Abstract

By employing an insulating zinc oxide (i-ZnO) as an electron accelerating layer, and an n-type ZnO as an active layer, ultraviolet (UV) emissions at 385 nm caused by the excitation of the n-ZnO layer by the accelerated electrons from the i-ZnO layer have been realized. By replacing the active layer with larger bandgap Mg0.39Zn0.61O and properly optimizing the structure, shorter wavelength emissions at around 328 nm have been obtained. Considering that the p-type doping of wide bandgap semiconductors is still a challenging issue, the results reported in this Letter may provide a promising alternative route to UV emissions.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2010 (4)

J. Simon, V. Protasenko, C. Lian, H. Xing, and D. Jena, Science 327, 60 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Oto, R. G. Banal, K. Kataoka, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, Nat. Photon. 4, 767 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Schubert and J. Cho, Nat. Photonics 4, 735 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, J. Y. Zhang, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, B. Yao, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, Z. K. Tang, X. H. Hou, and K. L. Choy, Adv. Mater. 22, 1877 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, T. Niiyama, K. Miya, and M. Taniguchi, Nat. Photon. 3, 591 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhao, Z. Xu, F. Zhang, Y. Wang, G. Ji, and X. Xu, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 023513 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

W. Jiang, S. Zhao, Z. Xu, and F. Zhang, Displays 29, 432 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Khan, K. Balakrishnan, and T. Katona, Nat. Photon. 2, 77 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

Y. Taniyasu, M. Kasu, and T. Makimoto, Nature 441, 325 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

D. C. Look, B. Claflin, Ya. I. Alivov, and S. J. Park, Phys. Status Solidi A 201, 2203 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, and H. Kanda, Nat. Mater. 3, 404 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Nakajima, T. Uchida, H. Toyama, A. Kojima, B. Gelloz, and N. Koshida, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2076 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

L. Ozawa and M. Itoh, Chem. Rev. 103, 3835 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

Y. Nakajima, A. Kojima, and N. Koshida, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2472 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

T. Jüstel, H. Nikol, and C. Ronda, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 37, 3084 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O. Ambacher, J. Phys. D 31, 2653 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

P. Bogusławski and J. Bernhoc, J. Phys. D 56, 9496 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Alivov, Ya. I.

D. C. Look, B. Claflin, Ya. I. Alivov, and S. J. Park, Phys. Status Solidi A 201, 2203 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ambacher, O.

O. Ambacher, J. Phys. D 31, 2653 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Balakrishnan, K.

A. Khan, K. Balakrishnan, and T. Katona, Nat. Photon. 2, 77 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Banal, R. G.

T. Oto, R. G. Banal, K. Kataoka, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, Nat. Photon. 4, 767 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bernhoc, J.

P. Bogusławski and J. Bernhoc, J. Phys. D 56, 9496 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Boguslawski, P.

P. Bogusławski and J. Bernhoc, J. Phys. D 56, 9496 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cho, J.

E. F. Schubert and J. Cho, Nat. Photonics 4, 735 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Choy, K. L.

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, J. Y. Zhang, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, B. Yao, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, Z. K. Tang, X. H. Hou, and K. L. Choy, Adv. Mater. 22, 1877 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Claflin, B.

D. C. Look, B. Claflin, Ya. I. Alivov, and S. J. Park, Phys. Status Solidi A 201, 2203 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fan, X. W.

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, J. Y. Zhang, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, B. Yao, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, Z. K. Tang, X. H. Hou, and K. L. Choy, Adv. Mater. 22, 1877 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fasol, G.

S. Nakamura, S. Pearton, and G. Fasol, The Blue Laser Diodes, 2nd ed. (Springer, 2000).

Funato, M.

T. Oto, R. G. Banal, K. Kataoka, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, Nat. Photon. 4, 767 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gelloz, B.

Y. Nakajima, T. Uchida, H. Toyama, A. Kojima, B. Gelloz, and N. Koshida, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2076 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hou, X. H.

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, J. Y. Zhang, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, B. Yao, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, Z. K. Tang, X. H. Hou, and K. L. Choy, Adv. Mater. 22, 1877 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J.

Itoh, M.

L. Ozawa and M. Itoh, Chem. Rev. 103, 3835 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jena, D.

J. Simon, V. Protasenko, C. Lian, H. Xing, and D. Jena, Science 327, 60 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ji, G.

S. Zhao, Z. Xu, F. Zhang, Y. Wang, G. Ji, and X. Xu, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 023513 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, W.

Jüstel, T.

T. Jüstel, H. Nikol, and C. Ronda, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 37, 3084 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kanda, H.

K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, and H. Kanda, Nat. Mater. 3, 404 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kasu, M.

Y. Taniyasu, M. Kasu, and T. Makimoto, Nature 441, 325 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kataoka, K.

T. Oto, R. G. Banal, K. Kataoka, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, Nat. Photon. 4, 767 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Katona, T.

A. Khan, K. Balakrishnan, and T. Katona, Nat. Photon. 2, 77 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kawakami, Y.

T. Oto, R. G. Banal, K. Kataoka, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, Nat. Photon. 4, 767 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Khan, A.

A. Khan, K. Balakrishnan, and T. Katona, Nat. Photon. 2, 77 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kojima, A.

Y. Nakajima, T. Uchida, H. Toyama, A. Kojima, B. Gelloz, and N. Koshida, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2076 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Nakajima, A. Kojima, and N. Koshida, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2472 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Koshida, N.

Y. Nakajima, T. Uchida, H. Toyama, A. Kojima, B. Gelloz, and N. Koshida, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2076 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Nakajima, A. Kojima, and N. Koshida, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2472 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, B. H.

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, J. Y. Zhang, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, B. Yao, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, Z. K. Tang, X. H. Hou, and K. L. Choy, Adv. Mater. 22, 1877 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lian, C.

J. Simon, V. Protasenko, C. Lian, H. Xing, and D. Jena, Science 327, 60 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Look, D. C.

D. C. Look, B. Claflin, Ya. I. Alivov, and S. J. Park, Phys. Status Solidi A 201, 2203 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Makimoto, T.

Y. Taniyasu, M. Kasu, and T. Makimoto, Nature 441, 325 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Miya, K.

K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, T. Niiyama, K. Miya, and M. Taniguchi, Nat. Photon. 3, 591 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, Y.

Y. Nakajima, T. Uchida, H. Toyama, A. Kojima, B. Gelloz, and N. Koshida, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2076 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Nakajima, A. Kojima, and N. Koshida, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2472 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

S. Nakamura, S. Pearton, and G. Fasol, The Blue Laser Diodes, 2nd ed. (Springer, 2000).

Niiyama, T.

K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, T. Niiyama, K. Miya, and M. Taniguchi, Nat. Photon. 3, 591 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nikol, H.

T. Jüstel, H. Nikol, and C. Ronda, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 37, 3084 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Oto, T.

T. Oto, R. G. Banal, K. Kataoka, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, Nat. Photon. 4, 767 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ozawa, L.

L. Ozawa and M. Itoh, Chem. Rev. 103, 3835 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. J.

D. C. Look, B. Claflin, Ya. I. Alivov, and S. J. Park, Phys. Status Solidi A 201, 2203 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pearton, S.

S. Nakamura, S. Pearton, and G. Fasol, The Blue Laser Diodes, 2nd ed. (Springer, 2000).

Protasenko, V.

J. Simon, V. Protasenko, C. Lian, H. Xing, and D. Jena, Science 327, 60 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ronda, C.

T. Jüstel, H. Nikol, and C. Ronda, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 37, 3084 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

E. F. Schubert and J. Cho, Nat. Photonics 4, 735 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shan, C. X.

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, J. Y. Zhang, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, B. Yao, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, Z. K. Tang, X. H. Hou, and K. L. Choy, Adv. Mater. 22, 1877 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shen, D. Z.

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, J. Y. Zhang, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, B. Yao, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, Z. K. Tang, X. H. Hou, and K. L. Choy, Adv. Mater. 22, 1877 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Simon, J.

J. Simon, V. Protasenko, C. Lian, H. Xing, and D. Jena, Science 327, 60 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tang, Z. K.

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, J. Y. Zhang, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, B. Yao, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, Z. K. Tang, X. H. Hou, and K. L. Choy, Adv. Mater. 22, 1877 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Taniguchi, M.

K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, T. Niiyama, K. Miya, and M. Taniguchi, Nat. Photon. 3, 591 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Taniguchi, T.

K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, T. Niiyama, K. Miya, and M. Taniguchi, Nat. Photon. 3, 591 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, and H. Kanda, Nat. Mater. 3, 404 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Taniyasu, Y.

Y. Taniyasu, M. Kasu, and T. Makimoto, Nature 441, 325 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Toyama, H.

Y. Nakajima, T. Uchida, H. Toyama, A. Kojima, B. Gelloz, and N. Koshida, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2076 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Uchida, T.

Y. Nakajima, T. Uchida, H. Toyama, A. Kojima, B. Gelloz, and N. Koshida, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2076 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

S. Zhao, Z. Xu, F. Zhang, Y. Wang, G. Ji, and X. Xu, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 023513 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhao, Z. Xu, F. Zhang, W. Jiang, J. Huang, Y. Wang, and X. Xu, Opt. Lett. 32, 2094 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, K.

K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, T. Niiyama, K. Miya, and M. Taniguchi, Nat. Photon. 3, 591 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, and H. Kanda, Nat. Mater. 3, 404 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xing, H.

