Abstract

Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM), whose spatial resolution and maximum imaging depth are both scalable, has made great progress in recent years. However, each PAM system currently achieves only one resolution with an associated maximum imaging depth. Here, we present an integrated optical-resolution (OR) and acoustic-resolution (AR) PAM system implemented by delivering light via an optical fiber bundle. A single fiber core is used to deliver light for OR illumination in order to achieve a small spot size and hence high lateral resolution, whereas all the fiber cores are used to deliver more energy for AR illumination. Most other components are shared by the OR and AR imaging. The lateral resolution can be seamlessly switched between 2.2 and 40 μm as the maximum imaging depth is switched between 1.3 and 3.0 mm. The system enables automatically coregistered higher-resolution OR and deeper AR photoacoustic imaging.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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L. D. Liao, C. T. Lin, Y. Y. I. Shih, T. Q. Duong, H. Y. Lai, P. H. Wang, R. Wu, S. Tsang, J. Y. Chang, and M. L. Li, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 32, 938 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. V. Wang and S. Hu, Science 335, 1458 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

P. Beard, Interface Focus 1, 602 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Favazza, S. Hu, V. Huang, O. Jassim, L. A. Cornelius, and L. V. Wang, Proc. SPIE 7899, 789946 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Cai, B. S. Paratala, S. Hu, B. Sitharaman, and L. V. Wang, Tissue Eng. Part C Methods 18, 310 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, K. Maslov, J. Yao, B. Rao, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 36, 139 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Hu, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 36, 1134 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Hajireza, W. Shi, and R. J. Zemp, Opt. Lett. 36, 4107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

G. Ku, K. Maslov, L. Li, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 021302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2008

2006

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 24, 848 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2000

I. M. Braverman, J. Investig. Dermatol. Symp. Proc. 5, 3–9 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Beard, P.

P. Beard, Interface Focus 1, 602 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Braverman, I. M.

I. M. Braverman, J. Investig. Dermatol. Symp. Proc. 5, 3–9 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cai, X.

X. Cai, B. S. Paratala, S. Hu, B. Sitharaman, and L. V. Wang, Tissue Eng. Part C Methods 18, 310 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chang, J. Y.

L. D. Liao, C. T. Lin, Y. Y. I. Shih, T. Q. Duong, H. Y. Lai, P. H. Wang, R. Wu, S. Tsang, J. Y. Chang, and M. L. Li, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 32, 938 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Choi, E. S.

Choi, H. Y.

Cornelius, L. A.

C. P. Favazza, S. Hu, V. Huang, O. Jassim, L. A. Cornelius, and L. V. Wang, Proc. SPIE 7899, 789946 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Duong, T. Q.

L. D. Liao, C. T. Lin, Y. Y. I. Shih, T. Q. Duong, H. Y. Lai, P. H. Wang, R. Wu, S. Tsang, J. Y. Chang, and M. L. Li, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 32, 938 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Favazza, C. P.

C. P. Favazza, S. Hu, V. Huang, O. Jassim, L. A. Cornelius, and L. V. Wang, Proc. SPIE 7899, 789946 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hajireza, P.

Hu, S.

L. V. Wang and S. Hu, Science 335, 1458 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Favazza, S. Hu, V. Huang, O. Jassim, L. A. Cornelius, and L. V. Wang, Proc. SPIE 7899, 789946 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Cai, B. S. Paratala, S. Hu, B. Sitharaman, and L. V. Wang, Tissue Eng. Part C Methods 18, 310 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Hu, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 36, 1134 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 33, 929 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, V.

C. P. Favazza, S. Hu, V. Huang, O. Jassim, L. A. Cornelius, and L. V. Wang, Proc. SPIE 7899, 789946 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jassim, O.

C. P. Favazza, S. Hu, V. Huang, O. Jassim, L. A. Cornelius, and L. V. Wang, Proc. SPIE 7899, 789946 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jiao, S.

Ku, G.

G. Ku, K. Maslov, L. Li, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 021302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lai, H. Y.

L. D. Liao, C. T. Lin, Y. Y. I. Shih, T. Q. Duong, H. Y. Lai, P. H. Wang, R. Wu, S. Tsang, J. Y. Chang, and M. L. Li, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 32, 938 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. H.

Li, L.

G. Ku, K. Maslov, L. Li, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 021302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, M. L.

L. D. Liao, C. T. Lin, Y. Y. I. Shih, T. Q. Duong, H. Y. Lai, P. H. Wang, R. Wu, S. Tsang, J. Y. Chang, and M. L. Li, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 32, 938 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liao, L. D.

L. D. Liao, C. T. Lin, Y. Y. I. Shih, T. Q. Duong, H. Y. Lai, P. H. Wang, R. Wu, S. Tsang, J. Y. Chang, and M. L. Li, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 32, 938 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. T.

