Abstract

We have experimentally achieved a gain extinction ratio (GER) of 30 dB at 21.75 dBm pump power in a dual-pump phase sensitive amplifier based on highly nonlinear fiber, which is more efficient than what we predict with the conventional three-wave model. We point out that high-order sidebands play a key role. Then we scrutinize the trajectories of the output signal vector in the complex plane with increasing nonlinear phase shift and understand the roll-over behavior of GER versus pump power curve. We found that the phase “flip” of the output signal occurs around the largest GER. Adjusting design parameters, we show how to improve GER.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. Croussore and G. Li, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 14, 648 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. Parmigiani, R. Slavic, J. Kakande, C. Lundstr, M. Sj, P. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstr, R. Phelan, J. O. Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC NFOEC, 2010), paper PDPC3.
  3. J. Kakande, F. Parmigiani, R. Slavík, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrłm, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, in European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications (ECOC, 2010), paper Th.10.C.2.
  4. C. Lundström, B. Corcoran, Z. Tong, M. Karlsson, and P. Andrekson, in European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications (ECOC, 2011), paper Th.11.LeCervin.4.
  5. M. Gao, T. Inoue, T. Kurosu, and S. Namiki, to appear in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC NFOEC, 2012), paper OW3C.5.
  6. S. Namiki, T. Kurosu, K. Tanizawa, S. Petit, M. Gao, and J. Kurumida, J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 717 (2012).
  7. C. J. McKinstrie and M. G. Raymer, Opt. Express 14, 9600 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 4th ed. (Academic Press, 2007).

2012 (1)

S. Namiki, T. Kurosu, K. Tanizawa, S. Petit, M. Gao, and J. Kurumida, J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 717 (2012).

2008 (1)

K. Croussore and G. Li, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 14, 648 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 4th ed. (Academic Press, 2007).

Andrekson, P.

F. Parmigiani, R. Slavic, J. Kakande, C. Lundstr, M. Sj, P. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstr, R. Phelan, J. O. Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC NFOEC, 2010), paper PDPC3.

C. Lundström, B. Corcoran, Z. Tong, M. Karlsson, and P. Andrekson, in European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications (ECOC, 2011), paper Th.11.LeCervin.4.

Bogris, A.

F. Parmigiani, R. Slavic, J. Kakande, C. Lundstr, M. Sj, P. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstr, R. Phelan, J. O. Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC NFOEC, 2010), paper PDPC3.

Corcoran, B.

C. Lundström, B. Corcoran, Z. Tong, M. Karlsson, and P. Andrekson, in European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications (ECOC, 2011), paper Th.11.LeCervin.4.

Croussore, K.

K. Croussore and G. Li, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 14, 648 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dasgupta, S.

F. Parmigiani, R. Slavic, J. Kakande, C. Lundstr, M. Sj, P. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstr, R. Phelan, J. O. Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC NFOEC, 2010), paper PDPC3.

Ellis, A. D.

F. Parmigiani, R. Slavic, J. Kakande, C. Lundstr, M. Sj, P. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstr, R. Phelan, J. O. Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC NFOEC, 2010), paper PDPC3.

Gao, M.

S. Namiki, T. Kurosu, K. Tanizawa, S. Petit, M. Gao, and J. Kurumida, J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 717 (2012).

M. Gao, T. Inoue, T. Kurosu, and S. Namiki, to appear in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC NFOEC, 2012), paper OW3C.5.

Gorman, J. O.

F. Parmigiani, R. Slavic, J. Kakande, C. Lundstr, M. Sj, P. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstr, R. Phelan, J. O. Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC NFOEC, 2010), paper PDPC3.

Grielsen, L.

F. Parmigiani, R. Slavic, J. Kakande, C. Lundstr, M. Sj, P. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstr, R. Phelan, J. O. Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC NFOEC, 2010), paper PDPC3.

Grüner-Nielsen, L.

J. Kakande, F. Parmigiani, R. Slavík, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrłm, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, in European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications (ECOC, 2010), paper Th.10.C.2.

Herstr, S.

F. Parmigiani, R. Slavic, J. Kakande, C. Lundstr, M. Sj, P. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstr, R. Phelan, J. O. Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC NFOEC, 2010), paper PDPC3.

Herstrlm, S.

J. Kakande, F. Parmigiani, R. Slavík, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrłm, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, in European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications (ECOC, 2010), paper Th.10.C.2.

Inoue, T.

M. Gao, T. Inoue, T. Kurosu, and S. Namiki, to appear in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC NFOEC, 2012), paper OW3C.5.

Jakobsen, D.

J. Kakande, F. Parmigiani, R. Slavík, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrłm, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, in European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications (ECOC, 2010), paper Th.10.C.2.

F. Parmigiani, R. Slavic, J. Kakande, C. Lundstr, M. Sj, P. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstr, R. Phelan, J. O. Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC NFOEC, 2010), paper PDPC3.

Kakande, J.

F. Parmigiani, R. Slavic, J. Kakande, C. Lundstr, M. Sj, P. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstr, R. Phelan, J. O. Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC NFOEC, 2010), paper PDPC3.

J. Kakande, F. Parmigiani, R. Slavík, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrłm, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, in European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications (ECOC, 2010), paper Th.10.C.2.

Karlsson, M.

C. Lundström, B. Corcoran, Z. Tong, M. Karlsson, and P. Andrekson, in European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications (ECOC, 2011), paper Th.11.LeCervin.4.

Kurosu, T.

S. Namiki, T. Kurosu, K. Tanizawa, S. Petit, M. Gao, and J. Kurumida, J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 717 (2012).

M. Gao, T. Inoue, T. Kurosu, and S. Namiki, to appear in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC NFOEC, 2012), paper OW3C.5.

Kurumida, J.

S. Namiki, T. Kurosu, K. Tanizawa, S. Petit, M. Gao, and J. Kurumida, J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 717 (2012).

Li, G.

K. Croussore and G. Li, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 14, 648 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lundstr, C.

F. Parmigiani, R. Slavic, J. Kakande, C. Lundstr, M. Sj, P. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstr, R. Phelan, J. O. Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC NFOEC, 2010), paper PDPC3.

Lundström, C.

C. Lundström, B. Corcoran, Z. Tong, M. Karlsson, and P. Andrekson, in European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications (ECOC, 2011), paper Th.11.LeCervin.4.

McKinstrie, C. J.

Namiki, S.

S. Namiki, T. Kurosu, K. Tanizawa, S. Petit, M. Gao, and J. Kurumida, J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 717 (2012).

M. Gao, T. Inoue, T. Kurosu, and S. Namiki, to appear in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC NFOEC, 2012), paper OW3C.5.

Parmigiani, F.

J. Kakande, F. Parmigiani, R. Slavík, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrłm, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, in European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications (ECOC, 2010), paper Th.10.C.2.

F. Parmigiani, R. Slavic, J. Kakande, C. Lundstr, M. Sj, P. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstr, R. Phelan, J. O. Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC NFOEC, 2010), paper PDPC3.

Petit, S.

S. Namiki, T. Kurosu, K. Tanizawa, S. Petit, M. Gao, and J. Kurumida, J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 717 (2012).

Petropoulos, P.

F. Parmigiani, R. Slavic, J. Kakande, C. Lundstr, M. Sj, P. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstr, R. Phelan, J. O. Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC NFOEC, 2010), paper PDPC3.

J. Kakande, F. Parmigiani, R. Slavík, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrłm, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, in European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications (ECOC, 2010), paper Th.10.C.2.

Phelan, R.

F. Parmigiani, R. Slavic, J. Kakande, C. Lundstr, M. Sj, P. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstr, R. Phelan, J. O. Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC NFOEC, 2010), paper PDPC3.

Raymer, M. G.

Richardson, D. J.

J. Kakande, F. Parmigiani, R. Slavík, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrłm, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, in European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications (ECOC, 2010), paper Th.10.C.2.

F. Parmigiani, R. Slavic, J. Kakande, C. Lundstr, M. Sj, P. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstr, R. Phelan, J. O. Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC NFOEC, 2010), paper PDPC3.

Sj, M.

F. Parmigiani, R. Slavic, J. Kakande, C. Lundstr, M. Sj, P. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstr, R. Phelan, J. O. Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC NFOEC, 2010), paper PDPC3.

Slavic, R.

F. Parmigiani, R. Slavic, J. Kakande, C. Lundstr, M. Sj, P. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstr, R. Phelan, J. O. Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC NFOEC, 2010), paper PDPC3.

Slavík, R.

J. Kakande, F. Parmigiani, R. Slavík, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrłm, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, in European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications (ECOC, 2010), paper Th.10.C.2.

Sygletos, S.

F. Parmigiani, R. Slavic, J. Kakande, C. Lundstr, M. Sj, P. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstr, R. Phelan, J. O. Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC NFOEC, 2010), paper PDPC3.

Syvridis, D.

F. Parmigiani, R. Slavic, J. Kakande, C. Lundstr, M. Sj, P. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstr, R. Phelan, J. O. Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC NFOEC, 2010), paper PDPC3.

Tanizawa, K.

S. Namiki, T. Kurosu, K. Tanizawa, S. Petit, M. Gao, and J. Kurumida, J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 717 (2012).

Tong, Z.

C. Lundström, B. Corcoran, Z. Tong, M. Karlsson, and P. Andrekson, in European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications (ECOC, 2011), paper Th.11.LeCervin.4.

Weerasuriya, R.

F. Parmigiani, R. Slavic, J. Kakande, C. Lundstr, M. Sj, P. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstr, R. Phelan, J. O. Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC NFOEC, 2010), paper PDPC3.

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

K. Croussore and G. Li, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 14, 648 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Namiki, T. Kurosu, K. Tanizawa, S. Petit, M. Gao, and J. Kurumida, J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 717 (2012).

Opt. Express (1)

Other (5)

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 4th ed. (Academic Press, 2007).

F. Parmigiani, R. Slavic, J. Kakande, C. Lundstr, M. Sj, P. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstr, R. Phelan, J. O. Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC NFOEC, 2010), paper PDPC3.

J. Kakande, F. Parmigiani, R. Slavík, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrłm, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, in European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications (ECOC, 2010), paper Th.10.C.2.

C. Lundström, B. Corcoran, Z. Tong, M. Karlsson, and P. Andrekson, in European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications (ECOC, 2011), paper Th.11.LeCervin.4.

M. Gao, T. Inoue, T. Kurosu, and S. Namiki, to appear in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC NFOEC, 2012), paper OW3C.5.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Frequency allocations of degenerate dual-pump PSAs.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental setup of the dual-pump phase sensitive amplifiers. TLS: tunable laser source, PM: power meter; see text for other terms.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured phase sensitive gain and attenuation versus nonlinear phase shift γPpL (circles), along with the theoretical calculations with a pump wavelength separation of 0.7 nm for fiber dispersion of 0.482ps/nm/km using three-wave model (dashed curves) and seven-wave model (solid curves). Inset is the corresponding phase transfer characteristics at a γPpL of 0.9 rad.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The output signal trajectories in the complex plane with a pump wavelength separation of 0.7 nm and dispersion of 0ps/nm/km for increasing γPpL from 0 to 1.4 rad with an incremental step of 0.1 rad for in-phase case (squares) and out-of-phase case (circles) calculated by three-wave model (dotted) and seven-wave model (solid) (a) without SPM and XPM (b) with SPM and XPM.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The output signal trajectories in the complex plane with a pump wavelength separation of 3.5 nm for increasing γPpL from 0 to 1.4 rad with an incremental step of 0.1 rad for out-of-phase case with dispersion of 0.208ps/nm/km (squares), 0ps/nm/km (circles), 0.208ps/nm/km (diamonds), and 0.482ps/nm/km (triangles).

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

dPi(z)/dz=αPi+4γPiPpPmPnsin(θi,m,n,p)+2γPqPiPosin(θi,q,q,o),
dϕi(z)/dz=α/2+γ(Pi+2jiPj)+2γPpPmPn/Picos(θi,m,n,p)+γPqPo/Picos(θi,q,q,o),

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