Abstract

A simple and efficient scheme based on a one-dimensional nanometric-thin cell filled with Rb and strong permanent ring magnets allows direct observation of the hyperfine Paschen–Back regime on the D1 line in the 0.5–0.7 T magnetic field. Experimental results are perfectly consistent with the theory. In particular, with σ+ laser excitation, the slopes of the B-field dependence of frequency shifts for all 10 individual transitions of Rb85,87 are the same and equal to 18.6MHz/mT. Possible applications for magnetometry with submicron spatial resolution and tunable atomic frequency references are discussed.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2011

G. Hakhumyan, C. Leroy, Y. Pashayan-Leroy, D. Sarkisyan, and M. Auzinsh, Opt. Commun. 284, 4007 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Olsen, B. Patton, Y.-Y. Jau, and W. Happer, Phys. Rev. A 84, 063410 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

2009

G. Školnik, N. Vujičić, and T. Ban, Opt. Commun. 282, 1326 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

A. Sargsyan, G. Hakhumyan, A. Papoyan, D. Sarkisyan, A. Atvars, and M. Auzinsh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2005

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Sarkisyan, A. Papoyan, T. Varzhapetyan, K. Blušs, and M. Auzinsh, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 88 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

1994

N. Papageorgiou, A. Weis, V. Sautenkov, D. Bloch, and M. Ducloy, Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 59, 123 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1990

P. Tremblay, A. Michaud, M. Levesque, S. Thériault, M. Breton, J. Beaubien, and N. Cyr, Phys. Rev. A 42, 2766 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Alexandrov, E. B.

E. B. Alexandrov, M. P. Chaika, and G. I. Khvostenko, Interference of Atomic States (Springer-Verlag, 1993).

Atvars, A.

A. Sargsyan, G. Hakhumyan, A. Papoyan, D. Sarkisyan, A. Atvars, and M. Auzinsh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Auzinsh, M.

G. Hakhumyan, C. Leroy, Y. Pashayan-Leroy, D. Sarkisyan, and M. Auzinsh, Opt. Commun. 284, 4007 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Sargsyan, G. Hakhumyan, A. Papoyan, D. Sarkisyan, A. Atvars, and M. Auzinsh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Sarkisyan, A. Papoyan, T. Varzhapetyan, K. Blušs, and M. Auzinsh, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 88 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baluktsian, T.

Ban, T.

G. Školnik, N. Vujičić, and T. Ban, Opt. Commun. 282, 1326 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Beaubien, J.

P. Tremblay, A. Michaud, M. Levesque, S. Thériault, M. Breton, J. Beaubien, and N. Cyr, Phys. Rev. A 42, 2766 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bloch, D.

N. Papageorgiou, A. Weis, V. Sautenkov, D. Bloch, and M. Ducloy, Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 59, 123 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Blušs, K.

Breton, M.

P. Tremblay, A. Michaud, M. Levesque, S. Thériault, M. Breton, J. Beaubien, and N. Cyr, Phys. Rev. A 42, 2766 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bublat, T.

Budker, D.

D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, and D. P. DeMille, Atomic Physics: An Exploration through Problems and Solutions(Oxford Univ., 2004).

Chaika, M. P.

E. B. Alexandrov, M. P. Chaika, and G. I. Khvostenko, Interference of Atomic States (Springer-Verlag, 1993).

Cyr, N.

P. Tremblay, A. Michaud, M. Levesque, S. Thériault, M. Breton, J. Beaubien, and N. Cyr, Phys. Rev. A 42, 2766 (1990).
[CrossRef]

DeMille, D. P.

D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, and D. P. DeMille, Atomic Physics: An Exploration through Problems and Solutions(Oxford Univ., 2004).

Ducloy, M.

N. Papageorgiou, A. Weis, V. Sautenkov, D. Bloch, and M. Ducloy, Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 59, 123 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fleischhauer, M.

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Giessen, H.

Hakhumyan, G.

