Abstract

A state-of-the-art mid-infrared prism coupler was used to study suspected anisotropy in the refractive index of forward-looking-infrared grade chemical vapor deposited (CVD) zinc sulfide. Samples were prepared with columnar grain structure in and perpendicular to the sample plane, as well as from different depths in the CVD growth body. This study was motivated by the growing industry concern among optical design engineers, as well as developers of mid-infrared systems, over the reliability of historically accepted index data. Prior photoluminescence and x-ray diffraction measurements have suggested that refractive index may vary according to sample orientation with respect to the grain structure. Measurements were conducted to provide optical dispersion and thermal index (dn/dT) data at discrete laser wavelengths between 0.633 and 10.591 μm at two temperature set points (30 °C and 90 °C). Refractive index measurements between samples exhibited an average standard deviation comparable to the uncertainty of the prism coupler measurement (0.0004 refractive index units), suggesting that the variation in refractive index as a function of sample orientation and CVD deposition time is negligible and should have no impact on subsequent optical designs. Measured dispersion data at mid-infrared wavelengths were also found to agree well with prior published measurements.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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2011 (4)

J. McCloy, E. Fest, R. Korenstein, and W. H. Poisl, Proc. SPIE 8016, 80160I (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. C. Anheier and A. H. Qiao, Proc. SPIE 8016, 801614 (2011).

N. Carlie, N. C. Anheier, H. A. Qiao, B. Bernacki, M. C. Phillips, L. Petit, J. D. Musgraves, and K. Richardson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 053103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Qiao, N. C. Anheier, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, and D. W. Hewak, Proc. SPIE 8016, 801613 (2011).

2010 (1)

J. McCloy, B. Riley, B. Johnson, M. Schweiger, H. A. Qiao, and N. Carlie, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 93, 1650 (2010).

2009 (1)

J. McCloy, R. Korenstein, and B. Zelinski, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 92, 1725 (2009).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

T. Zhou, J. Zhang, B. Hu, and H. Yang, Appl. Opt. 33, 13 (1994).

1988 (1)

J. Goela and R. L. Taylor, J. Mater. Sci. 23, 4331 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

H. H. Li, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 13, 103 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1923 (1)

M. Mell, Z. Phys. 16, 244 (1923).
[CrossRef]

Anheier, N. C.

N. C. Anheier and A. H. Qiao, Proc. SPIE 8016, 801614 (2011).

N. Carlie, N. C. Anheier, H. A. Qiao, B. Bernacki, M. C. Phillips, L. Petit, J. D. Musgraves, and K. Richardson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 053103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Qiao, N. C. Anheier, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, and D. W. Hewak, Proc. SPIE 8016, 801613 (2011).

Bernacki, B.

N. Carlie, N. C. Anheier, H. A. Qiao, B. Bernacki, M. C. Phillips, L. Petit, J. D. Musgraves, and K. Richardson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 053103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Carlie, N.

N. Carlie, N. C. Anheier, H. A. Qiao, B. Bernacki, M. C. Phillips, L. Petit, J. D. Musgraves, and K. Richardson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 053103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. McCloy, B. Riley, B. Johnson, M. Schweiger, H. A. Qiao, and N. Carlie, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 93, 1650 (2010).

Dodge, M. J.

A. Feldman, D. Horowitz, R. M. Waxler, and M. J. Dodge, NBS Tech. Note (U.S.) 993 (GPO, 1979).

Feldman, A.

A. Feldman, D. Horowitz, R. M. Waxler, and M. J. Dodge, NBS Tech. Note (U.S.) 993 (GPO, 1979).

Fest, E.

J. McCloy, E. Fest, R. Korenstein, and W. H. Poisl, Proc. SPIE 8016, 80160I (2011).
[CrossRef]

Goela, J.

J. Goela and R. L. Taylor, J. Mater. Sci. 23, 4331 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Harris, D. C.

D. C. Harris, Materials for Infrared Windows and Domes: Properties and Performance (SPIE, 1999).

Hewak, D. W.

A. H. Qiao, N. C. Anheier, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, and D. W. Hewak, Proc. SPIE 8016, 801613 (2011).

Horowitz, D.

A. Feldman, D. Horowitz, R. M. Waxler, and M. J. Dodge, NBS Tech. Note (U.S.) 993 (GPO, 1979).

Hu, B.

T. Zhou, J. Zhang, B. Hu, and H. Yang, Appl. Opt. 33, 13 (1994).

Johnson, B.

J. McCloy, B. Riley, B. Johnson, M. Schweiger, H. A. Qiao, and N. Carlie, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 93, 1650 (2010).

Korenstein, R.

J. McCloy, E. Fest, R. Korenstein, and W. H. Poisl, Proc. SPIE 8016, 80160I (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. McCloy, R. Korenstein, and B. Zelinski, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 92, 1725 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, H. H.

H. H. Li, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 13, 103 (1984).
[CrossRef]

McCloy, J.

J. McCloy, E. Fest, R. Korenstein, and W. H. Poisl, Proc. SPIE 8016, 80160I (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. McCloy, B. Riley, B. Johnson, M. Schweiger, H. A. Qiao, and N. Carlie, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 93, 1650 (2010).

J. McCloy, R. Korenstein, and B. Zelinski, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 92, 1725 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. McCloy, “Properties and processing of chemical vapor deposited zinc sulfide,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Arizona, 2008).

