Abstract

We show that adding a thin dielectric layer with high refractive index on top of the metallic layer in surface plasmon resonance sensors in the Kretschmann–Raether configuration in the spectral mode causes a redshift of the resonance wavelength, narrowing of the resonance dip, and an enhancement to the spectral sensitivity. Surprisingly, together with the sensitivity enhancement, the dip becomes much narrower and the figure of merit is considerably improved, particularly in the IR range.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. Shalabney and I. Abdulhalim, Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 571 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. Gupta and J. Kondoh, Sensors Actuators B 122, 381 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. S. Yuk, D. Hong, J. Jung, S. Jung, H. Kim, J. Han, Y. Kim, and K. Ha, Eur. Biophys. J. 35, 469 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. X. Yuan, B. H. Ong, Y. G. Tan, D. W. Zhang, R. Irawan, and S. C. Tjin, J. Opt. A 8, 959 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Shalabney, A. Lakhtakia, I. Abdulhalim, A. Lahav, C. Patzig, I. Hazek, A. Karabchevsky, B. Rauschenbach, F. Zhang, and J. Xu, Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 7, 176 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Shalabney, C. Khare, B. Rauschenbach, and I. Abdulhalim, Sensors Actuators B 159, 201 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Y. Wu, H. P. Ho, W. C. Law, C. Lin, and S. K. Kong, Opt. Lett. 29, 2378 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. V. Kabashin and P. I. Nikitin, Opt. Commun. 150, 5 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Suzuki, M. Sugimoto, Y. Matsui, and J. Kondoh, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1547 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Lahav, M. Auslender, and I. Abdulhalim, Opt. Lett. 33, 2539 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Lahav, A. Shalabaney, and I. Abdulhalim, J. Nanophoton. 3, 031501 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Z. Salamon, H. A. Macleod, and G. Tollin, Biophys. J. 73, 2791 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. H. Gilani, N. Dushkina, W. L. Freeman, M. Z. Numan, D. N. Talwar, and D. P. Pulsifer, Opt. Eng. 49, 120503 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  14. V. Yashunsky, V. Lirtsman, M. Golosovsky, D. Davidov, and B. Aroeti, Biophys. J. 99, 4028 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  15. P. Bhatia and B. D. Gupta, Appl. Opt. 50, 2032 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Shalabney and I. Abdulhalim, Sensors Actuators A 159, 24 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Homola, Sensors Actuators B 41, 207 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (3)

A. Shalabney and I. Abdulhalim, Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 571 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Shalabney, C. Khare, B. Rauschenbach, and I. Abdulhalim, Sensors Actuators B 159, 201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Bhatia and B. D. Gupta, Appl. Opt. 50, 2032 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

A. Shalabney and I. Abdulhalim, Sensors Actuators A 159, 24 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Gilani, N. Dushkina, W. L. Freeman, M. Z. Numan, D. N. Talwar, and D. P. Pulsifer, Opt. Eng. 49, 120503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Yashunsky, V. Lirtsman, M. Golosovsky, D. Davidov, and B. Aroeti, Biophys. J. 99, 4028 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

A. Lahav, A. Shalabaney, and I. Abdulhalim, J. Nanophoton. 3, 031501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Shalabney, A. Lakhtakia, I. Abdulhalim, A. Lahav, C. Patzig, I. Hazek, A. Karabchevsky, B. Rauschenbach, F. Zhang, and J. Xu, Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 7, 176 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

G. Gupta and J. Kondoh, Sensors Actuators B 122, 381 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

J. S. Yuk, D. Hong, J. Jung, S. Jung, H. Kim, J. Han, Y. Kim, and K. Ha, Eur. Biophys. J. 35, 469 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Yuan, B. H. Ong, Y. G. Tan, D. W. Zhang, R. Irawan, and S. C. Tjin, J. Opt. A 8, 959 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Suzuki, M. Sugimoto, Y. Matsui, and J. Kondoh, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1547 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

1998 (1)

V. Kabashin and P. I. Nikitin, Opt. Commun. 150, 5 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

J. Homola, Sensors Actuators B 41, 207 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Z. Salamon, H. A. Macleod, and G. Tollin, Biophys. J. 73, 2791 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Abdulhalim, I.

