Abstract

A versatile dual-band detector capable of active and passive use is demonstrated using short-wave (SW) and mid-wave (MW) IR type-II superlattice photodiodes. A bilayer etch-stop scheme is introduced for back-side-illuminated detectors, which enhanced the external quantum efficiency both in the SWIR and MWIR spectral regions. Temperature-dependent dark current measurements of pixel-sized 27 μm detectors found the dark current density to be ~1 × 10-5 A/cm2 for the 4.2μm cutoff MWIR channel at 140 K. This corresponded to a reasonable imager noise equivalent difference in temperature of 49mK using F/2.3 optics and a 10 ms integration time (tint), which lowered to 13mK at 110 K using tint=30ms, illustrating the potential for high-temperature operation. The SWIR channel was found to be limited by readout noise below 150 K. Excellent imagery from the dual-band imager exemplifying pixel coincidence is shown.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Razeghi, “Focal plane arrays in type-II superlattices,” U.S. patent 6,864,552 (March82005).
  2. H. Mohseni, V. I. Litvinov, and M. Razeghi, Phys. Rev. B 58, 15378 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  3. B. M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, E. K. Huang, P. Y. Delaunay, and M. Razeghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 123502 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  4. D. Z.-Y. Ting, C. J. Hill, A. Soibel, S. A. Keo, J. M. Mumolo, J. Nguyen, and S. D. Gunapala, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 023508 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  5. R. Rehm, M. Walther, J. Schmitz, F. Rutz, A. Wörl, R. Scheibner, and J. Ziegler, Proc. SPIE 7660, 76601G(2010).
    [Crossref]
  6. E. K. Huang, A. Haddadi, G. Chen, B. Nguyen, M. Hoang, R. McClintock, M. Stegall, and M. Razeghi, Opt. Lett. 36, 2560 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  7. E. K. Huang, M. Hoang, G. Chen, S. R. Darvish, A. Haddadi, and M. Razeghi, Opt. Lett. 37, 4744 (2012).
  8. S. A. Pour, E. K. Huang, G. Chen, A. Haddadi, B. M. Nguyen, and M. Razeghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 143501 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  9. A. M. Hoang, G. Chen, A. Haddadi, S. A. Pour, and M. Razeghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 211101 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  10. B. M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, P. Y. Delaunay, M. Razeghi, and V. Nathan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 103503 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  11. B. Simolon, N. Aziz, R. Hansen, E. Kurth, S. Lam, S. Petronio, and J. Woolaway, Infrared Phys. Technol. 54, 306 (2011).
    [Crossref]

2012 (2)

E. K. Huang, M. Hoang, G. Chen, S. R. Darvish, A. Haddadi, and M. Razeghi, Opt. Lett. 37, 4744 (2012).

A. M. Hoang, G. Chen, A. Haddadi, S. A. Pour, and M. Razeghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 211101 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

S. A. Pour, E. K. Huang, G. Chen, A. Haddadi, B. M. Nguyen, and M. Razeghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 143501 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. K. Huang, A. Haddadi, G. Chen, B. Nguyen, M. Hoang, R. McClintock, M. Stegall, and M. Razeghi, Opt. Lett. 36, 2560 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. Simolon, N. Aziz, R. Hansen, E. Kurth, S. Lam, S. Petronio, and J. Woolaway, Infrared Phys. Technol. 54, 306 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

R. Rehm, M. Walther, J. Schmitz, F. Rutz, A. Wörl, R. Scheibner, and J. Ziegler, Proc. SPIE 7660, 76601G(2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

D. Z.-Y. Ting, C. J. Hill, A. Soibel, S. A. Keo, J. M. Mumolo, J. Nguyen, and S. D. Gunapala, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 023508 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

B. M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, E. K. Huang, P. Y. Delaunay, and M. Razeghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 123502 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

B. M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, P. Y. Delaunay, M. Razeghi, and V. Nathan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 103503 (2007).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

H. Mohseni, V. I. Litvinov, and M. Razeghi, Phys. Rev. B 58, 15378 (1998).
[Crossref]

Aziz, N.

B. Simolon, N. Aziz, R. Hansen, E. Kurth, S. Lam, S. Petronio, and J. Woolaway, Infrared Phys. Technol. 54, 306 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, G.

E. K. Huang, M. Hoang, G. Chen, S. R. Darvish, A. Haddadi, and M. Razeghi, Opt. Lett. 37, 4744 (2012).

A. M. Hoang, G. Chen, A. Haddadi, S. A. Pour, and M. Razeghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 211101 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. A. Pour, E. K. Huang, G. Chen, A. Haddadi, B. M. Nguyen, and M. Razeghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 143501 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. K. Huang, A. Haddadi, G. Chen, B. Nguyen, M. Hoang, R. McClintock, M. Stegall, and M. Razeghi, Opt. Lett. 36, 2560 (2011).
[Crossref]

Darvish, S. R.

Delaunay, P. Y.