Mell, M.

M. Mell, Z. Phys. 16, 244 (1923).
[CrossRef]

Musgraves, J. D.

A. H. Qiao, N. C. Anheier, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, and D. W. Hewak, Proc. SPIE 8016, 801613 (2011).

N. Carlie, N. C. Anheier, H. A. Qiao, B. Bernacki, M. C. Phillips, L. Petit, J. D. Musgraves, and K. Richardson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 053103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Petit, L.

N. Carlie, N. C. Anheier, H. A. Qiao, B. Bernacki, M. C. Phillips, L. Petit, J. D. Musgraves, and K. Richardson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 053103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, M. C.

N. Carlie, N. C. Anheier, H. A. Qiao, B. Bernacki, M. C. Phillips, L. Petit, J. D. Musgraves, and K. Richardson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 053103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Poisl, W. H.

J. McCloy, E. Fest, R. Korenstein, and W. H. Poisl, Proc. SPIE 8016, 80160I (2011).
[CrossRef]

Qiao, A. H.

N. C. Anheier and A. H. Qiao, Proc. SPIE 8016, 801614 (2011).

A. H. Qiao, N. C. Anheier, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, and D. W. Hewak, Proc. SPIE 8016, 801613 (2011).

Qiao, H. A.

N. Carlie, N. C. Anheier, H. A. Qiao, B. Bernacki, M. C. Phillips, L. Petit, J. D. Musgraves, and K. Richardson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 053103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. McCloy, B. Riley, B. Johnson, M. Schweiger, H. A. Qiao, and N. Carlie, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 93, 1650 (2010).

Richardson, K.

N. Carlie, N. C. Anheier, H. A. Qiao, B. Bernacki, M. C. Phillips, L. Petit, J. D. Musgraves, and K. Richardson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 053103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Qiao, N. C. Anheier, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, and D. W. Hewak, Proc. SPIE 8016, 801613 (2011).

Riley, B.

J. McCloy, B. Riley, B. Johnson, M. Schweiger, H. A. Qiao, and N. Carlie, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 93, 1650 (2010).

Schweiger, M.

J. McCloy, B. Riley, B. Johnson, M. Schweiger, H. A. Qiao, and N. Carlie, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 93, 1650 (2010).

Taylor, R. L.

J. Goela and R. L. Taylor, J. Mater. Sci. 23, 4331 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Waxler, R. M.

A. Feldman, D. Horowitz, R. M. Waxler, and M. J. Dodge, NBS Tech. Note (U.S.) 993 (GPO, 1979).

Yang, H.

T. Zhou, J. Zhang, B. Hu, and H. Yang, Appl. Opt. 33, 13 (1994).

Zelinski, B.

J. McCloy, R. Korenstein, and B. Zelinski, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 92, 1725 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

T. Zhou, J. Zhang, B. Hu, and H. Yang, Appl. Opt. 33, 13 (1994).

Zhou, T.

T. Zhou, J. Zhang, B. Hu, and H. Yang, Appl. Opt. 33, 13 (1994).

Appl. Opt. (1)

T. Zhou, J. Zhang, B. Hu, and H. Yang, Appl. Opt. 33, 13 (1994).

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (2)

J. McCloy, R. Korenstein, and B. Zelinski, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 92, 1725 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. McCloy, B. Riley, B. Johnson, M. Schweiger, H. A. Qiao, and N. Carlie, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 93, 1650 (2010).

J. Mater. Sci. (1)

J. Goela and R. L. Taylor, J. Mater. Sci. 23, 4331 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data (1)

H. H. Li, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 13, 103 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (3)

J. McCloy, E. Fest, R. Korenstein, and W. H. Poisl, Proc. SPIE 8016, 80160I (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. C. Anheier and A. H. Qiao, Proc. SPIE 8016, 801614 (2011).

A. H. Qiao, N. C. Anheier, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, and D. W. Hewak, Proc. SPIE 8016, 801613 (2011).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

N. Carlie, N. C. Anheier, H. A. Qiao, B. Bernacki, M. C. Phillips, L. Petit, J. D. Musgraves, and K. Richardson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 053103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Phys. (1)

M. Mell, Z. Phys. 16, 244 (1923).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

A. Feldman, D. Horowitz, R. M. Waxler, and M. J. Dodge, NBS Tech. Note (U.S.) 993 (GPO, 1979).

J. McCloy, “Properties and processing of chemical vapor deposited zinc sulfide,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Arizona, 2008).

D. C. Harris, Materials for Infrared Windows and Domes: Properties and Performance (SPIE, 1999).

Rohm and Haas Company, “CVD Zinc Sulfide,” http://www.dow.com/assets/attachments/business/gt/infrared_materials/cvd_zinc_sulfide/tds/cvd_zinc_sulfide.pdf (2008).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Images, micrographs, and orientation nomenclature of CVD ZnS samples. Shaded cylinders in the right column represent elongated grains, as CVD ZnS is textured along the growth direction.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

CVD ZnS optical dispersion (0.633–10.591 μm) with respect to reference Sellmeier curve.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

CVD ZnS optical refractive index at each measurement wavelength with respect to reference data.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Calculated Difference between [10] and Measured Indices

Tables Icon

Table 2. CVD ZnS dn/dT Measured at 10.6 μm and 60 °C

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