Abstract

The pulse-burst duration of a compact burst-mode Nd:YAG laser is extended by one order of magnitude compared to previous flashlamp-pumped designs by incorporating a fiber oscillator and diode-pumped solid-state amplifiers. The laser has a linewidth of <2GHz at 1064.3 nm with 150 mJ per individual pulse at 10 kHz. The performance of the system is evaluated by using the third-harmonic output at 354.8 nm for high-speed planar laser-induced fluorescence of formaldehyde in a lifted methane-air diffusion flame. A total of 100 and 200 sequential images of unsteady fluid-flame interactions are acquired at repetition rates of 10 kHz and 20 kHz, respectively.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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K. N. Gabet, R. A. Patton, N. Jiang, W. R. Lempert, and J. A. Sutton, Appl. Phys. B (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

R. A. Patton, K. N. Gabet, N. Jiang, W. R. Lempert, and J. A. Sutton, Appl. Phys. B 106, 457 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Miller, S. R. Engel, T. R. Meyer, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, Opt. Lett. 36, 3927 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009

J. Sjöholm, E. Kristensson, M. Richter, M. Aldén, G. Göritz, and K. Knebel, Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 025306 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Jiang, M. C. Webster, and W. R. Lempert, Appl. Opt. 48, B23 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Boxx, M. Stöhr, C. Carter, and W. Meier, Appl. Phys. B 95, 23 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Miller, M. Slipchenko, T. R. Meyer, N. Jiang, W. R. Lempert, and J. R. Gord, Opt. Lett. 34, 1309 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2005

P. Weigand, W. Meier, X. R. Duan, R. Giezendanner-Thoben, and U. Meier, Flow Turbul. Combust. 75, 275 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Smith and V. Sick, Appl. Phys. B 81, 579 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

C. Brackmann, J. Nygren, X. Bai, Z. Li, H. Bladh, B. Axelsson, I. Denbratt, L. Koopmans, P.-E. Bengtsson, and M. Aldén, Spectrochim. Acta 59, 3347 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

K. A. Watson, K. M. Lyons, C. D. Carter, and J. M. Donbar, Proc. Comb. Inst. 29, 1905 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

1999

C. F. Kaminski, J. Hult, and M. Aldén, Appl. Phys. B 68, 757 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

J. M. Grace, P. E. Nebolsine, C. L. Goldey, G. Chahal, J. Norby, and J.-M. Heritier, Opt. Eng. 37, 2205 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1990

Aldén, M.

J. Sjöholm, E. Kristensson, M. Richter, M. Aldén, G. Göritz, and K. Knebel, Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 025306 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Brackmann, J. Nygren, X. Bai, Z. Li, H. Bladh, B. Axelsson, I. Denbratt, L. Koopmans, P.-E. Bengtsson, and M. Aldén, Spectrochim. Acta 59, 3347 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Kaminski, J. Hult, and M. Aldén, Appl. Phys. B 68, 757 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Axelsson, B.

C. Brackmann, J. Nygren, X. Bai, Z. Li, H. Bladh, B. Axelsson, I. Denbratt, L. Koopmans, P.-E. Bengtsson, and M. Aldén, Spectrochim. Acta 59, 3347 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bai, X.

C. Brackmann, J. Nygren, X. Bai, Z. Li, H. Bladh, B. Axelsson, I. Denbratt, L. Koopmans, P.-E. Bengtsson, and M. Aldén, Spectrochim. Acta 59, 3347 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bengtsson, P.-E.

C. Brackmann, J. Nygren, X. Bai, Z. Li, H. Bladh, B. Axelsson, I. Denbratt, L. Koopmans, P.-E. Bengtsson, and M. Aldén, Spectrochim. Acta 59, 3347 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bernal, L. P.

Bladh, H.

C. Brackmann, J. Nygren, X. Bai, Z. Li, H. Bladh, B. Axelsson, I. Denbratt, L. Koopmans, P.-E. Bengtsson, and M. Aldén, Spectrochim. Acta 59, 3347 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boxx, I.

I. Boxx, M. Stöhr, C. Carter, and W. Meier, Appl. Phys. B 95, 23 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brackmann, C.

C. Brackmann, J. Nygren, X. Bai, Z. Li, H. Bladh, B. Axelsson, I. Denbratt, L. Koopmans, P.-E. Bengtsson, and M. Aldén, Spectrochim. Acta 59, 3347 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Carter, C.

I. Boxx, M. Stöhr, C. Carter, and W. Meier, Appl. Phys. B 95, 23 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Carter, C. D.

K. A. Watson, K. M. Lyons, C. D. Carter, and J. M. Donbar, Proc. Comb. Inst. 29, 1905 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chahal, G.

J. M. Grace, P. E. Nebolsine, C. L. Goldey, G. Chahal, J. Norby, and J.-M. Heritier, Opt. Eng. 37, 2205 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Denbratt, I.

