Abstract

In this Letter, we demonstrate a biocompatible microscale optical device fabricated from agarose hydrogel that allows for encapsulation of cells inside an optical waveguide. This allows for better interaction between the light in the waveguide and biology, since it can interact with the direct optical mode rather than the evanescent field. We characterize the optical properties of the waveguide and further incorporate a microfluidic channel over the optical structure, thus developing an integrated optofluidic system fabricated entirely from agarose gel.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K.-P. S. Dancil, D. P. Greiner, and M. J. Sailor, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 7925 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, Nature 457, 71 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Ashkin and J. Dziedzic, Science 235, 1517 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. Ding, R. I. Blackwell, J. F. Kunzler, and W. H. Knox, Appl. Opt. 47, 3100 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Wang, C.-J. Huang, U. Jonas, T. Wei, J. Dostalek, and W. Knoll, Biosens. Bioelectron. 25, 1663 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. S. Koo, P. G. R. Smith, R. B. Williams, C. Riziotis, and M. C. Grossel, Opt. Mater. 23, 583 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Sowa, W. Watanabe, T. Tamaki, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, Opt. Express 14, 291 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Richter, G. Paschew, S. Klatt, J. Lienig, K.-F. Arndt, and H.-J. P. Adler, Sensors 8, 561 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. Tae Gwan, Biomaterials 20, 517 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. Tanaka, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 820 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Suzuki and T. Tanaka, Nature 346, 345 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Ling, J. Rubin, Y. Deng, C. Huang, U. Demirci, J. M. Karp, and A. Khademhosseini, Lab Chip 7, 756 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. M. Stevens, M. Mayer, D. G. Anderson, D. B. Weibel, G. M. Whitesides, and R. Langer, Biomaterials 26, 7636 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. A. Moskaluk and M. H. Stoler, Diagn. Mol. Pathol. 11, 234 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. Forster, C. Strohhofer, K. Bock, P. Kasak, M. Danko, Z. Kronekova, T. Nedelcev, I. Krupa, and I. Lacik, in Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems Conference, Transducers 2009. International (2009), pp. 1218–1221.
  18. S.-Y. Cheng, S. Heilman, M. Wasserman, S. Archer, M. L. Shuler, and M. Wu, Lab Chip 7, 763 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. Sakai, I. Hashimoto, and K. Kawakami, J. Biosci. Bioeng. 103, 22 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2010

Y. Wang, C.-J. Huang, U. Jonas, T. Wei, J. Dostalek, and W. Knoll, Biosens. Bioelectron. 25, 1663 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, Nature 457, 71 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Ding, R. I. Blackwell, J. F. Kunzler, and W. H. Knox, Appl. Opt. 47, 3100 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Richter, G. Paschew, S. Klatt, J. Lienig, K.-F. Arndt, and H.-J. P. Adler, Sensors 8, 561 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

Y. Ling, J. Rubin, Y. Deng, C. Huang, U. Demirci, J. M. Karp, and A. Khademhosseini, Lab Chip 7, 756 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S.-Y. Cheng, S. Heilman, M. Wasserman, S. Archer, M. L. Shuler, and M. Wu, Lab Chip 7, 763 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Sakai, I. Hashimoto, and K. Kawakami, J. Biosci. Bioeng. 103, 22 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

M. M. Stevens, M. Mayer, D. G. Anderson, D. B. Weibel, G. M. Whitesides, and R. Langer, Biomaterials 26, 7636 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

J. S. Koo, P. G. R. Smith, R. B. Williams, C. Riziotis, and M. C. Grossel, Opt. Mater. 23, 583 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

C. A. Moskaluk and M. H. Stoler, Diagn. Mol. Pathol. 11, 234 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999

P. Tae Gwan, Biomaterials 20, 517 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K.-P. S. Dancil, D. P. Greiner, and M. J. Sailor, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 7925 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1990

A. Suzuki and T. Tanaka, Nature 346, 345 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987

A. Ashkin and J. Dziedzic, Science 235, 1517 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1978

T. Tanaka, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 820 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Adler, H.-J. P.

A. Richter, G. Paschew, S. Klatt, J. Lienig, K.-F. Arndt, and H.-J. P. Adler, Sensors 8, 561 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, D. G.

M. M. Stevens, M. Mayer, D. G. Anderson, D. B. Weibel, G. M. Whitesides, and R. Langer, Biomaterials 26, 7636 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Archer, S.