B. M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, E. K. Huang, P. Y. Delaunay, and M. Razeghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 123502 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, P. Y. Delaunay, M. Razeghi, and V. Nathan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 103503 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gunapala, S. D.

D. Z.-Y. Ting, C. J. Hill, A. Soibel, S. A. Keo, J. M. Mumolo, J. Nguyen, and S. D. Gunapala, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 023508 (2009).
[Crossref]

Haddadi, A.

A. M. Hoang, G. Chen, A. Haddadi, S. A. Pour, and M. Razeghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 211101 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. K. Huang, M. Hoang, G. Chen, S. R. Darvish, A. Haddadi, and M. Razeghi, Opt. Lett. 37, 4744 (2012).

E. K. Huang, A. Haddadi, G. Chen, B. Nguyen, M. Hoang, R. McClintock, M. Stegall, and M. Razeghi, Opt. Lett. 36, 2560 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. A. Pour, E. K. Huang, G. Chen, A. Haddadi, B. M. Nguyen, and M. Razeghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 143501 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hansen, R.

B. Simolon, N. Aziz, R. Hansen, E. Kurth, S. Lam, S. Petronio, and J. Woolaway, Infrared Phys. Technol. 54, 306 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hill, C. J.

D. Z.-Y. Ting, C. J. Hill, A. Soibel, S. A. Keo, J. M. Mumolo, J. Nguyen, and S. D. Gunapala, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 023508 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hoang, A. M.

A. M. Hoang, G. Chen, A. Haddadi, S. A. Pour, and M. Razeghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 211101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hoang, M.

Hoffman, D.

B. M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, E. K. Huang, P. Y. Delaunay, and M. Razeghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 123502 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, P. Y. Delaunay, M. Razeghi, and V. Nathan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 103503 (2007).
[Crossref]

Huang, E. K.

E. K. Huang, M. Hoang, G. Chen, S. R. Darvish, A. Haddadi, and M. Razeghi, Opt. Lett. 37, 4744 (2012).

E. K. Huang, A. Haddadi, G. Chen, B. Nguyen, M. Hoang, R. McClintock, M. Stegall, and M. Razeghi, Opt. Lett. 36, 2560 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. A. Pour, E. K. Huang, G. Chen, A. Haddadi, B. M. Nguyen, and M. Razeghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 143501 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, E. K. Huang, P. Y. Delaunay, and M. Razeghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 123502 (2008).
[Crossref]

Keo, S. A.

D. Z.-Y. Ting, C. J. Hill, A. Soibel, S. A. Keo, J. M. Mumolo, J. Nguyen, and S. D. Gunapala, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 023508 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kurth, E.

B. Simolon, N. Aziz, R. Hansen, E. Kurth, S. Lam, S. Petronio, and J. Woolaway, Infrared Phys. Technol. 54, 306 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lam, S.

B. Simolon, N. Aziz, R. Hansen, E. Kurth, S. Lam, S. Petronio, and J. Woolaway, Infrared Phys. Technol. 54, 306 (2011).
[Crossref]

Litvinov, V. I.

H. Mohseni, V. I. Litvinov, and M. Razeghi, Phys. Rev. B 58, 15378 (1998).
[Crossref]

McClintock, R.

Mohseni, H.

H. Mohseni, V. I. Litvinov, and M. Razeghi, Phys. Rev. B 58, 15378 (1998).
[Crossref]

Mumolo, J. M.

D. Z.-Y. Ting, C. J. Hill, A. Soibel, S. A. Keo, J. M. Mumolo, J. Nguyen, and S. D. Gunapala, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 023508 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nathan, V.

B. M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, P. Y. Delaunay, M. Razeghi, and V. Nathan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 103503 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nguyen, B.

Nguyen, B. M.

S. A. Pour, E. K. Huang, G. Chen, A. Haddadi, B. M. Nguyen, and M. Razeghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 143501 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, E. K. Huang, P. Y. Delaunay, and M. Razeghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 123502 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, P. Y. Delaunay, M. Razeghi, and V. Nathan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 103503 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nguyen, J.

D. Z.-Y. Ting, C. J. Hill, A. Soibel, S. A. Keo, J. M. Mumolo, J. Nguyen, and S. D. Gunapala, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 023508 (2009).
[Crossref]

Petronio, S.

B. Simolon, N. Aziz, R. Hansen, E. Kurth, S. Lam, S. Petronio, and J. Woolaway, Infrared Phys. Technol. 54, 306 (2011).
[Crossref]

Pour, S. A.

A. M. Hoang, G. Chen, A. Haddadi, S. A. Pour, and M. Razeghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 211101 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. A. Pour, E. K. Huang, G. Chen, A. Haddadi, B. M. Nguyen, and M. Razeghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 143501 (2011).
[Crossref]

Razeghi, M.

A. M. Hoang, G. Chen, A. Haddadi, S. A. Pour, and M. Razeghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 211101 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. K. Huang, M. Hoang, G. Chen, S. R. Darvish, A. Haddadi, and M. Razeghi, Opt. Lett. 37, 4744 (2012).

