Abstract

The viability and performance of using a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) in atmospheric lidar applications is experimentally compared against the well-established use of photomultiplier tubes. By using a modified lidar setup for simultaneous data acquisition of both types of sensors, we demonstrate that a SiPM can offer appropriate qualities for this specific application where the detection of fast, extremely low light pulses and large dynamic range signals are essential capabilities. The experimental results show that the SiPM has an appropriate behaviour offering suitable capabilities for elastic, backscatter aerosol lidars. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study showing SiPM for atmospheric lidar applications.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantzerov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A 504, 48 (2003).
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A. Nassalski, M. Moszyński, A. Syntfeld-Każuch, T. Szczęśniak, Ł. Świderski, D. Wolski, T. Batsch, and J. Baszak, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 57, 1008 (2010).
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A. Nassalski, M. Moszyński, A. Syntfeld-Każuch, T. Szczęśniak, Ł. Świderski, D. Wolski, T. Batsch, and J. Baszak, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 57, 1008 (2010).
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R. Vinke, H. Löhner, D. R. Schaart, H. T. van Dam, S. Seifert, F. J. Beekman, and P. Dendooven, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A 610, 188 (2009).
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P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantzerov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A 504, 48 (2003).
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M. Sicard, A. Comerón, F. Rocadenbosch, A. Rodríguez, and C. Muñoz, Appl. Opt. 48, 176 (2009).
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D. Kumar, M. Sicard, S. Tomás, C. Muñoz, F. Rocadenbosch, and A. Comerón, Proc. SPIE, 636763670U (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dendooven, P.

R. Vinke, H. Löhner, D. R. Schaart, H. T. van Dam, S. Seifert, F. J. Beekman, and P. Dendooven, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A 610, 188 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Seifert, H. T. van Dam, J. Huizenga, R. Vinke, P. Dendooven, H. Löhner, and D. R. Schaart, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 56, 3726 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dolgoshein, B.

N. Otte, B. Dolgoshein, J. Hose, S. Klemin, E. Lorenz, R. Mirzoyan, E. Popova, and M. Teshima, Nucl. Phys. B 150, 144 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantzerov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A 504, 48 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Eraerds, P.

Fernald, F. G.

Filatov, L.

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantzerov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A 504, 48 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gisin, N.

Hose, J.

N. Otte, B. Dolgoshein, J. Hose, S. Klemin, E. Lorenz, R. Mirzoyan, E. Popova, and M. Teshima, Nucl. Phys. B 150, 144 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huizenga, J.

S. Seifert, H. T. van Dam, J. Huizenga, R. Vinke, P. Dendooven, H. Löhner, and D. R. Schaart, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 56, 3726 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ilyin, A.

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantzerov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A 504, 48 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kantzerov, V.

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantzerov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A 504, 48 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kaplin, V.

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantzerov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A 504, 48 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Karakash, A.

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantzerov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A 504, 48 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kayumov, F.

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantzerov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A 504, 48 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Klemin, S.

N. Otte, B. Dolgoshein, J. Hose, S. Klemin, E. Lorenz, R. Mirzoyan, E. Popova, and M. Teshima, Nucl. Phys. B 150, 144 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantzerov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A 504, 48 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Klett, J. D.

Kovaltchouk, V. D.

V. D. Kovaltchouk, G. J. Lolos, Z. Papandreou, and K. Wolbaum, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A 538, 408 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, D.

D. Kumar, M. Sicard, S. Tomás, C. Muñoz, F. Rocadenbosch, and A. Comerón, Proc. SPIE, 636763670U (2006).
[CrossRef]

Legré, M.

Löhner, H.

R. Vinke, H. Löhner, D. R. Schaart, H. T. van Dam, S. Seifert, F. J. Beekman, and P. Dendooven, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A 610, 188 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Seifert, H. T. van Dam, J. Huizenga, R. Vinke, P. Dendooven, H. Löhner, and D. R. Schaart, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 56, 3726 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lolos, G. J.

V. D. Kovaltchouk, G. J. Lolos, Z. Papandreou, and K. Wolbaum, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A 538, 408 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lorenz, E.

N. Otte, B. Dolgoshein, J. Hose, S. Klemin, E. Lorenz, R. Mirzoyan, E. Popova, and M. Teshima, Nucl. Phys. B 150, 144 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mirzoyan, R.