C. Brackmann, J. Nygren, X. Bai, Z. Li, H. Bladh, B. Axelsson, I. Denbratt, L. Koopmans, P.-E. Bengtsson, and M. Aldén, Spectrochim. Acta 59, 3347 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Donbar, J. M.

K. A. Watson, K. M. Lyons, C. D. Carter, and J. M. Donbar, Proc. Comb. Inst. 29, 1905 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Duan, X. R.

P. Weigand, W. Meier, X. R. Duan, R. Giezendanner-Thoben, and U. Meier, Flow Turbul. Combust. 75, 275 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Engel, S. R.

Faeth, G. M.

Gabet, K. N.

K. N. Gabet, R. A. Patton, N. Jiang, W. R. Lempert, and J. A. Sutton, Appl. Phys. B (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Patton, K. N. Gabet, N. Jiang, W. R. Lempert, and J. A. Sutton, Appl. Phys. B 106, 457 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Giezendanner-Thoben, R.

P. Weigand, W. Meier, X. R. Duan, R. Giezendanner-Thoben, and U. Meier, Flow Turbul. Combust. 75, 275 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Goldey, C. L.

J. M. Grace, P. E. Nebolsine, C. L. Goldey, G. Chahal, J. Norby, and J.-M. Heritier, Opt. Eng. 37, 2205 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gord, J. R.

Göritz, G.

J. Sjöholm, E. Kristensson, M. Richter, M. Aldén, G. Göritz, and K. Knebel, Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 025306 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Grace, J. M.

J. M. Grace, P. E. Nebolsine, C. L. Goldey, G. Chahal, J. Norby, and J.-M. Heritier, Opt. Eng. 37, 2205 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Heritier, J.-M.

J. M. Grace, P. E. Nebolsine, C. L. Goldey, G. Chahal, J. Norby, and J.-M. Heritier, Opt. Eng. 37, 2205 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hult, J.

C. F. Kaminski, J. Hult, and M. Aldén, Appl. Phys. B 68, 757 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, N.

K. N. Gabet, R. A. Patton, N. Jiang, W. R. Lempert, and J. A. Sutton, Appl. Phys. B (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Patton, K. N. Gabet, N. Jiang, W. R. Lempert, and J. A. Sutton, Appl. Phys. B 106, 457 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Miller, M. Slipchenko, T. R. Meyer, N. Jiang, W. R. Lempert, and J. R. Gord, Opt. Lett. 34, 1309 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Jiang, M. C. Webster, and W. R. Lempert, Appl. Opt. 48, B23 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Jiang and W. R. Lempert, Opt. Lett. 33, 2236 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kaminski, C. F.

C. F. Kaminski, J. Hult, and M. Aldén, Appl. Phys. B 68, 757 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Knebel, K.

J. Sjöholm, E. Kristensson, M. Richter, M. Aldén, G. Göritz, and K. Knebel, Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 025306 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Koechner, W.

W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering, 6th ed. (Springer Science+Business Media, Inc., New York, 2006).

Koopmans, L.

C. Brackmann, J. Nygren, X. Bai, Z. Li, H. Bladh, B. Axelsson, I. Denbratt, L. Koopmans, P.-E. Bengtsson, and M. Aldén, Spectrochim. Acta 59, 3347 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kristensson, E.

J. Sjöholm, E. Kristensson, M. Richter, M. Aldén, G. Göritz, and K. Knebel, Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 025306 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Leipertz, A.

Lempert, W. R.

K. N. Gabet, R. A. Patton, N. Jiang, W. R. Lempert, and J. A. Sutton, Appl. Phys. B (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Patton, K. N. Gabet, N. Jiang, W. R. Lempert, and J. A. Sutton, Appl. Phys. B 106, 457 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Jiang, M. C. Webster, and W. R. Lempert, Appl. Opt. 48, B23 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Miller, M. Slipchenko, T. R. Meyer, N. Jiang, W. R. Lempert, and J. R. Gord, Opt. Lett. 34, 1309 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Jiang and W. R. Lempert, Opt. Lett. 33, 2236 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

C. Brackmann, J. Nygren, X. Bai, Z. Li, H. Bladh, B. Axelsson, I. Denbratt, L. Koopmans, P.-E. Bengtsson, and M. Aldén, Spectrochim. Acta 59, 3347 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lyons, K. M.

K. A. Watson, K. M. Lyons, C. D. Carter, and J. M. Donbar, Proc. Comb. Inst. 29, 1905 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Meier, U.

P. Weigand, W. Meier, X. R. Duan, R. Giezendanner-Thoben, and U. Meier, Flow Turbul. Combust. 75, 275 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Meier, W.

I. Boxx, M. Stöhr, C. Carter, and W. Meier, Appl. Phys. B 95, 23 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Weigand, W. Meier, X. R. Duan, R. Giezendanner-Thoben, and U. Meier, Flow Turbul. Combust. 75, 275 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, T. R.

Miles, R. B.

Miller, J. D.

Nebolsine, P. E.

J. M. Grace, P. E. Nebolsine, C. L. Goldey, G. Chahal, J. Norby, and J.-M. Heritier, Opt. Eng. 37, 2205 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Norby, J.

