Abstract

We model a laterally coupled Franz-Keldysh add-drop ring modulator designed to overcome the C-band indirect absorption of silicon-germanium. Although our concept is based on loss-sensitive interferometry, it utilizes the same highly absorptive germanium-rich compositions geared toward complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) photodetectors and electroabsorption modulators. The proposed device can be integrated with passive waveguide networks in which the carrier plasma modulation mechanism is ineffective. In addition, unlike previous silicon-germanium modulator schemes, complex butt-coupling between the passive transport and the active silicon-germanium waveguides is not required. Instead, the optical mode remains guided within the transport waveguide, minimizing transition losses.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. Ling, D. Lim, A. Agarwal, X. Duan, K. Lee, and L. Kimerling, J. Electron. Mater. 29, 1380 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. Cocorullo, F. Corte, R. de Rosa, I. Rendina, A. Rubino, and E. Terzini, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 997 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. Henry, R. Kazarinov, H. Lee, K. Orlowsky, and L. Katz, Appl. Opt. 26, 2621 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Hu, V. Tarasov, N. Carlie, N. Feng, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, and L. Kimerling, Opt. Express 15, 11798 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Preston, S. Manipatruni, A. Gondarenko, C. Poitras, and M. Lipson, Opt. Express 17, 5118 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. Corte, S. Rao, G. Coppola, and C. Summonte, Opt. Express 19, 2941 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Kuo, Y. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. Roth, T. Kamins, D. Miller, and J. Harris, Nature 437, 1334 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Liu, D. Pan, S. Jongthammanurak, K. Wada, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Opt. Express 15, 623 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Nat. Photon. 2, 433 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. McComber, J. Liu, J. Michel, and L. Kimerling, in the 7th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2010), p. 57.
  11. S. Jongthammanurak, “Germanium-rich silicon-germanium materials for field-effect modulator applications,” Ph.D. thesis (MIT, 2008).
  12. P. Lim, J. Cai, Y. Ishikawa, and K. Wada, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 131115 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. Lim, Y. Kobayashi, S. Takita, Y. Ishikawa, and K. Wada, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041103 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. Lim, S. Park, Y. Ishikawa, and K. Wada, Opt. Express 17, 16358 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Sánchez-Pérez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. Sudradjat, D. Paskiewicz, R. Jacobson, M. Lagally, and R. Paiella, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 18893 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  16. P. Lim, D. Lim, and K. Wada, in the 4th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2007), p. 113.
  17. R. Braunstein, A. Moore, and F. Herman, Phys. Rev. 109, 695 (1958).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. Chuang, Physics of Optoelectronic Devices (Wiley, 1995).
  19. O. Madelung ed., Semiconductors—Basic Data (Springer, 1996).
  20. J. Liu, X. Sun, D. Pan, X. Wang, L. Kimerling, T. Koch, and J. Michel, Opt. Express 15, 11272 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  21. E. Kasper and K. Lyutovich eds., Properties of Silicon-Germanium and SiGe:Carbon (IET, 2000).
  22. S. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices (Wiley, 1981).
  23. J. Liu, “GeSi photodetectors and electro-absorption modulators for Si electronic-photonic integrated circuits,” Ph.D. thesis (MIT, 2007).
  24. Y. Okuto and C. Crowell, Solid-State Electron. 18, 161 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  25. C. Madsen and J. Zhao, Optical Filter Design and Analysis: A Signal Processing Approach (Wiley, 2001).
  26. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, http://www.ioffe.ru/SVA/NSM/Semicond/Ge/basic.html .

2011 (2)

F. Corte, S. Rao, G. Coppola, and C. Summonte, Opt. Express 19, 2941 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Sánchez-Pérez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. Sudradjat, D. Paskiewicz, R. Jacobson, M. Lagally, and R. Paiella, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 18893 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

P. Lim, J. Cai, Y. Ishikawa, and K. Wada, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 131115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

2008 (2)

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Nat. Photon. 2, 433 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Lim, Y. Kobayashi, S. Takita, Y. Ishikawa, and K. Wada, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

2005 (1)

Y. Kuo, Y. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. Roth, T. Kamins, D. Miller, and J. Harris, Nature 437, 1334 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

L. Ling, D. Lim, A. Agarwal, X. Duan, K. Lee, and L. Kimerling, J. Electron. Mater. 29, 1380 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