N. Otte, B. Dolgoshein, J. Hose, S. Klemin, E. Lorenz, R. Mirzoyan, E. Popova, and M. Teshima, Nucl. Phys. B 150, 144 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Moszynski, M.

A. Nassalski, M. Moszyński, A. Syntfeld-Każuch, T. Szczęśniak, Ł. Świderski, D. Wolski, T. Batsch, and J. Baszak, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 57, 1008 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Muñoz, C.

M. Sicard, A. Comerón, F. Rocadenbosch, A. Rodríguez, and C. Muñoz, Appl. Opt. 48, 176 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Kumar, M. Sicard, S. Tomás, C. Muñoz, F. Rocadenbosch, and A. Comerón, Proc. SPIE, 636763670U (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nakane, H.

Nassalski, A.

A. Nassalski, M. Moszyński, A. Syntfeld-Każuch, T. Szczęśniak, Ł. Świderski, D. Wolski, T. Batsch, and J. Baszak, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 57, 1008 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ohsuka, S.

K. Yamamoto, K. Yamamura, K. Sato, T. Ota, H. Suzuki, and S. Ohsuka, in Proceedings of the IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record (IEEE, 2006), pp. 1094–1097.

Ota, T.

K. Yamamoto, K. Yamamura, K. Sato, T. Ota, H. Suzuki, and S. Ohsuka, in Proceedings of the IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record (IEEE, 2006), pp. 1094–1097.

Otte, N.

N. Otte, B. Dolgoshein, J. Hose, S. Klemin, E. Lorenz, R. Mirzoyan, E. Popova, and M. Teshima, Nucl. Phys. B 150, 144 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Papandreou, Z.

V. D. Kovaltchouk, G. J. Lolos, Z. Papandreou, and K. Wolbaum, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A 538, 408 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Popova, E.

N. Otte, B. Dolgoshein, J. Hose, S. Klemin, E. Lorenz, R. Mirzoyan, E. Popova, and M. Teshima, Nucl. Phys. B 150, 144 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantzerov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A 504, 48 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rocadenbosch, F.

M. Sicard, A. Comerón, F. Rocadenbosch, A. Rodríguez, and C. Muñoz, Appl. Opt. 48, 176 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Kumar, M. Sicard, S. Tomás, C. Muñoz, F. Rocadenbosch, and A. Comerón, Proc. SPIE, 636763670U (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rochas, A.

Rodríguez, A.

Sasano, Y.

Sato, K.

K. Yamamoto, K. Yamamura, K. Sato, T. Ota, H. Suzuki, and S. Ohsuka, in Proceedings of the IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record (IEEE, 2006), pp. 1094–1097.

Schaart, D. R.

R. Vinke, H. Löhner, D. R. Schaart, H. T. van Dam, S. Seifert, F. J. Beekman, and P. Dendooven, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A 610, 188 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Seifert, H. T. van Dam, J. Huizenga, R. Vinke, P. Dendooven, H. Löhner, and D. R. Schaart, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 56, 3726 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Seifert, S.

R. Vinke, H. Löhner, D. R. Schaart, H. T. van Dam, S. Seifert, F. J. Beekman, and P. Dendooven, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A 610, 188 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Seifert, H. T. van Dam, J. Huizenga, R. Vinke, P. Dendooven, H. Löhner, and D. R. Schaart, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 56, 3726 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sicard, M.

M. Sicard, A. Comerón, F. Rocadenbosch, A. Rodríguez, and C. Muñoz, Appl. Opt. 48, 176 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Kumar, M. Sicard, S. Tomás, C. Muñoz, F. Rocadenbosch, and A. Comerón, Proc. SPIE, 636763670U (2006).
[CrossRef]

Smirnov, S.

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantzerov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A 504, 48 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, H.

K. Yamamoto, K. Yamamura, K. Sato, T. Ota, H. Suzuki, and S. Ohsuka, in Proceedings of the IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record (IEEE, 2006), pp. 1094–1097.

Swiderski, L.

A. Nassalski, M. Moszyński, A. Syntfeld-Każuch, T. Szczęśniak, Ł. Świderski, D. Wolski, T. Batsch, and J. Baszak, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 57, 1008 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Syntfeld-Kazuch, A.