L. D. Liao, C. T. Lin, Y. Y. I. Shih, T. Q. Duong, H. Y. Lai, P. H. Wang, R. Wu, S. Tsang, J. Y. Chang, and M. L. Li, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 32, 938 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Maslov, K.

Na, J.

Paratala, B. S.

X. Cai, B. S. Paratala, S. Hu, B. Sitharaman, and L. V. Wang, Tissue Eng. Part C Methods 18, 310 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Puliafito, C. A.

Rao, B.

Ryu, S. Y.

Shi, W.

Shih, Y. Y. I.

L. D. Liao, C. T. Lin, Y. Y. I. Shih, T. Q. Duong, H. Y. Lai, P. H. Wang, R. Wu, S. Tsang, J. Y. Chang, and M. L. Li, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 32, 938 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sitharaman, B.

X. Cai, B. S. Paratala, S. Hu, B. Sitharaman, and L. V. Wang, Tissue Eng. Part C Methods 18, 310 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Stoica, G.

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 24, 848 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, S.

L. D. Liao, C. T. Lin, Y. Y. I. Shih, T. Q. Duong, H. Y. Lai, P. H. Wang, R. Wu, S. Tsang, J. Y. Chang, and M. L. Li, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 32, 938 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

Wang, L. V.

L. V. Wang and S. Hu, Science 335, 1458 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Favazza, S. Hu, V. Huang, O. Jassim, L. A. Cornelius, and L. V. Wang, Proc. SPIE 7899, 789946 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, K. Maslov, J. Yao, B. Rao, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 36, 139 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Cai, B. S. Paratala, S. Hu, B. Sitharaman, and L. V. Wang, Tissue Eng. Part C Methods 18, 310 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Hu, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 36, 1134 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Ku, K. Maslov, L. Li, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 021302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 33, 929 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 24, 848 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P. H.

L. D. Liao, C. T. Lin, Y. Y. I. Shih, T. Q. Duong, H. Y. Lai, P. H. Wang, R. Wu, S. Tsang, J. Y. Chang, and M. L. Li, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 32, 938 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wu, R.

L. D. Liao, C. T. Lin, Y. Y. I. Shih, T. Q. Duong, H. Y. Lai, P. H. Wang, R. Wu, S. Tsang, J. Y. Chang, and M. L. Li, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 32, 938 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xie, Z.

Yao, J.

Zemp, R. J.

Zhang, H. F.

Interface Focus

P. Beard, Interface Focus 1, 602 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

G. Ku, K. Maslov, L. Li, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 021302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab.

L. D. Liao, C. T. Lin, Y. Y. I. Shih, T. Q. Duong, H. Y. Lai, P. H. Wang, R. Wu, S. Tsang, J. Y. Chang, and M. L. Li, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 32, 938 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Investig. Dermatol. Symp. Proc.

I. M. Braverman, J. Investig. Dermatol. Symp. Proc. 5, 3–9 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Biotechnol.

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 24, 848 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

C. P. Favazza, S. Hu, V. Huang, O. Jassim, L. A. Cornelius, and L. V. Wang, Proc. SPIE 7899, 789946 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Science

L. V. Wang and S. Hu, Science 335, 1458 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tissue Eng. Part C Methods

X. Cai, B. S. Paratala, S. Hu, B. Sitharaman, and L. V. Wang, Tissue Eng. Part C Methods 18, 310 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other

Laser Institute of America, American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers ANSI Z136.1-2007 (American National Standards Institute, 2007).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the integrated AR and OR PAM system. The interior of the fiber coupler is zoomed in the dashed box. AL, acoustic lens; DAQ, data acquisition card; FB, fiber bundle; FC, fiber coupler; M1 and M2, mirrors; MS, motor stage; OL1, OL2, and OL3, optical lens; P, prism; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; PH, pinhole; UT, ultrasound transducer; WT, water tank.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

System performance test of the integrated OR/AR-PAM system. (a) OR-PAM image of a resolution test target and (b) its close-up. (c) Lateral LSF of the AR-PAM. (d) Axial LSF (red solid curve) and its envelope (blue dashed curve). (e) CNR versus shift. (f) In vivo OR- and (g) AR-PAM images of a black needle and blood vessels (marked by arrows) in a mouse leg. CNR, contrast-to-noise ratio; NPA, normalized photoacoustic amplitude.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Image of a mouse ear. (a) Large region of the mouse ear imaged by AR-PAM. (b) Region of interest imaged by OR-PAM. (c) Close-up image showing single RBCs.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Combined PAM images of mouse back. (a) Photograph of the mouse. The region of interest is highlighted in the dashed box. (b) OR-PAM image of skin. (c) AR-PAM image. (d) Overlaid PAM image (see Media 1). OR-NPA, normalized photoacoustic amplitude in OR image; AR-NPA, normalized photoacoustic amplitude in AR image.

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