Abstract

We propose a spatial modulator for terahertz waves based on light induced electron plasma in photo-active semiconductors. A two-dimensional array of computer controlled light is used to create free carries in bulk silicon, which results in a spatial modulation of the transmission at terahertz frequencies. This method not only exhibits a remarkable modulation depth over a broad frequency range but also allows for an optically controlled beam steering of terahertz waves by inducing virtual grating structures. In addition, we analyze the possibility of all-optically controlled terahertz imaging.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2011 (2)

2010 (1)

2009 (3)

A. Bitzer, H. Merbold, A. Thoman, T. Feurer, H. Helm, and M. Walther, Opt. Express 17, 3826 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Scheller, C. Jansen, and M. Koch, Opt. Commun. 282, 1304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Chan, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 213511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

B. Sartorius, H. Roehle, H. Künzel, J. Böttcher, M. Schlak, D. Stanze, H. Venghaus, and M. Schell, Opt. Express 16, 9565 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Chan, K. Charan, D. Takhar, K. F. Kelly, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. MittlemanAppl. Phys. Lett. 93, 121105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

2006 (1)

J. Dai, X. Xie, and X.-C. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (2)

P. H. Siegel, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 50, 910 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T.T. Bauer, J. S. Kolb, T. Löffler, E. Mohler, H. G. Roskos, and U. C. Pernisz, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 2210 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1998 (1)

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3824 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Alton, J.

Baraniuk, R. G.

W. L. Chan, K. Charan, D. Takhar, K. F. Kelly, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. MittlemanAppl. Phys. Lett. 93, 121105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, T.T.

T.T. Bauer, J. S. Kolb, T. Löffler, E. Mohler, H. G. Roskos, and U. C. Pernisz, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 2210 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Beere, H. E.

Bitzer, A.

Böttcher, J.

Brener, I.

W. L. Chan, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 213511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Calawa, S.

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3824 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chan, W. L.

W. L. Chan, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 213511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Chan, K. Charan, D. Takhar, K. F. Kelly, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. MittlemanAppl. Phys. Lett. 93, 121105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Charan, K.

W. L. Chan, K. Charan, D. Takhar, K. F. Kelly, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. MittlemanAppl. Phys. Lett. 93, 121105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.-T.

W. L. Chan, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 213511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q.

Cich, M. J.

W. L. Chan, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 213511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cumming, D. R. S.

Dai, J.

J. Dai, X. Xie, and X.-C. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dinatale, W. F.

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3824 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Duerr, E. K.

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3824 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fallahi, M.

Feurer, T.

Heinen, B.

Helm, H.

Inoue, H.

Jansen, C.

Katletz, S.

Kawase, K.

Kelly, K. F.

W. L. Chan, K. Charan, D. Takhar, K. F. Kelly, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. MittlemanAppl. Phys. Lett. 93, 121105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Koch, M.

Koch, S. W.

Kolb, J. S.

T.T. Bauer, J. S. Kolb, T. Löffler, E. Mohler, H. G. Roskos, and U. C. Pernisz, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 2210 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Künzel, H.

Löffler, T.

T.T. Bauer, J. S. Kolb, T. Löffler, E. Mohler, H. G. Roskos, and U. C. Pernisz, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 2210 (2002).
[CrossRef]

McIntosh, K. A.

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3824 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Merbold, H.

Mittleman, D. M.

W. L. Chan, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 213511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Chan, K. Charan, D. Takhar, K. F. Kelly, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. MittlemanAppl. Phys. Lett. 93, 121105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mohler, E.

T.T. Bauer, J. S. Kolb, T. Löffler, E. Mohler, H. G. Roskos, and U. C. Pernisz, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 2210 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Moloney, J. V.

Molvar, K. A.

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3824 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ogawa, Y.

Pernisz, U. C.

T.T. Bauer, J. S. Kolb, T. Löffler, E. Mohler, H. G. Roskos, and U. C. Pernisz, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 2210 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pfleger, M.

Pühringer, H.

Ritchie, D.

Roehle, H.

Roskos, H. G.

T.T. Bauer, J. S. Kolb, T. Löffler, E. Mohler, H. G. Roskos, and U. C. Pernisz, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 2210 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sartorius, B.

Schell, M.

Scheller, M.

Scherger, B.

Schlak, M.

Siegel, P. H.

P. H. Siegel, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 50, 910 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stanze, D.

Takhar, D.

W. L. Chan, K. Charan, D. Takhar, K. F. Kelly, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. MittlemanAppl. Phys. Lett. 93, 121105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

W. L. Chan, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 213511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thoman, A.

Tonouchi, M.

M. Tonouchi, Nat. Photon. 1, 97 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Venghaus, H.

Verghese, S.

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3824 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vieweg, N.

Walsby, E. D.

Walther, M.

Watanabe, Y.

Wiesauer, K.

Williams, B. S.

B. S. Williams, Nat. Photon. 1, 517 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Worrall, C.

Xie, X.

J. Dai, X. Xie, and X.-C. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xu, G. X.

Yarborough, J. M.

Zhang, X.-C.

J. Dai, X. Xie, and X.-C. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q. Chen, Jiang Zhiping, G. X. Xu, and X.-C. Zhang, Opt. Lett. 25, 1122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhiping, Jiang

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3824 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Chan, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 213511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Chan, K. Charan, D. Takhar, K. F. Kelly, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. MittlemanAppl. Phys. Lett. 93, 121105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

P. H. Siegel, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 50, 910 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T.T. Bauer, J. S. Kolb, T. Löffler, E. Mohler, H. G. Roskos, and U. C. Pernisz, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 2210 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon. (2)

M. Tonouchi, Nat. Photon. 1, 97 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, Nat. Photon. 1, 517 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. Scheller, C. Jansen, and M. Koch, Opt. Commun. 282, 1304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. Dai, X. Xie, and X.-C. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Mean absorption coefficient of a 500 µm silicon wafer for different illumination intensities.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Illustration of the employed setup. An ITO plate is used to overlap the THz emission with the modulated light onto a silicon wafer.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Absolute and (b) relative THz signals for different light powers. The inset to (a) shows the change in the spectral transmission for the maximal light output. The inset to (b) shows the spectrum of the relative THz signal.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

THz signal resulting from the virtual grating for different line densities. Shown are the relative THz signals.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Peak frequency of the THz signal as a function of the line density, measured under detection angles of 30° and 40°.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Vertical and (b) horizontal line scans to characterize the THz beam profile incident onto the semiconductor. The measured values represent the peak-to-peak value of the absolute THz signal.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) Scheme of the cross-shaped piece aluminum sample used for the imaging measurement and (b) corresponding THz image (peak-to-peak value of the absolute THz signal).

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