G. Cocorullo, F. Corte, R. de Rosa, I. Rendina, A. Rubino, and E. Terzini, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 997 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1975 (1)

Y. Okuto and C. Crowell, Solid-State Electron. 18, 161 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1958 (1)

R. Braunstein, A. Moore, and F. Herman, Phys. Rev. 109, 695 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, A.

J. Hu, V. Tarasov, N. Carlie, N. Feng, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, and L. Kimerling, Opt. Express 15, 11798 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Ling, D. Lim, A. Agarwal, X. Duan, K. Lee, and L. Kimerling, J. Electron. Mater. 29, 1380 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Beals, M.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Nat. Photon. 2, 433 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bernardis, S.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Nat. Photon. 2, 433 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Boztug, C.

J. Sánchez-Pérez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. Sudradjat, D. Paskiewicz, R. Jacobson, M. Lagally, and R. Paiella, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 18893 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Braunstein, R.

R. Braunstein, A. Moore, and F. Herman, Phys. Rev. 109, 695 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Cai, J.

P. Lim, J. Cai, Y. Ishikawa, and K. Wada, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 131115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Carlie, N.

Chen, F.

J. Sánchez-Pérez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. Sudradjat, D. Paskiewicz, R. Jacobson, M. Lagally, and R. Paiella, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 18893 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, J.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Nat. Photon. 2, 433 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chuang, S.

S. Chuang, Physics of Optoelectronic Devices (Wiley, 1995).

Cocorullo, G.

G. Cocorullo, F. Corte, R. de Rosa, I. Rendina, A. Rubino, and E. Terzini, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 997 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Coppola, G.

Corte, F.

F. Corte, S. Rao, G. Coppola, and C. Summonte, Opt. Express 19, 2941 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Cocorullo, F. Corte, R. de Rosa, I. Rendina, A. Rubino, and E. Terzini, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 997 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Crowell, C.

Y. Okuto and C. Crowell, Solid-State Electron. 18, 161 (1975).
[CrossRef]

de Rosa, R.

G. Cocorullo, F. Corte, R. de Rosa, I. Rendina, A. Rubino, and E. Terzini, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 997 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Duan, X.

L. Ling, D. Lim, A. Agarwal, X. Duan, K. Lee, and L. Kimerling, J. Electron. Mater. 29, 1380 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Feng, N.

Ge, Y.

Y. Kuo, Y. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. Roth, T. Kamins, D. Miller, and J. Harris, Nature 437, 1334 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gondarenko, A.

Harris, J.

Y. Kuo, Y. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. Roth, T. Kamins, D. Miller, and J. Harris, Nature 437, 1334 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Henry, C.

Herman, F.

R. Braunstein, A. Moore, and F. Herman, Phys. Rev. 109, 695 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Hu, J.

Ishikawa, Y.

P. Lim, J. Cai, Y. Ishikawa, and K. Wada, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 131115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Lim, S. Park, Y. Ishikawa, and K. Wada, Opt. Express 17, 16358 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Lim, Y. Kobayashi, S. Takita, Y. Ishikawa, and K. Wada, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jacobson, R.

J. Sánchez-Pérez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. Sudradjat, D. Paskiewicz, R. Jacobson, M. Lagally, and R. Paiella, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 18893 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jongthammanurak, S.

J. Liu, D. Pan, S. Jongthammanurak, K. Wada, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Opt. Express 15, 623 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Jongthammanurak, “Germanium-rich silicon-germanium materials for field-effect modulator applications,” Ph.D. thesis (MIT, 2008).

Kamins, T.

Y. Kuo, Y. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. Roth, T. Kamins, D. Miller, and J. Harris, Nature 437, 1334 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Katz, L.

Kazarinov, R.

Kimerling, L.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Nat. Photon. 2, 433 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, D. Pan, S. Jongthammanurak, K. Wada, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Opt. Express 15, 623 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Hu, V. Tarasov, N. Carlie, N. Feng, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, and L. Kimerling, Opt. Express 15, 11798 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, X. Sun, D. Pan, X. Wang, L. Kimerling, T. Koch, and J. Michel, Opt. Express 15, 11272 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Ling, D. Lim, A. Agarwal, X. Duan, K. Lee, and L. Kimerling, J. Electron. Mater. 29, 1380 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. McComber, J. Liu, J. Michel, and L. Kimerling, in the 7th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2010), p. 57.