S.-Y. Cheng, S. Heilman, M. Wasserman, S. Archer, M. L. Shuler, and M. Wu, Lab Chip 7, 763 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Arndt, K.-F.

A. Richter, G. Paschew, S. Klatt, J. Lienig, K.-F. Arndt, and H.-J. P. Adler, Sensors 8, 561 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ashkin, A.

A. Ashkin and J. Dziedzic, Science 235, 1517 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Blackwell, R. I.

Bock, K.

T. Forster, C. Strohhofer, K. Bock, P. Kasak, M. Danko, Z. Kronekova, T. Nedelcev, I. Krupa, and I. Lacik, in Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems Conference, Transducers 2009. International (2009), pp. 1218–1221.

Cheng, S.-Y.

S.-Y. Cheng, S. Heilman, M. Wasserman, S. Archer, M. L. Shuler, and M. Wu, Lab Chip 7, 763 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dancil, K.-P. S.

K.-P. S. Dancil, D. P. Greiner, and M. J. Sailor, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 7925 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Danko, M.

T. Forster, C. Strohhofer, K. Bock, P. Kasak, M. Danko, Z. Kronekova, T. Nedelcev, I. Krupa, and I. Lacik, in Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems Conference, Transducers 2009. International (2009), pp. 1218–1221.

Demirci, U.

Y. Ling, J. Rubin, Y. Deng, C. Huang, U. Demirci, J. M. Karp, and A. Khademhosseini, Lab Chip 7, 756 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Deng, Y.

Y. Ling, J. Rubin, Y. Deng, C. Huang, U. Demirci, J. M. Karp, and A. Khademhosseini, Lab Chip 7, 756 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ding, L.

Dostalek, J.

Y. Wang, C.-J. Huang, U. Jonas, T. Wei, J. Dostalek, and W. Knoll, Biosens. Bioelectron. 25, 1663 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dziedzic, J.

A. Ashkin and J. Dziedzic, Science 235, 1517 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Erickson, D.

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, Nature 457, 71 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fan, X.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Forster, T.

T. Forster, C. Strohhofer, K. Bock, P. Kasak, M. Danko, Z. Kronekova, T. Nedelcev, I. Krupa, and I. Lacik, in Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems Conference, Transducers 2009. International (2009), pp. 1218–1221.

Gauglitz, G.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Greiner, D. P.

K.-P. S. Dancil, D. P. Greiner, and M. J. Sailor, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 7925 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Grossel, M. C.

J. S. Koo, P. G. R. Smith, R. B. Williams, C. Riziotis, and M. C. Grossel, Opt. Mater. 23, 583 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gwan, P. Tae

P. Tae Gwan, Biomaterials 20, 517 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hashimoto, I.

S. Sakai, I. Hashimoto, and K. Kawakami, J. Biosci. Bioeng. 103, 22 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Heilman, S.

S.-Y. Cheng, S. Heilman, M. Wasserman, S. Archer, M. L. Shuler, and M. Wu, Lab Chip 7, 763 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Homola, J.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C.

Y. Ling, J. Rubin, Y. Deng, C. Huang, U. Demirci, J. M. Karp, and A. Khademhosseini, Lab Chip 7, 756 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C.-J.

Y. Wang, C.-J. Huang, U. Jonas, T. Wei, J. Dostalek, and W. Knoll, Biosens. Bioelectron. 25, 1663 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, K.

Jonas, U.

Y. Wang, C.-J. Huang, U. Jonas, T. Wei, J. Dostalek, and W. Knoll, Biosens. Bioelectron. 25, 1663 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Karp, J. M.

Y. Ling, J. Rubin, Y. Deng, C. Huang, U. Demirci, J. M. Karp, and A. Khademhosseini, Lab Chip 7, 756 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kasak, P.

T. Forster, C. Strohhofer, K. Bock, P. Kasak, M. Danko, Z. Kronekova, T. Nedelcev, I. Krupa, and I. Lacik, in Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems Conference, Transducers 2009. International (2009), pp. 1218–1221.

Kawakami, K.

S. Sakai, I. Hashimoto, and K. Kawakami, J. Biosci. Bioeng. 103, 22 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Khademhosseini, A.

Y. Ling, J. Rubin, Y. Deng, C. Huang, U. Demirci, J. M. Karp, and A. Khademhosseini, Lab Chip 7, 756 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Klatt, S.

A. Richter, G. Paschew, S. Klatt, J. Lienig, K.-F. Arndt, and H.-J. P. Adler, Sensors 8, 561 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Klug, M.

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, Nature 457, 71 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Knoll, W.

Y. Wang, C.-J. Huang, U. Jonas, T. Wei, J. Dostalek, and W. Knoll, Biosens. Bioelectron. 25, 1663 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Knox, W. H.

Koo, J. S.

J. S. Koo, P. G. R. Smith, R. B. Williams, C. Riziotis, and M. C. Grossel, Opt. Mater. 23, 583 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kronekova, Z.

T. Forster, C. Strohhofer, K. Bock, P. Kasak, M. Danko, Z. Kronekova, T. Nedelcev, I. Krupa, and I. Lacik, in Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems Conference, Transducers 2009. International (2009), pp. 1218–1221.

Krupa, I.

T. Forster, C. Strohhofer, K. Bock, P. Kasak, M. Danko, Z. Kronekova, T. Nedelcev, I. Krupa, and I. Lacik, in Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems Conference, Transducers 2009. International (2009), pp. 1218–1221.

Kunzler, J. F.

Lacik, I.

T. Forster, C. Strohhofer, K. Bock, P. Kasak, M. Danko, Z. Kronekova, T. Nedelcev, I. Krupa, and I. Lacik, in Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems Conference, Transducers 2009. International (2009), pp. 1218–1221.

Langer, R.

M. M. Stevens, M. Mayer, D. G. Anderson, D. B. Weibel, G. M. Whitesides, and R. Langer, Biomaterials 26, 7636 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lienig, J.

A. Richter, G. Paschew, S. Klatt, J. Lienig, K.-F. Arndt, and H.-J. P. Adler, Sensors 8, 561 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ling, Y.

Y. Ling, J. Rubin, Y. Deng, C. Huang, U. Demirci, J. M. Karp, and A. Khademhosseini, Lab Chip 7, 756 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, Nature 457, 71 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mayer, M.

M. M. Stevens, M. Mayer, D. G. Anderson, D. B. Weibel, G. M. Whitesides, and R. Langer, Biomaterials 26, 7636 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Moore, S. D.

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, Nature 457, 71 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Moskaluk, C. A.

C. A. Moskaluk and M. H. Stoler, Diagn. Mol. Pathol. 11, 234 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nedelcev, T.

T. Forster, C. Strohhofer, K. Bock, P. Kasak, M. Danko, Z. Kronekova, T. Nedelcev, I. Krupa, and I. Lacik, in Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems Conference, Transducers 2009. International (2009), pp. 1218–1221.

Nishii, J.

Paschew, G.

A. Richter, G. Paschew, S. Klatt, J. Lienig, K.-F. Arndt, and H.-J. P. Adler, Sensors 8, 561 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Richter, A.

A. Richter, G. Paschew, S. Klatt, J. Lienig, K.-F. Arndt, and H.-J. P. Adler, Sensors 8, 561 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Riziotis, C.

J. S. Koo, P. G. R. Smith, R. B. Williams, C. Riziotis, and M. C. Grossel, Opt. Mater. 23, 583 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rubin, J.

Y. Ling, J. Rubin, Y. Deng, C. Huang, U. Demirci, J. M. Karp, and A. Khademhosseini, Lab Chip 7, 756 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sailor, M. J.

K.-P. S. Dancil, D. P. Greiner, and M. J. Sailor, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 7925 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, S.

S. Sakai, I. Hashimoto, and K. Kawakami, J. Biosci. Bioeng. 103, 22 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, B. S.

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, Nature 457, 71 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shopova, S. I.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shuler, M. L.

S.-Y. Cheng, S. Heilman, M. Wasserman, S. Archer, M. L. Shuler, and M. Wu, Lab Chip 7, 763 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smith, P. G. R.

J. S. Koo, P. G. R. Smith, R. B. Williams, C. Riziotis, and M. C. Grossel, Opt. Mater. 23, 583 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sowa, S.

Stevens, M. M.

M. M. Stevens, M. Mayer, D. G. Anderson, D. B. Weibel, G. M. Whitesides, and R. Langer, Biomaterials 26, 7636 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stoler, M. H.

C. A. Moskaluk and M. H. Stoler, Diagn. Mol. Pathol. 11, 234 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Strohhofer, C.

T. Forster, C. Strohhofer, K. Bock, P. Kasak, M. Danko, Z. Kronekova, T. Nedelcev, I. Krupa, and I. Lacik, in Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems Conference, Transducers 2009. International (2009), pp. 1218–1221.

Sun, Y.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Suter, J. D.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, A.

A. Suzuki and T. Tanaka, Nature 346, 345 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tamaki, T.

Tanaka, T.

A. Suzuki and T. Tanaka, Nature 346, 345 (1990).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanaka, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 820 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, C.-J. Huang, U. Jonas, T. Wei, J. Dostalek, and W. Knoll, Biosens. Bioelectron. 25, 1663 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wasserman, M.

S.-Y. Cheng, S. Heilman, M. Wasserman, S. Archer, M. L. Shuler, and M. Wu, Lab Chip 7, 763 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, W.

Wei, T.

Y. Wang, C.-J. Huang, U. Jonas, T. Wei, J. Dostalek, and W. Knoll, Biosens. Bioelectron. 25, 1663 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Weibel, D. B.

M. M. Stevens, M. Mayer, D. G. Anderson, D. B. Weibel, G. M. Whitesides, and R. Langer, Biomaterials 26, 7636 (2005).
[CrossRef]

White, I. M.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Whitesides, G. M.

M. M. Stevens, M. Mayer, D. G. Anderson, D. B. Weibel, G. M. Whitesides, and R. Langer, Biomaterials 26, 7636 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Williams, R. B.

J. S. Koo, P. G. R. Smith, R. B. Williams, C. Riziotis, and M. C. Grossel, Opt. Mater. 23, 583 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wu, M.

S.-Y. Cheng, S. Heilman, M. Wasserman, S. Archer, M. L. Shuler, and M. Wu, Lab Chip 7, 763 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, A. H. J.

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, Nature 457, 71 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yee, S. S.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, H.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chim. Acta

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Biomaterials

P. Tae Gwan, Biomaterials 20, 517 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Stevens, M. Mayer, D. G. Anderson, D. B. Weibel, G. M. Whitesides, and R. Langer, Biomaterials 26, 7636 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Biosens. Bioelectron.

Y. Wang, C.-J. Huang, U. Jonas, T. Wei, J. Dostalek, and W. Knoll, Biosens. Bioelectron. 25, 1663 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Diagn. Mol. Pathol.

C. A. Moskaluk and M. H. Stoler, Diagn. Mol. Pathol. 11, 234 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

K.-P. S. Dancil, D. P. Greiner, and M. J. Sailor, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 7925 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Biosci. Bioeng.

S. Sakai, I. Hashimoto, and K. Kawakami, J. Biosci. Bioeng. 103, 22 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lab Chip

S.-Y. Cheng, S. Heilman, M. Wasserman, S. Archer, M. L. Shuler, and M. Wu, Lab Chip 7, 763 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ling, J. Rubin, Y. Deng, C. Huang, U. Demirci, J. M. Karp, and A. Khademhosseini, Lab Chip 7, 756 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature

A. Suzuki and T. Tanaka, Nature 346, 345 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, Nature 457, 71 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Mater.

J. S. Koo, P. G. R. Smith, R. B. Williams, C. Riziotis, and M. C. Grossel, Opt. Mater. 23, 583 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

T. Tanaka, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 820 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Science

A. Ashkin and J. Dziedzic, Science 235, 1517 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sensors

A. Richter, G. Paschew, S. Klatt, J. Lienig, K.-F. Arndt, and H.-J. P. Adler, Sensors 8, 561 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other

T. Forster, C. Strohhofer, K. Bock, P. Kasak, M. Danko, Z. Kronekova, T. Nedelcev, I. Krupa, and I. Lacik, in Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems Conference, Transducers 2009. International (2009), pp. 1218–1221.

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: AVI (4085 KB)     

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Agarose gel waveguide with 2% (w/v) gel as core and 1.5%(w/v) gel as substrate (Inset: Magnified view). (b) Gel waveguides with HeNe laser coupled into the waveguide.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Intensity variation along a typical gel waveguide for estimation of scattering/absorption losses. (b) Scattering/absorption losses measured across different waveguides. Dotted line indicates average measured loss.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Schematic of an open end microfluidic design (not to scale). Open ends are later sealed with low melt agarose. (b) Flow inside the microchannel: After sealing the channel, a gel waveguide is imaged before (left) and after (right) flowing blue food color through the channel.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Gel waveguide, with calcein stained cells embedded within the core, coupled to an Argon ion laser (488 nm) and imaged under a fluorescent microscope. Live cells have been encircled for clarity. Supplementary video 1 depicts the movement of one such cell confirming its viability (Media 1).

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