G. Hakhumyan, C. Leroy, Y. Pashayan-Leroy, D. Sarkisyan, and M. Auzinsh, Opt. Commun. 284, 4007 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Hakhumyan, A. Sargsyan, C. Leroy, Y. Pashayan-Leroy, A. Papoyan, and D. Sarkisyan, Opt. Express 18, 14577 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Sargsyan, G. Hakhumyan, A. Papoyan, D. Sarkisyan, A. Atvars, and M. Auzinsh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Happer, W.

B. A. Olsen, B. Patton, Y.-Y. Jau, and W. Happer, Phys. Rev. A 84, 063410 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hollberg, L.

Imamoglu, A.

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jau, Y.-Y.

B. A. Olsen, B. Patton, Y.-Y. Jau, and W. Happer, Phys. Rev. A 84, 063410 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Khvostenko, G. I.

E. B. Alexandrov, M. P. Chaika, and G. I. Khvostenko, Interference of Atomic States (Springer-Verlag, 1993).

Kimball, D. F.

D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, and D. P. DeMille, Atomic Physics: An Exploration through Problems and Solutions(Oxford Univ., 2004).

Kitching, J.

Knappe, S.

Leroy, C.

G. Hakhumyan, C. Leroy, Y. Pashayan-Leroy, D. Sarkisyan, and M. Auzinsh, Opt. Commun. 284, 4007 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Hakhumyan, A. Sargsyan, C. Leroy, Y. Pashayan-Leroy, A. Papoyan, and D. Sarkisyan, Opt. Express 18, 14577 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Levesque, M.

P. Tremblay, A. Michaud, M. Levesque, S. Thériault, M. Breton, J. Beaubien, and N. Cyr, Phys. Rev. A 42, 2766 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Löw, R.

Marangos, J. P.

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Michaud, A.

P. Tremblay, A. Michaud, M. Levesque, S. Thériault, M. Breton, J. Beaubien, and N. Cyr, Phys. Rev. A 42, 2766 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Olsen, B. A.

B. A. Olsen, B. Patton, Y.-Y. Jau, and W. Happer, Phys. Rev. A 84, 063410 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Papageorgiou, N.

N. Papageorgiou, A. Weis, V. Sautenkov, D. Bloch, and M. Ducloy, Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 59, 123 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Papoyan, A.

Pashayan-Leroy, Y.

G. Hakhumyan, C. Leroy, Y. Pashayan-Leroy, D. Sarkisyan, and M. Auzinsh, Opt. Commun. 284, 4007 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Hakhumyan, A. Sargsyan, C. Leroy, Y. Pashayan-Leroy, A. Papoyan, and D. Sarkisyan, Opt. Express 18, 14577 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Patton, B.

B. A. Olsen, B. Patton, Y.-Y. Jau, and W. Happer, Phys. Rev. A 84, 063410 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pfau, T.

Sargsyan, A.

G. Hakhumyan, A. Sargsyan, C. Leroy, Y. Pashayan-Leroy, A. Papoyan, and D. Sarkisyan, Opt. Express 18, 14577 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Sargsyan, G. Hakhumyan, A. Papoyan, D. Sarkisyan, A. Atvars, and M. Auzinsh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sarkisyan, D.

G. Hakhumyan, C. Leroy, Y. Pashayan-Leroy, D. Sarkisyan, and M. Auzinsh, Opt. Commun. 284, 4007 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Hakhumyan, A. Sargsyan, C. Leroy, Y. Pashayan-Leroy, A. Papoyan, and D. Sarkisyan, Opt. Express 18, 14577 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Sargsyan, G. Hakhumyan, A. Papoyan, D. Sarkisyan, A. Atvars, and M. Auzinsh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Sarkisyan, A. Papoyan, T. Varzhapetyan, K. Blušs, and M. Auzinsh, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 88 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sautenkov, V.

N. Papageorgiou, A. Weis, V. Sautenkov, D. Bloch, and M. Ducloy, Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 59, 123 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Školnik, G.

G. Školnik, N. Vujičić, and T. Ban, Opt. Commun. 282, 1326 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thériault, S.

P. Tremblay, A. Michaud, M. Levesque, S. Thériault, M. Breton, J. Beaubien, and N. Cyr, Phys. Rev. A 42, 2766 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tremblay, P.

P. Tremblay, A. Michaud, M. Levesque, S. Thériault, M. Breton, J. Beaubien, and N. Cyr, Phys. Rev. A 42, 2766 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Urban, C.

Varzhapetyan, T.

Vujicic, N.

G. Školnik, N. Vujičić, and T. Ban, Opt. Commun. 282, 1326 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Weis, A.

N. Papageorgiou, A. Weis, V. Sautenkov, D. Bloch, and M. Ducloy, Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 59, 123 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt.

N. Papageorgiou, A. Weis, V. Sautenkov, D. Bloch, and M. Ducloy, Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 59, 123 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. Sargsyan, G. Hakhumyan, A. Papoyan, D. Sarkisyan, A. Atvars, and M. Auzinsh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Commun.

G. Hakhumyan, C. Leroy, Y. Pashayan-Leroy, D. Sarkisyan, and M. Auzinsh, Opt. Commun. 284, 4007 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Školnik, N. Vujičić, and T. Ban, Opt. Commun. 282, 1326 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

B. A. Olsen, B. Patton, Y.-Y. Jau, and W. Happer, Phys. Rev. A 84, 063410 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Tremblay, A. Michaud, M. Levesque, S. Thériault, M. Breton, J. Beaubien, and N. Cyr, Phys. Rev. A 42, 2766 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys.

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other

D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, and D. P. DeMille, Atomic Physics: An Exploration through Problems and Solutions(Oxford Univ., 2004).

D. A. Steck, “Rubidium 85 D line data, Rubidium 87 D line data,” http://steck.us/alkalidata .

E. B. Alexandrov, M. P. Chaika, and G. I. Khvostenko, Interference of Atomic States (Springer-Verlag, 1993).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Diagram of Rb85 (I=5/2) and Rb87 (I=3/2) transitions for σ+ laser excitation in the HPB regime. The selection rules: ΔmJ=+1; ΔmI=0.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Sketch of the experimental setup. ECDL, diode laser; FI, Faraday isolator; 1λ/4 plate; 2, NTC in the oven; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; 3, permanent ring magnets; 4, photodetectors; 5, stainless steel Π-shape holder (shown in the inset). The longitudinal size of the NTC including the oven is 8 mm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Transmission spectrum of Rb NTC with L=λ for B=0.605T and σ+ laser excitation. Well-resolved VSOP resonances located at atomic transitions are labeled 1–10 (six transitions, 4–9, belonging to Rb85, and four transitions, 1, 2, 3, and 10, belonging to Rb87). The change in probe transmission is ΔT=4%. The lower gray curve is the fluorescence spectrum of the reference NTC with L=λ/2, showing the positions of Rb87, Fg=1Fe=1, two transitions for B=0, labeled as 11 and 12 (all frequency shifts are measured from Fg=1Fe=2). Frequency interval between resonances 1 and 2 belonging to Rb87, and the interval between resonances 8 and 9 belonging to Rb85 are 1.7 GHz and 0.6 GHz, correspondingly, while the interval between resonances 3 (Rb87) and 7 (Rb85) is 0.1 GHz.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Magnetic field dependence of the frequency shifts for the transition components labeled 4–9 (Rb85) and 1–3, 10 (Rb87, in the inset). Solid lines: theory; symbols: experiment. The inaccuracy is 2% for components 4–9, 1, and 10, and 5% for components 2 and 3. The larger error for 3 and 2 is caused by the closely located strong transition 7 and the location on the transmission spectrum wing, respectively.

Equations (1)

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E|J,mJ,I,mI=AhfsmJmI+μB(gJmJ+gImI)B.

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