Kobayashi, Y.

P. Lim, Y. Kobayashi, S. Takita, Y. Ishikawa, and K. Wada, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Koch, T.

Kuo, Y.

Y. Kuo, Y. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. Roth, T. Kamins, D. Miller, and J. Harris, Nature 437, 1334 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lagally, M.

J. Sánchez-Pérez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. Sudradjat, D. Paskiewicz, R. Jacobson, M. Lagally, and R. Paiella, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 18893 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.

Lee, K.

L. Ling, D. Lim, A. Agarwal, X. Duan, K. Lee, and L. Kimerling, J. Electron. Mater. 29, 1380 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.

Y. Kuo, Y. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. Roth, T. Kamins, D. Miller, and J. Harris, Nature 437, 1334 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lim, D.

L. Ling, D. Lim, A. Agarwal, X. Duan, K. Lee, and L. Kimerling, J. Electron. Mater. 29, 1380 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Lim, D. Lim, and K. Wada, in the 4th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2007), p. 113.

Lim, P.

P. Lim, J. Cai, Y. Ishikawa, and K. Wada, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 131115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Lim, S. Park, Y. Ishikawa, and K. Wada, Opt. Express 17, 16358 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Lim, Y. Kobayashi, S. Takita, Y. Ishikawa, and K. Wada, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Lim, D. Lim, and K. Wada, in the 4th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2007), p. 113.

Ling, L.

L. Ling, D. Lim, A. Agarwal, X. Duan, K. Lee, and L. Kimerling, J. Electron. Mater. 29, 1380 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Liu, J.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Nat. Photon. 2, 433 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, D. Pan, S. Jongthammanurak, K. Wada, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Opt. Express 15, 623 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, X. Sun, D. Pan, X. Wang, L. Kimerling, T. Koch, and J. Michel, Opt. Express 15, 11272 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, “GeSi photodetectors and electro-absorption modulators for Si electronic-photonic integrated circuits,” Ph.D. thesis (MIT, 2007).

K. McComber, J. Liu, J. Michel, and L. Kimerling, in the 7th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2010), p. 57.

Madsen, C.

C. Madsen and J. Zhao, Optical Filter Design and Analysis: A Signal Processing Approach (Wiley, 2001).

Manipatruni, S.

McComber, K.

K. McComber, J. Liu, J. Michel, and L. Kimerling, in the 7th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2010), p. 57.

Michel, J.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Nat. Photon. 2, 433 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, D. Pan, S. Jongthammanurak, K. Wada, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Opt. Express 15, 623 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, X. Sun, D. Pan, X. Wang, L. Kimerling, T. Koch, and J. Michel, Opt. Express 15, 11272 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. McComber, J. Liu, J. Michel, and L. Kimerling, in the 7th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2010), p. 57.

Miller, D.

Y. Kuo, Y. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. Roth, T. Kamins, D. Miller, and J. Harris, Nature 437, 1334 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Moore, A.

R. Braunstein, A. Moore, and F. Herman, Phys. Rev. 109, 695 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Okuto, Y.

Y. Okuto and C. Crowell, Solid-State Electron. 18, 161 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Orlowsky, K.

Paiella, R.

J. Sánchez-Pérez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. Sudradjat, D. Paskiewicz, R. Jacobson, M. Lagally, and R. Paiella, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 18893 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pan, D.

Park, S.

Paskiewicz, D.

J. Sánchez-Pérez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. Sudradjat, D. Paskiewicz, R. Jacobson, M. Lagally, and R. Paiella, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 18893 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Petit, L.

Poitras, C.

Pomerene, A.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Nat. Photon. 2, 433 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Preston, K.

Rao, S.

Ren, S.

Y. Kuo, Y. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. Roth, T. Kamins, D. Miller, and J. Harris, Nature 437, 1334 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rendina, I.

G. Cocorullo, F. Corte, R. de Rosa, I. Rendina, A. Rubino, and E. Terzini, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 997 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, K.

Roth, J.

Y. Kuo, Y. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. Roth, T. Kamins, D. Miller, and J. Harris, Nature 437, 1334 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rubino, A.

G. Cocorullo, F. Corte, R. de Rosa, I. Rendina, A. Rubino, and E. Terzini, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 997 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sánchez-Pérez, J.

J. Sánchez-Pérez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. Sudradjat, D. Paskiewicz, R. Jacobson, M. Lagally, and R. Paiella, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 18893 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sudradjat, F.

J. Sánchez-Pérez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. Sudradjat, D. Paskiewicz, R. Jacobson, M. Lagally, and R. Paiella, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 18893 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Summonte, C.

Sun, R.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Nat. Photon. 2, 433 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X.

Sze, S.

S. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices (Wiley, 1981).

Takita, S.

P. Lim, Y. Kobayashi, S. Takita, Y. Ishikawa, and K. Wada, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tarasov, V.

Terzini, E.

G. Cocorullo, F. Corte, R. de Rosa, I. Rendina, A. Rubino, and E. Terzini, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 997 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wada, K.

P. Lim, J. Cai, Y. Ishikawa, and K. Wada, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 131115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Lim, S. Park, Y. Ishikawa, and K. Wada, Opt. Express 17, 16358 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Lim, Y. Kobayashi, S. Takita, Y. Ishikawa, and K. Wada, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, D. Pan, S. Jongthammanurak, K. Wada, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Opt. Express 15, 623 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Lim, D. Lim, and K. Wada, in the 4th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2007), p. 113.

Wang, X.

Zhao, J.

C. Madsen and J. Zhao, Optical Filter Design and Analysis: A Signal Processing Approach (Wiley, 2001).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

P. Lim, J. Cai, Y. Ishikawa, and K. Wada, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 131115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Lim, Y. Kobayashi, S. Takita, Y. Ishikawa, and K. Wada, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

G. Cocorullo, F. Corte, R. de Rosa, I. Rendina, A. Rubino, and E. Terzini, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 997 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron. Mater. (1)

L. Ling, D. Lim, A. Agarwal, X. Duan, K. Lee, and L. Kimerling, J. Electron. Mater. 29, 1380 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon. (1)

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Nat. Photon. 2, 433 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

Y. Kuo, Y. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. Roth, T. Kamins, D. Miller, and J. Harris, Nature 437, 1334 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

Phys. Rev. (1)

R. Braunstein, A. Moore, and F. Herman, Phys. Rev. 109, 695 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

J. Sánchez-Pérez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. Sudradjat, D. Paskiewicz, R. Jacobson, M. Lagally, and R. Paiella, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 18893 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Solid-State Electron. (1)

Y. Okuto and C. Crowell, Solid-State Electron. 18, 161 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Other (10)

C. Madsen and J. Zhao, Optical Filter Design and Analysis: A Signal Processing Approach (Wiley, 2001).

Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, http://www.ioffe.ru/SVA/NSM/Semicond/Ge/basic.html .

E. Kasper and K. Lyutovich eds., Properties of Silicon-Germanium and SiGe:Carbon (IET, 2000).

S. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices (Wiley, 1981).

J. Liu, “GeSi photodetectors and electro-absorption modulators for Si electronic-photonic integrated circuits,” Ph.D. thesis (MIT, 2007).

P. Lim, D. Lim, and K. Wada, in the 4th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2007), p. 113.

S. Chuang, Physics of Optoelectronic Devices (Wiley, 1995).

O. Madelung ed., Semiconductors—Basic Data (Springer, 1996).

K. McComber, J. Liu, J. Michel, and L. Kimerling, in the 7th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2010), p. 57.

S. Jongthammanurak, “Germanium-rich silicon-germanium materials for field-effect modulator applications,” Ph.D. thesis (MIT, 2008).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Modulator schematic. (b) Theoretical absorption spectra of SiGe alloys near the direct band edge. The Si content is increased in steps of 0.5% starting from 0% (pure Ge) to 4%.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Theoretical field-dependent absorption and Δn spectra of Si0.005Ge0.995 near the bandgap.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

TE mode field distribution and modulator cross section. All lengths are in nm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Calculated modulator through port and drop port spectra.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Material Parameters Used in Our Modeling—The Imaginary Refractive Indices Are Derived from the Material Absorption, α, and Wavelength, λ, Using αλ/(4π)

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Tr(z)=|qs2qγz11q2γz1|2andTD(z)=|s2γ1q2γz1|2,

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