Abstract

Advanced optical modulation formats are a key technology to increase the capacity of optical communication networks. Mach–Zehnder modulators are typically used to generate various modulation formats. Here, we report the first experimental demonstration of quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) modulation using compact microring modulators. Generation of 20Gb/s QPSK signals is demonstrated with 30 μm radius silicon ring modulators with drive voltages of 6V. These compact QPSK modulators may be used in miniature optical transponders for high-capacity optical data links.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2010 (3)

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

R. A. Soref, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1678 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Fang, H. Park, R. Jones, O. Cohen, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1143 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, Nature 435, 325 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

A. J. Viterbi and A. M. Viterbi, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 29, 543 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, D.

Alon, E.

Amberg, P.

Ang, K. W.

T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. F. Song, Y. Z. Xiong, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Asghari, M.

Assefa, S.

J. C. Rosenberg, W. M. Green, S. Assefa, T. Barwicz, M. Yang, S. M. Shank, and Y. A. Vlasov, in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper PDPB9.

Barwicz, T.

J. C. Rosenberg, W. M. Green, S. Assefa, T. Barwicz, M. Yang, S. M. Shank, and Y. A. Vlasov, in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper PDPB9.

Beals, M.

Beausoleil, R. G.

L. Zhang, J. Y. Yang, Y. Li, R. G. Beausoleil, and A. E. Willner, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2008), (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper OWL5.

Bowers, J. E.

A. W. Fang, H. Park, R. Jones, O. Cohen, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1143 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

Cohen, O.

A. W. Fang, H. Park, R. Jones, O. Cohen, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1143 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, J. E.

Dayringer, M.

De Man, E.

de Waardt, H.

Ding, D.

Dong, P.

Duthel, T.

Fang, A. W.

A. W. Fang, H. Park, R. Jones, O. Cohen, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1143 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fang, Q.

T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. F. Song, Y. Z. Xiong, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Feng, D.

Feng, N.-N.

Fludger, C. R.

Gainsley, J.

Geyer, J.

Gill, D. M.

Giziewicz, W.

Green, W. M.

J. C. Rosenberg, W. M. Green, S. Assefa, T. Barwicz, M. Yang, S. M. Shank, and Y. A. Vlasov, in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper PDPB9.

Ho, R.

Hong, C. Y.

Integlia, R. A.

Jiang, W.

Jones, R.

A. W. Fang, H. Park, R. Jones, O. Cohen, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1143 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kärtner, F. X.

Khoe, G.-D.

Kimerling, L. C.

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Kung, C. C.

Kwong, D. L.

T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. F. Song, Y. Z. Xiong, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lentine, A. L.

M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, in Proceedings of the 5th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2008), pp. 4–6.

Lexau, J.

Li, G.

Li, J.

Li, Y.

L. Zhang, J. Y. Yang, Y. Li, R. G. Beausoleil, and A. E. Willner, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2008), (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper OWL5.

Li, Z.

Liang, H.

Liao, S.

Liow, T. Y.

T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. F. Song, Y. Z. Xiong, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, Nature 435, 325 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, F.

Liu, J.

Lo, G. Q.

T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. F. Song, Y. Z. Xiong, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Y.

Mekis, A.

Michel, J.

Moghadam, H. F.

Pan, D. Z.

Paniccia, M. J.

A. W. Fang, H. Park, R. Jones, O. Cohen, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1143 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Park, H.

A. W. Fang, H. Park, R. Jones, O. Cohen, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1143 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Patil, D.

Pinguet, T.

Poon, J. K. S.

Pradhan, S.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, Nature 435, 325 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Qian, W.

Qiu, C.

Raj, K.

Rosenberg, J. C.

J. C. Rosenberg, W. M. Green, S. Assefa, T. Barwicz, M. Yang, S. M. Shank, and Y. A. Vlasov, in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper PDPB9.

Sacher, W. D.

Schmidt, B.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, Nature 435, 325 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, E. D.

Schulien, C.

Shafiiha, R.

Shank, S. M.

J. C. Rosenberg, W. M. Green, S. Assefa, T. Barwicz, M. Yang, S. M. Shank, and Y. A. Vlasov, in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper PDPB9.

Shu, J.

Shubin, I.

Song, J. F.

T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. F. Song, Y. Z. Xiong, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1678 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thacker, H.

Trotter, D. C.

M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, in Proceedings of the 5th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2008), pp. 4–6.

van den Borne, D.

Vlasov, Y. A.

J. C. Rosenberg, W. M. Green, S. Assefa, T. Barwicz, M. Yang, S. M. Shank, and Y. A. Vlasov, in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper PDPB9.

Wang, X.

Watts, M. R.

M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, in Proceedings of the 5th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2008), pp. 4–6.

Willner, A. E.

L. Zhang, J. Y. Yang, Y. Li, R. G. Beausoleil, and A. E. Willner, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2008), (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper OWL5.

Wuth, T.

Xiong, Y. Z.

T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. F. Song, Y. Z. Xiong, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q.

C. Qiu, J. Shu, Z. Li, X. Zhang, and Q. Xu, Opt. Express 19, 5143 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, Nature 435, 325 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J. Y.

L. Zhang, J. Y. Yang, Y. Li, R. G. Beausoleil, and A. E. Willner, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2008), (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper OWL5.

Yang, M.

J. C. Rosenberg, W. M. Green, S. Assefa, T. Barwicz, M. Yang, S. M. Shank, and Y. A. Vlasov, in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper PDPB9.

Yao, J.

Yin, L.

Young, R. W.

M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, in Proceedings of the 5th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2008), pp. 4–6.

Yu, M. B.

T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. F. Song, Y. Z. Xiong, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

L. Zhang, J. Y. Yang, Y. Li, R. G. Beausoleil, and A. E. Willner, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2008), (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper OWL5.

Zhang, X.

Zheng, D.

Zheng, X.

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

R. A. Soref, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1678 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. F. Song, Y. Z. Xiong, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

A. W. Fang, H. Park, R. Jones, O. Cohen, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1143 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory (1)

A. J. Viterbi and A. M. Viterbi, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 29, 543 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Nature (1)

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, Nature 435, 325 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (5)

J. C. Rosenberg, W. M. Green, S. Assefa, T. Barwicz, M. Yang, S. M. Shank, and Y. A. Vlasov, in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper PDPB9.

L. Zhang, J. Y. Yang, Y. Li, R. G. Beausoleil, and A. E. Willner, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2008), (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper OWL5.

M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, in Proceedings of the 5th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2008), pp. 4–6.

K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, S. Manipatruni, C. B. Poitras, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, in CLEO: 2011–Laser Applications to Photonic Applications (Optical Society of America2011), paper CTuN4.

http://www.lunatechnologies.com/products/ova/files/OVAwhitePaper .

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a), (b) Transmission and phase response of a ring resonator to produce BPSK with the dotted laser wavelength at which it experiences a constant amplitude and a π-phase shift, (c) microring-based QPSK modulator, (d) microscopy optical image of a fabricated microring QPSK modulator, (e), (f) silicon waveguide cross-sections with dopings to produce high-speed modulation and thermal phase shifts.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Transmission (a) and phase (b) spectra of the resonators with different bias voltages.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) I-Q constellations with an OSNR of 30 dB and (b) 11.5 dB. (c) BER performance of 20 Gb/s microring QPSK modulator.

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