J. M. Grace, P. E. Nebolsine, C. L. Goldey, G. Chahal, J. Norby, and J.-M. Heritier, Opt. Eng. 37, 2205 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nygren, J.

C. Brackmann, J. Nygren, X. Bai, Z. Li, H. Bladh, B. Axelsson, I. Denbratt, L. Koopmans, P.-E. Bengtsson, and M. Aldén, Spectrochim. Acta 59, 3347 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Patton, R. A.

K. N. Gabet, R. A. Patton, N. Jiang, W. R. Lempert, and J. A. Sutton, Appl. Phys. B (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Patton, K. N. Gabet, N. Jiang, W. R. Lempert, and J. A. Sutton, Appl. Phys. B 106, 457 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Richter, M.

J. Sjöholm, E. Kristensson, M. Richter, M. Aldén, G. Göritz, and K. Knebel, Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 025306 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ruff, G. A.

Seeger, T.

Sick, V.

J. D. Smith and V. Sick, Appl. Phys. B 81, 579 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sjöholm, J.

J. Sjöholm, E. Kristensson, M. Richter, M. Aldén, G. Göritz, and K. Knebel, Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 025306 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Slipchenko, M.

Smith, J. D.

J. D. Smith and V. Sick, Appl. Phys. B 81, 579 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stöhr, M.

I. Boxx, M. Stöhr, C. Carter, and W. Meier, Appl. Phys. B 95, 23 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sutton, J. A.

K. N. Gabet, R. A. Patton, N. Jiang, W. R. Lempert, and J. A. Sutton, Appl. Phys. B (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Patton, K. N. Gabet, N. Jiang, W. R. Lempert, and J. A. Sutton, Appl. Phys. B 106, 457 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Watson, K. A.

K. A. Watson, K. M. Lyons, C. D. Carter, and J. M. Donbar, Proc. Comb. Inst. 29, 1905 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Webster, M. C.

Weigand, P.

P. Weigand, W. Meier, X. R. Duan, R. Giezendanner-Thoben, and U. Meier, Flow Turbul. Combust. 75, 275 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, P. P.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

C. F. Kaminski, J. Hult, and M. Aldén, Appl. Phys. B 68, 757 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Smith and V. Sick, Appl. Phys. B 81, 579 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. Boxx, M. Stöhr, C. Carter, and W. Meier, Appl. Phys. B 95, 23 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Patton, K. N. Gabet, N. Jiang, W. R. Lempert, and J. A. Sutton, Appl. Phys. B 106, 457 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. N. Gabet, R. A. Patton, N. Jiang, W. R. Lempert, and J. A. Sutton, Appl. Phys. B (2012).
[CrossRef]

Flow Turbul. Combust.

P. Weigand, W. Meier, X. R. Duan, R. Giezendanner-Thoben, and U. Meier, Flow Turbul. Combust. 75, 275 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol.

J. Sjöholm, E. Kristensson, M. Richter, M. Aldén, G. Göritz, and K. Knebel, Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 025306 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

J. M. Grace, P. E. Nebolsine, C. L. Goldey, G. Chahal, J. Norby, and J.-M. Heritier, Opt. Eng. 37, 2205 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. Comb. Inst.

K. A. Watson, K. M. Lyons, C. D. Carter, and J. M. Donbar, Proc. Comb. Inst. 29, 1905 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta

C. Brackmann, J. Nygren, X. Bai, Z. Li, H. Bladh, B. Axelsson, I. Denbratt, L. Koopmans, P.-E. Bengtsson, and M. Aldén, Spectrochim. Acta 59, 3347 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other

W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering, 6th ed. (Springer Science+Business Media, Inc., New York, 2006).

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: AVI (1008 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (1817 KB)     

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Optical layout of quasi-continuous burst-mode laser system. Symbols: OI-optical isolator, EOM-electro-optic modulator, PH-pinhole, HWP-half-wave plate, DWP-dual-wavelength wave plate, QR-quartz rotator, VC-vacuum cell, HS-harmonic separator, and BD-beam dump. Numbers are focal lengths of spherical lenses.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Spontaneous emission (SE) for amplifier chain as a function of time. (a) Diode-pumped amplifiers. (b) Flashlamp-pumped amplifiers.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Amplifier-chain performance. (a) Diode-pumped amplifier gain as a function of pumping current. (b) Flashlamp-pumped amplifier gain as a function of flashlamp pump energy. (c) Energy distribution in the burst at 10 kHz at fundamental, second-, and third-harmonic wavelengths. The pulse-to-pulse energy deviation is below 10%.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

10 ms duration PLIF imaging of CH2O in a lifted CH4-air diffusion flame at 10 kHz (upper panel) and 20 kHz (lower panel) showing every 10th image. False-color scales indicate non-normalized, background-subtracted camera counts. The full sequences for 10 kHz and 20 kHz are available online as Media 1 and Media 2, respectively.

Metrics