A. Nassalski, M. Moszyński, A. Syntfeld-Każuch, T. Szczęśniak, Ł. Świderski, D. Wolski, T. Batsch, and J. Baszak, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 57, 1008 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Szczesniak, T.

A. Nassalski, M. Moszyński, A. Syntfeld-Każuch, T. Szczęśniak, Ł. Świderski, D. Wolski, T. Batsch, and J. Baszak, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 57, 1008 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Teshima, M.

N. Otte, B. Dolgoshein, J. Hose, S. Klemin, E. Lorenz, R. Mirzoyan, E. Popova, and M. Teshima, Nucl. Phys. B 150, 144 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tomás, S.

D. Kumar, M. Sicard, S. Tomás, C. Muñoz, F. Rocadenbosch, and A. Comerón, Proc. SPIE, 636763670U (2006).
[CrossRef]

van Dam, H. T.

S. Seifert, H. T. van Dam, J. Huizenga, R. Vinke, P. Dendooven, H. Löhner, and D. R. Schaart, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 56, 3726 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Vinke, H. Löhner, D. R. Schaart, H. T. van Dam, S. Seifert, F. J. Beekman, and P. Dendooven, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A 610, 188 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vinke, R.

R. Vinke, H. Löhner, D. R. Schaart, H. T. van Dam, S. Seifert, F. J. Beekman, and P. Dendooven, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A 610, 188 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Seifert, H. T. van Dam, J. Huizenga, R. Vinke, P. Dendooven, H. Löhner, and D. R. Schaart, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 56, 3726 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wolbaum, K.

V. D. Kovaltchouk, G. J. Lolos, Z. Papandreou, and K. Wolbaum, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A 538, 408 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wolski, D.

A. Nassalski, M. Moszyński, A. Syntfeld-Każuch, T. Szczęśniak, Ł. Świderski, D. Wolski, T. Batsch, and J. Baszak, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 57, 1008 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, K.

K. Yamamoto, K. Yamamura, K. Sato, T. Ota, H. Suzuki, and S. Ohsuka, in Proceedings of the IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record (IEEE, 2006), pp. 1094–1097.

Yamamura, K.

K. Yamamoto, K. Yamamura, K. Sato, T. Ota, H. Suzuki, and S. Ohsuka, in Proceedings of the IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record (IEEE, 2006), pp. 1094–1097.

Zbinden, H.

Appl. Opt.

IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.

S. Seifert, H. T. van Dam, J. Huizenga, R. Vinke, P. Dendooven, H. Löhner, and D. R. Schaart, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 56, 3726 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Nassalski, M. Moszyński, A. Syntfeld-Każuch, T. Szczęśniak, Ł. Świderski, D. Wolski, T. Batsch, and J. Baszak, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 57, 1008 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantzerov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A 504, 48 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. D. Kovaltchouk, G. J. Lolos, Z. Papandreou, and K. Wolbaum, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A 538, 408 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Vinke, H. Löhner, D. R. Schaart, H. T. van Dam, S. Seifert, F. J. Beekman, and P. Dendooven, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A 610, 188 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Phys. B

N. Otte, B. Dolgoshein, J. Hose, S. Klemin, E. Lorenz, R. Mirzoyan, E. Popova, and M. Teshima, Nucl. Phys. B 150, 144 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Proc. SPIE

D. Kumar, M. Sicard, S. Tomás, C. Muñoz, F. Rocadenbosch, and A. Comerón, Proc. SPIE, 636763670U (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other

K. Yamamoto, K. Yamamura, K. Sato, T. Ota, H. Suzuki, and S. Ohsuka, in Proceedings of the IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record (IEEE, 2006), pp. 1094–1097.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup for simultaneous PMT and SiPM measurements.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

SNR as a function of height of the PMT and SiPM detectors.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Time series of the RSCS between 2232 and 2301 UTC and backscatter coefficient profiles retrieved with the PMT and SiPM detectors.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Sensor Parameters at the Bias Voltage, Temperature and Wavelength Used for the Experiment

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

SNRsn=(Psλ2hcBηF)12,
SNRSiPMsnSNRPMTsn=(ηSiPMFSiPMFPMTηPMT)122.32.
SNRrn=q1/2Psλhc(2B)1/2(η2MFId)12,
SNRPMTrnSNRSiPMrnηPMTηSiPM(FSiPMId,SiPMMPMTFPMTId,PMTMSiPM)121.70.

Metrics