Abstract

A mid-infrared (mid-IR)-focusing subwavelength grating (SWG) coupler and suspended membrane waveguide (SMW) on a silicon-on-insulator wafer are studied. For a transverse-electric mode uniform SWG, finite-difference time-domain simulation predicts 44.2% coupling efficiency with 1 dB bandwidth of about 220 nm and backreflection of 0.78% at 2.75 μm. Then the uniform SWG is curved to a focusing SWG using a phase-matching formula. The SMWs are analyzed by the finite element method and fabricated. An Er3+Pr3+ co-doped mid-IR fiber laser is used for device characterization. The fabricated mid-IR SWG coupler has 24.7% coupling efficiency.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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Atanackovic, P.

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Bräuer, A.

Bulu, I.

Cheben, P.

Chen, X.

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, C. K. Y. Fung, Y. M. Chen, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. M.

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, C. K. Y. Fung, Y. M. Chen, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Z.

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Claes, T.

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[CrossRef]

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Divliansky, I. B.

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, Nat. Photon. 4, 561 (2010).
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Eggleton, B. J.

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Foster, M. A.

Fung, C. K. Y.

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[CrossRef]

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Green, W. M. J.

B. Kuyken, X. Liu, R. M. Osgood, R. Baets, G. Roelkens, and W. M. J. Green, Opt. Express 19, 20172 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. P. Liu, R. M. Osgood, Y. A. Vlasov, and W. M. J. Green, Nat. Photon. 4, 557 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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He, S.

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Hudson, D.

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Janz, S.

Karthe, W.

Kley, E.

Kuyken, B.

Laere, F. V.

F. V. Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1919 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lau, R. K. W.

Leijssen, R.

Li, F.

Liang, T. K.

T. K. Liang and H. K. Tsang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2745 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Liu, X.

Liu, X. P.

X. P. Liu, R. M. Osgood, Y. A. Vlasov, and W. M. J. Green, Nat. Photon. 4, 557 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Loncar, M.

Madden, S. J.

Magi, E.

Mashanovich, G. Z.

Ménard, M.

Miloševic, M. M.

Moghe, Y.

Molina-Fernández, Í.

Mookherjea, S.

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, Nat. Photon. 4, 561 (2010).
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S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, Nat. Photon. 4, 561 (2010).
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[CrossRef]

Okawachi, Y.

Osgood, R. M.

B. Kuyken, X. Liu, R. M. Osgood, R. Baets, G. Roelkens, and W. M. J. Green, Opt. Express 19, 20172 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. P. Liu, R. M. Osgood, Y. A. Vlasov, and W. M. J. Green, Nat. Photon. 4, 557 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Owens, N.

Park, J. S.

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, Nat. Photon. 4, 561 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Penkov, B.

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S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, Nat. Photon. 4, 561 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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F. V. Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1919 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schnabel, B.

Schrauwen, J.

F. V. Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1919 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shankar, R.

Soref, R.

R. Soref, Nat. Photon. 4, 495 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Spott, A.

Taillaert, D.

F. V. Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1919 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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Tang, Y.

Teo, E. J.

Thourhout, D. V.

F. V. Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1919 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, H. K.

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, C. K. Y. Fung, Y. M. Chen, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen and H. K. Tsang, Opt. Lett. 36, 796 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Liang and H. K. Tsang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2745 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Turner-Foster, A. C.

Vlasov, Y. A.

X. P. Liu, R. M. Osgood, Y. A. Vlasov, and W. M. J. Green, Nat. Photon. 4, 557 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Waldhäusl, R.

Wang, Z.

Wangüemert-Pérez, J. G.

Westergren, U.

Wong, C. Y.

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, C. K. Y. Fung, Y. M. Chen, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wosinski, L.

Xiong, B.

Xu, D.-X.

Xu, K.

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, C. K. Y. Fung, Y. M. Chen, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zlatanovic, S.

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, Nat. Photon. 4, 561 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

T. K. Liang and H. K. Tsang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2745 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. J.

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, C. K. Y. Fung, Y. M. Chen, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

F. V. Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1919 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon.

X. P. Liu, R. M. Osgood, Y. A. Vlasov, and W. M. J. Green, Nat. Photon. 4, 557 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, Nat. Photon. 4, 561 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Soref, Nat. Photon. 4, 495 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Uniform SWG. (b) Schematic picture of focusing SWG for coupling. (c) Focusing SWG. (d) FEM simulation of deformation and stress distribution in the SMW.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) The dependence of coupling strength and directionality on the fill factor. (b) Simulated performance of TE-mode uniform SWG. (c) The dependence of Bragg grating coupling coefficient κ on the distance W1 . (d) The dependence of waveguide deformation D on the external stress pressure.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the SMW and focusing SWG. (b) SEM image of focusing SWG. (c) SEM image of the SMW.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Experimental setup. 1: laser diode; 2: fiber holder; 3: collimated lens; 4: chopper; 5: dichroic mirror; 6: sapphire lens; 7: Er3+Pr3+ co-doped ZBLAN fiber; 8: undoped ZBLAN fiber; 9: sample; 10: monochromator; 11: mid-IR detector; 12: oscilloscope 13: lock-in amplifier; 14: computer. (b) Laser spectrum. (c) Simulations and measurements of coupling efficiency under different incident angles. (d) Measurements of coupling efficiency under different corresponding uniform SWG longitudinal periods.

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