A. Shalabney and I. Abdulhalim, Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 571 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Shalabney, C. Khare, B. Rauschenbach, and I. Abdulhalim, Sensors Actuators B 159, 201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Shalabney and I. Abdulhalim, Sensors Actuators A 159, 24 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Lahav, A. Shalabaney, and I. Abdulhalim, J. Nanophoton. 3, 031501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Shalabney, A. Lakhtakia, I. Abdulhalim, A. Lahav, C. Patzig, I. Hazek, A. Karabchevsky, B. Rauschenbach, F. Zhang, and J. Xu, Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 7, 176 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Lahav, M. Auslender, and I. Abdulhalim, Opt. Lett. 33, 2539 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Aroeti, B.

V. Yashunsky, V. Lirtsman, M. Golosovsky, D. Davidov, and B. Aroeti, Biophys. J. 99, 4028 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Auslender, M.

Bhatia, P.

Davidov, D.

V. Yashunsky, V. Lirtsman, M. Golosovsky, D. Davidov, and B. Aroeti, Biophys. J. 99, 4028 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dushkina, N.

T. H. Gilani, N. Dushkina, W. L. Freeman, M. Z. Numan, D. N. Talwar, and D. P. Pulsifer, Opt. Eng. 49, 120503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, W. L.

T. H. Gilani, N. Dushkina, W. L. Freeman, M. Z. Numan, D. N. Talwar, and D. P. Pulsifer, Opt. Eng. 49, 120503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gilani, T. H.

T. H. Gilani, N. Dushkina, W. L. Freeman, M. Z. Numan, D. N. Talwar, and D. P. Pulsifer, Opt. Eng. 49, 120503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Golosovsky, M.

V. Yashunsky, V. Lirtsman, M. Golosovsky, D. Davidov, and B. Aroeti, Biophys. J. 99, 4028 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, B. D.

Gupta, G.

G. Gupta and J. Kondoh, Sensors Actuators B 122, 381 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ha, K.

J. S. Yuk, D. Hong, J. Jung, S. Jung, H. Kim, J. Han, Y. Kim, and K. Ha, Eur. Biophys. J. 35, 469 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Han, J.

J. S. Yuk, D. Hong, J. Jung, S. Jung, H. Kim, J. Han, Y. Kim, and K. Ha, Eur. Biophys. J. 35, 469 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hazek, I.

A. Shalabney, A. Lakhtakia, I. Abdulhalim, A. Lahav, C. Patzig, I. Hazek, A. Karabchevsky, B. Rauschenbach, F. Zhang, and J. Xu, Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 7, 176 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ho, H. P.

Homola, J.

J. Homola, Sensors Actuators B 41, 207 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hong, D.

J. S. Yuk, D. Hong, J. Jung, S. Jung, H. Kim, J. Han, Y. Kim, and K. Ha, Eur. Biophys. J. 35, 469 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Irawan, R.

X. Yuan, B. H. Ong, Y. G. Tan, D. W. Zhang, R. Irawan, and S. C. Tjin, J. Opt. A 8, 959 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jung, J.

J. S. Yuk, D. Hong, J. Jung, S. Jung, H. Kim, J. Han, Y. Kim, and K. Ha, Eur. Biophys. J. 35, 469 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jung, S.

J. S. Yuk, D. Hong, J. Jung, S. Jung, H. Kim, J. Han, Y. Kim, and K. Ha, Eur. Biophys. J. 35, 469 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kabashin, V.

V. Kabashin and P. I. Nikitin, Opt. Commun. 150, 5 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Karabchevsky, A.

A. Shalabney, A. Lakhtakia, I. Abdulhalim, A. Lahav, C. Patzig, I. Hazek, A. Karabchevsky, B. Rauschenbach, F. Zhang, and J. Xu, Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 7, 176 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Khare, C.