J. Simon, V. Protasenko, C. Lian, H. Xing, and D. Jena, Science 327, 60 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X.

S. Zhao, Z. Xu, F. Zhang, Y. Wang, G. Ji, and X. Xu, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 023513 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhao, Z. Xu, F. Zhang, W. Jiang, J. Huang, Y. Wang, and X. Xu, Opt. Lett. 32, 2094 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z.

S. Zhao, Z. Xu, F. Zhang, Y. Wang, G. Ji, and X. Xu, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 023513 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Jiang, S. Zhao, Z. Xu, and F. Zhang, Displays 29, 432 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhao, Z. Xu, F. Zhang, W. Jiang, J. Huang, Y. Wang, and X. Xu, Opt. Lett. 32, 2094 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yao, B.

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, J. Y. Zhang, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, B. Yao, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, Z. K. Tang, X. H. Hou, and K. L. Choy, Adv. Mater. 22, 1877 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, F.

S. Zhao, Z. Xu, F. Zhang, Y. Wang, G. Ji, and X. Xu, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 023513 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Jiang, S. Zhao, Z. Xu, and F. Zhang, Displays 29, 432 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhao, Z. Xu, F. Zhang, W. Jiang, J. Huang, Y. Wang, and X. Xu, Opt. Lett. 32, 2094 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J. Y.

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, J. Y. Zhang, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, B. Yao, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, Z. K. Tang, X. H. Hou, and K. L. Choy, Adv. Mater. 22, 1877 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z. Z.

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, J. Y. Zhang, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, B. Yao, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, Z. K. Tang, X. H. Hou, and K. L. Choy, Adv. Mater. 22, 1877 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, D. X.

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, J. Y. Zhang, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, B. Yao, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, Z. K. Tang, X. H. Hou, and K. L. Choy, Adv. Mater. 22, 1877 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, S.

S. Zhao, Z. Xu, F. Zhang, Y. Wang, G. Ji, and X. Xu, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 023513 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Jiang, S. Zhao, Z. Xu, and F. Zhang, Displays 29, 432 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhao, Z. Xu, F. Zhang, W. Jiang, J. Huang, Y. Wang, and X. Xu, Opt. Lett. 32, 2094 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, H.

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, J. Y. Zhang, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, B. Yao, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, Z. K. Tang, X. H. Hou, and K. L. Choy, Adv. Mater. 22, 1877 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, J. Y. Zhang, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, B. Yao, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, Z. K. Tang, X. H. Hou, and K. L. Choy, Adv. Mater. 22, 1877 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. (1)

T. Jüstel, H. Nikol, and C. Ronda, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 37, 3084 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Nakajima, A. Kojima, and N. Koshida, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2472 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (1)

L. Ozawa and M. Itoh, Chem. Rev. 103, 3835 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Displays (1)

W. Jiang, S. Zhao, Z. Xu, and F. Zhang, Displays 29, 432 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Zhao, Z. Xu, F. Zhang, Y. Wang, G. Ji, and X. Xu, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 023513 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D (2)

P. Bogusławski and J. Bernhoc, J. Phys. D 56, 9496 (1997).
[CrossRef]

O. Ambacher, J. Phys. D 31, 2653 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Nakajima, T. Uchida, H. Toyama, A. Kojima, B. Gelloz, and N. Koshida, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2076 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (1)

K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, and H. Kanda, Nat. Mater. 3, 404 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon. (3)

K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, T. Niiyama, K. Miya, and M. Taniguchi, Nat. Photon. 3, 591 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Oto, R. G. Banal, K. Kataoka, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, Nat. Photon. 4, 767 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Khan, K. Balakrishnan, and T. Katona, Nat. Photon. 2, 77 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

E. F. Schubert and J. Cho, Nat. Photonics 4, 735 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

Y. Taniyasu, M. Kasu, and T. Makimoto, Nature 441, 325 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

D. C. Look, B. Claflin, Ya. I. Alivov, and S. J. Park, Phys. Status Solidi A 201, 2203 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

J. Simon, V. Protasenko, C. Lian, H. Xing, and D. Jena, Science 327, 60 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

S. Nakamura, S. Pearton, and G. Fasol, The Blue Laser Diodes, 2nd ed. (Springer, 2000).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Current—voltage characteristics of the iZnO/nZnO structure, and the inset shows the schematic diagram and emission recording geometry of the structure.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Emission spectra of iZnO/nZnO structure under different reverse bias, and the inset shows the integrated intensity of UV emissions at around 385 nm as a function of the reverse bias voltage.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Schematic diagram of the Mg0.39Zn0.61O/MgO/nZnO structure; (b) Band diagram of the MgZnO/MgO/nZnO structure under reverse bias.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Emission spectra of Mg0.39Zn0.61O/MgO/nZnO structure under different reverse bias.

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