Abstract

In this Letter, we present three-dimensional (3D) photon counting integral imaging using the moving array-lens technique (MALT) to improve the visualization of a reconstructed 3D scene. In 3D scene reconstruction of photon counting integral imaging, various techniques such as maximum likelihood estimation may be used. However, the visual quality depends on the number of scene photons or detector pixels activated by photons. We show that MALT may improve the viewing resolution of integral imaging for reconstructed 3D scene under photon-starved conditions.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2012 (1)

2011 (2)

2010 (2)

M. DaneshPanah, B. Javidi, and E. Watson, Opt. Express 18, 26450 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J.-Y. Son, B. Javidi, S. Yano, and K.-H. Choi, J. Disp. Technol. 6, 394 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

R. Martinez-Cuenca, G. Saavedra, M. Martinez-Corral, and B. Javidi, Proc. IEEE 97, 1067 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2006 (1)

F. Okano, J. Arai, K. Mitani, and M. Okui, Proc. IEEE 94, 490 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

M. Pollefeys, L. Van Gool, M. Vergauwen, F. Verbiest, K. Cornelis, J. Tops, and R. Koch, Int. J. Comput. Vis. 59, 207 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

1988 (1)

1908 (1)

G. Lippmann, C. R. Acad. Sci. 146, 446 (1908).

Aloni, D.

Amouroux, T.

Arai, J.

F. Okano, J. Arai, K. Mitani, and M. Okui, Proc. IEEE 94, 490 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Choi, K.-H.

J.-Y. Son, B. Javidi, S. Yano, and K.-H. Choi, J. Disp. Technol. 6, 394 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cornelis, K.

M. Pollefeys, L. Van Gool, M. Vergauwen, F. Verbiest, K. Cornelis, J. Tops, and R. Koch, Int. J. Comput. Vis. 59, 207 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Daneshpanah, M.

Davies, N.

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, 1985).

Guillaume, M.

Hoshino, H.

Isono, H.

Jang, J.-S.

Javidi, B.

Koch, R.

M. Pollefeys, L. Van Gool, M. Vergauwen, F. Verbiest, K. Cornelis, J. Tops, and R. Koch, Int. J. Comput. Vis. 59, 207 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lippmann, G.

G. Lippmann, C. R. Acad. Sci. 146, 446 (1908).

Llebaria, A.

Martinez-Corral, M.

R. Martinez-Cuenca, G. Saavedra, M. Martinez-Corral, and B. Javidi, Proc. IEEE 97, 1067 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Martinez-Cuenca, R.

R. Martinez-Cuenca, G. Saavedra, M. Martinez-Corral, and B. Javidi, Proc. IEEE 97, 1067 (2009).
[CrossRef]

McCormick, M.

Milliard, B.

Mitani, K.

F. Okano, J. Arai, K. Mitani, and M. Okui, Proc. IEEE 94, 490 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Okano, F.

F. Okano, J. Arai, K. Mitani, and M. Okui, Proc. IEEE 94, 490 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Hoshino, F. Okano, H. Isono, and I. Yuyama, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2059 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Okui, M.

F. Okano, J. Arai, K. Mitani, and M. Okui, Proc. IEEE 94, 490 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pollefeys, M.

M. Pollefeys, L. Van Gool, M. Vergauwen, F. Verbiest, K. Cornelis, J. Tops, and R. Koch, Int. J. Comput. Vis. 59, 207 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Refregier, P.

Saavedra, G.

R. Martinez-Cuenca, G. Saavedra, M. Martinez-Corral, and B. Javidi, Proc. IEEE 97, 1067 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shin, D.

Son, J.-Y.

J.-Y. Son, B. Javidi, S. Yano, and K.-H. Choi, J. Disp. Technol. 6, 394 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stern, A.

Tavakoli, B.

Tops, J.

M. Pollefeys, L. Van Gool, M. Vergauwen, F. Verbiest, K. Cornelis, J. Tops, and R. Koch, Int. J. Comput. Vis. 59, 207 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Van Gool, L.

M. Pollefeys, L. Van Gool, M. Vergauwen, F. Verbiest, K. Cornelis, J. Tops, and R. Koch, Int. J. Comput. Vis. 59, 207 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Verbiest, F.

M. Pollefeys, L. Van Gool, M. Vergauwen, F. Verbiest, K. Cornelis, J. Tops, and R. Koch, Int. J. Comput. Vis. 59, 207 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vergauwen, M.

M. Pollefeys, L. Van Gool, M. Vergauwen, F. Verbiest, K. Cornelis, J. Tops, and R. Koch, Int. J. Comput. Vis. 59, 207 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wakunami, K.

Watson, E.

Yamaguchi, M.

Yang, L.

Yano, S.

J.-Y. Son, B. Javidi, S. Yano, and K.-H. Choi, J. Disp. Technol. 6, 394 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yeom, S.

Yuyama, I.

Appl. Opt. (1)

C. R. Acad. Sci. (1)

G. Lippmann, C. R. Acad. Sci. 146, 446 (1908).

Int. J. Comput. Vis. (1)

M. Pollefeys, L. Van Gool, M. Vergauwen, F. Verbiest, K. Cornelis, J. Tops, and R. Koch, Int. J. Comput. Vis. 59, 207 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

J.-Y. Son, B. Javidi, S. Yano, and K.-H. Choi, J. Disp. Technol. 6, 394 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Proc. IEEE (2)

F. Okano, J. Arai, K. Mitani, and M. Okui, Proc. IEEE 94, 490 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Martinez-Cuenca, G. Saavedra, M. Martinez-Corral, and B. Javidi, Proc. IEEE 97, 1067 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, 1985).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Synthetic aperture integral imaging (SAII), (b) reconstruction of photon counting integral imaging.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Photon counting integral imaging with moving array—lens technique (MALT).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental setup for photon counting integral imaging with MALT.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Conventional elemental images for very large number of photons. (b) Conventional reconstructed image using elemental images with a large number of photons. (c) Photon counting elemental images for conventional MLE with Np=20,000. (d) Photon counting elemental images for MLE with MALT with Np=1,000.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

3D reconstruction results with Np=360,000. (a) Photon counting reconstruction results using the conventional integral imaging with MLE. (b) Photon counting reconstruction results using MLE and MALT. (c) Enlarged reconstruction results of the car for conventional integral imaging with MLE. (d) Enlarged reconstruction results of the car for MLE and MALT.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

PSNR of 3D reconstruction images for photon counting integral imaging with [Fig. 5(d)] and without [Fig. 5(c)] MALT with MLE algorithm.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

λx=Ixx=1NxIx,
Cx|λxPoisson(Npλx),
I˜zr=1NpKLk=0K1l=0L1Cxkl,
βnyqL/2p,
Sh=Nxphfcxzr,Sv=Nypvfcyzr,
I(x,y,zr)MALT=1QUq=1Q1u=1U1[I˜zr(x+Shq,y+Svu)],

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