A. Shalabney, C. Khare, B. Rauschenbach, and I. Abdulhalim, Sensors Actuators B 159, 201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

J. S. Yuk, D. Hong, J. Jung, S. Jung, H. Kim, J. Han, Y. Kim, and K. Ha, Eur. Biophys. J. 35, 469 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.

J. S. Yuk, D. Hong, J. Jung, S. Jung, H. Kim, J. Han, Y. Kim, and K. Ha, Eur. Biophys. J. 35, 469 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kondoh, J.

G. Gupta and J. Kondoh, Sensors Actuators B 122, 381 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Suzuki, M. Sugimoto, Y. Matsui, and J. Kondoh, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1547 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kong, S. K.

Lahav, A.

A. Lahav, A. Shalabaney, and I. Abdulhalim, J. Nanophoton. 3, 031501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Shalabney, A. Lakhtakia, I. Abdulhalim, A. Lahav, C. Patzig, I. Hazek, A. Karabchevsky, B. Rauschenbach, F. Zhang, and J. Xu, Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 7, 176 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Lahav, M. Auslender, and I. Abdulhalim, Opt. Lett. 33, 2539 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lakhtakia, A.

A. Shalabney, A. Lakhtakia, I. Abdulhalim, A. Lahav, C. Patzig, I. Hazek, A. Karabchevsky, B. Rauschenbach, F. Zhang, and J. Xu, Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 7, 176 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Law, W. C.

Lin, C.

Lirtsman, V.

V. Yashunsky, V. Lirtsman, M. Golosovsky, D. Davidov, and B. Aroeti, Biophys. J. 99, 4028 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Macleod, H. A.

Z. Salamon, H. A. Macleod, and G. Tollin, Biophys. J. 73, 2791 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Matsui, Y.

H. Suzuki, M. Sugimoto, Y. Matsui, and J. Kondoh, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1547 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nikitin, P. I.

V. Kabashin and P. I. Nikitin, Opt. Commun. 150, 5 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Numan, M. Z.

T. H. Gilani, N. Dushkina, W. L. Freeman, M. Z. Numan, D. N. Talwar, and D. P. Pulsifer, Opt. Eng. 49, 120503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ong, B. H.

X. Yuan, B. H. Ong, Y. G. Tan, D. W. Zhang, R. Irawan, and S. C. Tjin, J. Opt. A 8, 959 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Patzig, C.

A. Shalabney, A. Lakhtakia, I. Abdulhalim, A. Lahav, C. Patzig, I. Hazek, A. Karabchevsky, B. Rauschenbach, F. Zhang, and J. Xu, Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 7, 176 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pulsifer, D. P.

T. H. Gilani, N. Dushkina, W. L. Freeman, M. Z. Numan, D. N. Talwar, and D. P. Pulsifer, Opt. Eng. 49, 120503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rauschenbach, B.

A. Shalabney, C. Khare, B. Rauschenbach, and I. Abdulhalim, Sensors Actuators B 159, 201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Shalabney, A. Lakhtakia, I. Abdulhalim, A. Lahav, C. Patzig, I. Hazek, A. Karabchevsky, B. Rauschenbach, F. Zhang, and J. Xu, Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 7, 176 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Salamon, Z.

Z. Salamon, H. A. Macleod, and G. Tollin, Biophys. J. 73, 2791 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shalabaney, A.

A. Lahav, A. Shalabaney, and I. Abdulhalim, J. Nanophoton. 3, 031501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shalabney, A.

A. Shalabney, C. Khare, B. Rauschenbach, and I. Abdulhalim, Sensors Actuators B 159, 201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Shalabney and I. Abdulhalim, Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 571 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Shalabney and I. Abdulhalim, Sensors Actuators A 159, 24 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Shalabney, A. Lakhtakia, I. Abdulhalim, A. Lahav, C. Patzig, I. Hazek, A. Karabchevsky, B. