Abstract

We demonstrate a novel method that employs a frame-accumulation and shaped-function technique to improve an image sensor’s detection sensitivity using probability statistics. It can obtain the unbiased estimate for the low-light-level image signal, thus upgrading the signal-to-noise ratio to a high degree. It was verified by an experiment in a sealed box. By the help of a variable light beam–shaped function saw-tooth signal in front of a camera, the low-light-level shadow image that was invisible to the camera could be revealed clearly from the frame accumulation data. The method can surpass an image sensor’s detection limitation.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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2010 (1)

2009 (2)

2008 (2)

J. Shi, M. Ouyang, W. Gong, S. Li, and D. Liu, Appl. Phys. B 90, 569 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, L. J. Zhang, L. Lin, and F. He, Acta Electron. Sin. 36 (4), 756 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

S. Dhokkar, B. Serio, P. Lagonotte, and P. Meyrueis, Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 2696 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

C. H. Contag and B. D. Ross, J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 16, 378 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Roth, T. E. Murphy, and C. Xu, Opt. Lett. 27, 2076 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1991 (1)

W. Chou and R. M. Gray, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 37, 500 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

J. Vanderkooy and S. P. Lipshitz, J. Audio Eng. Soc. 35, 966 (1987).

Bao, H.

Chou, W.

W. Chou and R. M. Gray, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 37, 500 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chuang, F. S.

Contag, C. H.

C. H. Contag and B. D. Ross, J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 16, 378 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dai, Y.

Dhokkar, S.

S. Dhokkar, B. Serio, P. Lagonotte, and P. Meyrueis, Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 2696 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Elson, D. S.

Fan, Y. B.

Farwell, D. G.

Gong, W.

J. Shi, M. Ouyang, W. Gong, S. Li, and D. Liu, Appl. Phys. B 90, 569 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gray, R. M.

W. Chou and R. M. Gray, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 37, 500 (1991).
[CrossRef]

He, F.

G. Li, L. J. Zhang, L. Lin, and F. He, Acta Electron. Sin. 36 (4), 756 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Z. P.

Lagonotte, P.

S. Dhokkar, B. Serio, P. Lagonotte, and P. Meyrueis, Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 2696 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

G. Li, L. J. Zhang, L. Lin, and F. He, Acta Electron. Sin. 36 (4), 756 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, S.

J. Shi, M. Ouyang, W. Gong, S. Li, and D. Liu, Appl. Phys. B 90, 569 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, L.

G. Li, L. J. Zhang, L. Lin, and F. He, Acta Electron. Sin. 36 (4), 756 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lipshitz, S. P.

J. Vanderkooy and S. P. Lipshitz, J. Audio Eng. Soc. 35, 966 (1987).

Liu, D.

J. Shi, M. Ouyang, W. Gong, S. Li, and D. Liu, Appl. Phys. B 90, 569 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Marcu, L.

Meier, J.

Meyrueis, P.

S. Dhokkar, B. Serio, P. Lagonotte, and P. Meyrueis, Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 2696 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, T. E.

Nelson, N.

Ouyang, M.

J. Shi, M. Ouyang, W. Gong, S. Li, and D. Liu, Appl. Phys. B 90, 569 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phipps, J.

Poirier, B.

Rao, C. H.

Rao, X. J.

Ross, B. D.

C. H. Contag and B. D. Ross, J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 16, 378 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Roth, J. M.

Serio, B.

S. Dhokkar, B. Serio, P. Lagonotte, and P. Meyrueis, Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 2696 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shi, J.

J. Shi, M. Ouyang, W. Gong, S. Li, and D. Liu, Appl. Phys. B 90, 569 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stoy, H.

Sun, Y. H.

Tinling, S.

Tseng, Y.

Vanderkooy, J.

J. Vanderkooy and S. P. Lipshitz, J. Audio Eng. Soc. 35, 966 (1987).

Wu, P.-H.

Xu, C.

Xu, X. G.

Zhang, L. J.

G. Li, L. J. Zhang, L. Lin, and F. He, Acta Electron. Sin. 36 (4), 756 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-C.

Zhang, Y. D.

Acta Electron. Sin. (1)

G. Li, L. J. Zhang, L. Lin, and F. He, Acta Electron. Sin. 36 (4), 756 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

J. Shi, M. Ouyang, W. Gong, S. Li, and D. Liu, Appl. Phys. B 90, 569 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory (1)

W. Chou and R. M. Gray, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 37, 500 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Audio Eng. Soc. (1)

J. Vanderkooy and S. P. Lipshitz, J. Audio Eng. Soc. 35, 966 (1987).

J. Magn. Reson. Imaging (1)

C. H. Contag and B. D. Ross, J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 16, 378 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

S. Dhokkar, B. Serio, P. Lagonotte, and P. Meyrueis, Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 2696 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (1)

Texas Instruments Europe, literature no. SPRA461 (1998).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Signal composition.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

System configuration.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental data: (a) shadow image, (b) average of superimposed image set, (c) average of pure shape image set, (d) the subtraction of (b) and (c) after contrast stretching.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Another set of experimental data; the image sequence is the same as in Fig. 3.

Equations (15)

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SNR=xs2/σn2,
SNR=(i=1mxsi)2/D(i=1mxni),
D(i=1mxni)=mσn2,
SNR=m2xs2/mσn2=mSNR.
F(xxf=xs)=F(Δxs+Δxf<1).
F(xxf=xs)=1Δxs.
F(xxf=xs+1)=Δxs.
E(xxf)=μ=(xs+1)Δxs+xs(1Δxs)=xs+Δxs.
D(xxf)=σ2=E(xxf)2E2(xxf)=Δxs(1Δxs).
μ^=xxf¯=1mi=1m(xixfi).
μ^=1mi=1m(xixfi)N(u,(σm)2).
Δxs^=1mi=1m(xixfi)xs,
Δxs^N(Δxs,(σm)2).
D(Δxs^)=(σm)2=Δxs(1Δxs)m.
X¯=1mi=1mXi,X¯s=1mi=1mXsi,X¯f=1mi=1mXfi.

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