E. K. Huang, A. Haddadi, G. Chen, B. Nguyen, M. Hoang, R. McClintock, M. Stegall, and M. Razeghi, Opt. Lett. 36, 2560 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. A. Pour, E. K. Huang, G. Chen, A. Haddadi, B. M. Nguyen, and M. Razeghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 143501 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, E. K. Huang, P. Y. Delaunay, and M. Razeghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 123502 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, P. Y. Delaunay, M. Razeghi, and V. Nathan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 103503 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Mohseni, V. I. Litvinov, and M. Razeghi, Phys. Rev. B 58, 15378 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. Razeghi, “Focal plane arrays in type-II superlattices,” U.S. patent 6,864,552 (March82005).

Rehm, R.

R. Rehm, M. Walther, J. Schmitz, F. Rutz, A. Wörl, R. Scheibner, and J. Ziegler, Proc. SPIE 7660, 76601G(2010).
[Crossref]

Rutz, F.

R. Rehm, M. Walther, J. Schmitz, F. Rutz, A. Wörl, R. Scheibner, and J. Ziegler, Proc. SPIE 7660, 76601G(2010).
[Crossref]

Scheibner, R.

R. Rehm, M. Walther, J. Schmitz, F. Rutz, A. Wörl, R. Scheibner, and J. Ziegler, Proc. SPIE 7660, 76601G(2010).
[Crossref]

Schmitz, J.

R. Rehm, M. Walther, J. Schmitz, F. Rutz, A. Wörl, R. Scheibner, and J. Ziegler, Proc. SPIE 7660, 76601G(2010).
[Crossref]

Simolon, B.

B. Simolon, N. Aziz, R. Hansen, E. Kurth, S. Lam, S. Petronio, and J. Woolaway, Infrared Phys. Technol. 54, 306 (2011).
[Crossref]

Soibel, A.

D. Z.-Y. Ting, C. J. Hill, A. Soibel, S. A. Keo, J. M. Mumolo, J. Nguyen, and S. D. Gunapala, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 023508 (2009).
[Crossref]

Stegall, M.

Ting, D. Z.-Y.

D. Z.-Y. Ting, C. J. Hill, A. Soibel, S. A. Keo, J. M. Mumolo, J. Nguyen, and S. D. Gunapala, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 023508 (2009).
[Crossref]

Walther, M.

R. Rehm, M. Walther, J. Schmitz, F. Rutz, A. Wörl, R. Scheibner, and J. Ziegler, Proc. SPIE 7660, 76601G(2010).
[Crossref]

Woolaway, J.

B. Simolon, N. Aziz, R. Hansen, E. Kurth, S. Lam, S. Petronio, and J. Woolaway, Infrared Phys. Technol. 54, 306 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wörl, A.

R. Rehm, M. Walther, J. Schmitz, F. Rutz, A. Wörl, R. Scheibner, and J. Ziegler, Proc. SPIE 7660, 76601G(2010).
[Crossref]

Ziegler, J.

R. Rehm, M. Walther, J. Schmitz, F. Rutz, A. Wörl, R. Scheibner, and J. Ziegler, Proc. SPIE 7660, 76601G(2010).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

B. M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, E. K. Huang, P. Y. Delaunay, and M. Razeghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 123502 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. Z.-Y. Ting, C. J. Hill, A. Soibel, S. A. Keo, J. M. Mumolo, J. Nguyen, and S. D. Gunapala, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 023508 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. A. Pour, E. K. Huang, G. Chen, A. Haddadi, B. M. Nguyen, and M. Razeghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 143501 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. M. Hoang, G. Chen, A. Haddadi, S. A. Pour, and M. Razeghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 211101 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, P. Y. Delaunay, M. Razeghi, and V. Nathan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 103503 (2007).
[Crossref]

Infrared Phys. Technol. (1)

B. Simolon, N. Aziz, R. Hansen, E. Kurth, S. Lam, S. Petronio, and J. Woolaway, Infrared Phys. Technol. 54, 306 (2011).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

H. Mohseni, V. I. Litvinov, and M. Razeghi, Phys. Rev. B 58, 15378 (1998).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

R. Rehm, M. Walther, J. Schmitz, F. Rutz, A. Wörl, R. Scheibner, and J. Ziegler, Proc. SPIE 7660, 76601G(2010).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

M. Razeghi, “Focal plane arrays in type-II superlattices,” U.S. patent 6,864,552 (March82005).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Comparison between external QEs on back-side-illuminated and substrate-removed PECs.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Temperature-dependent current-voltage characteristics of the SWIR and MWIR diodes with NEDT performance for the MWIR channel in inset.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured temporal noise over 100 frames was in good agreement with the modeled ROIC and photon noise sources.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Imagery of the (a) SWIR, (b) MWIR, and (c) linear combination of the dual-band images are shown at 81 K. A 3.69 μm narrowband filter held in front of a soldering iron is shown at 140 K in the (d) SWIR and (e) MWIR.

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