rd ed. (John Wiley & Sons, 2007), p. 103.

Niclass, C.

C. Niclass, C. Favi, T. Kluter, F. Monnier, and E. Charbon, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 44, 1977 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Niclass, C. Favi, T. Kluter, M. Gersbach, and E. Charbon, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43, 2977 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pancheri, L.

L. Pancheri and D. Stoppa, in Proceedings of the European Solid-State Device Research Conference (ESSDERC) (IEEE, 2011), p. 179.

Paninski, L.

R. M. Field, J. Lary, J. Cohn, L. Paninski, and K. L. Shepard, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pantic, D.

Z. Xiao, D. Pantic, and R. S. Popovic, in Solid-State Sensors, Actuator and Microsystems Conference (IEEE, 2007), p. 1365.

Polyyakov, S. V.

M. D. Eisaman, J. Fan, A. Migdall, and S. V. Polyyakov, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 071101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Popovic, R. S.

Z. Xiao, D. Pantic, and R. S. Popovic, in Solid-State Sensors, Actuator and Microsystems Conference (IEEE, 2007), p. 1365.

Renshaw, D.

E. A. G. Webster, J. A. Richardson, L. A. Grant, D. Renshaw, and R. Henderson, IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 33, 694 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, J.

Richardson, J. A.

E. A. G. Webster, J. A. Richardson, L. A. Grant, D. Renshaw, and R. Henderson, IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 33, 694 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Richardson, E. A. G. Webster, L. A. Grant, and R. K. Henderson, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 58, 2028(2011).
[CrossRef]

Samori, C.

Schwartz, D. E.

D. E. Schwartz, E. Charbon, and K. L. Shepard, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43, 2546 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shepard, K. L.

R. M. Field, J. Lary, J. Cohn, L. Paninski, and K. L. Shepard, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Schwartz, E. Charbon, and K. L. Shepard, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43, 2546 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stoppa, D.

D. U. Li, J. Arlt, J. Richardson, R. Walker, A. Buts, D. Stoppa, E. Charbon, and R. Henderson, Opt. Express 18, 10257 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Pancheri and D. Stoppa, in Proceedings of the European Solid-State Device Research Conference (ESSDERC) (IEEE, 2011), p. 179.

Sze, S. M.

S. M. Sze and K. K. Ng, Physics of Semicondcutor Devices, 3rd ed. (John Wiley & Sons, 2007), p. 103.

Tisa, S.

S. Tisa, F. Zappa, and I. Labanca, in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting, Technical Digest (IEEE, 2005), p. 815.

Tsai, C. M.

H. T. Yen, S. D. Lin, and C. M. Tsai, J. Appl. Phys. 104, 054504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Walker, R.

Webster, E. A. G.

E. A. G. Webster, J. A. Richardson, L. A. Grant, D. Renshaw, and R. Henderson, IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 33, 694 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Richardson, E. A. G. Webster, L. A. Grant, and R. K. Henderson, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 58, 2028(2011).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, Z.

Z. Xiao, D. Pantic, and R. S. Popovic, in Solid-State Sensors, Actuator and Microsystems Conference (IEEE, 2007), p. 1365.

Yen, H. T.

H. T. Yen, S. D. Lin, and C. M. Tsai, J. Appl. Phys. 104, 054504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zappa, F.

S. Cova, M. Ghioni, A. Lacaita, C. Samori, and F. Zappa, Appl. Opt. 35, 1956 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Tisa, F. Zappa, and I. Labanca, in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting, Technical Digest (IEEE, 2005), p. 815.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. M. Field, J. Lary, J. Cohn, L. Paninski, and K. L. Shepard, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

M. A. Marwick and A. G. Andreou, Electron. Lett. 44, 643 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (1)

H. Finkelstein, M. J. Hsu, and S. C. Esener, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 27, 887 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron. Device Lett. (1)

E. A. G. Webster, J. A. Richardson, L. A. Grant, D. Renshaw, and R. Henderson, IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 33, 694 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (3)

D. E. Schwartz, E. Charbon, and K. L. Shepard, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43, 2546 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Niclass, C. Favi, T. Kluter, M. Gersbach, and E. Charbon, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43, 2977 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Niclass, C. Favi, T. Kluter, F. Monnier, and E. Charbon, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 44, 1977 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (1)

J. A. Richardson, E. A. G. Webster, L. A. Grant, and R. K. Henderson, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 58, 2028(2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. T. Yen, S. D. Lin, and C. M. Tsai, J. Appl. Phys. 104, 054504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

R. H. Hadfield, Nat. Photonics 3, 696 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

M. D. Eisaman, J. Fan, A. Migdall, and S. V. Polyyakov, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 071101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

S. M. Sze and K. K. Ng, Physics of Semicondcutor Devices, 3rd ed. (John Wiley & Sons, 2007), p. 103.

“TCAD,” Synopsys, http://www.synopsys.com/Tools/TCAD/Pages/default.aspx .

L. Pancheri and D. Stoppa, in Proceedings of the European Solid-State Device Research Conference (ESSDERC) (IEEE, 2011), p. 179.

Z. Xiao, D. Pantic, and R. S. Popovic, in Solid-State Sensors, Actuator and Microsystems Conference (IEEE, 2007), p. 1365.

S. Tisa, F. Zappa, and I. Labanca, in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting, Technical Digest (IEEE, 2005), p. 815.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic structure of (a) device A, (b) device B and the spatial distribution of impact ionization rates of (c) device A, and (d) device B at the bias voltage of 0.9VBD.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Measured DCRs of device A with diameters of 10 μm (triangle symbol) and 20 μm (circle symbol) and of device B (20 μm, square symbol) against normalized excess bias voltages. Seven chips are measured.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured PDEs of (a) device A and (b) device B against wavelength under various excess bias voltages.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Performance Summary and Comparison

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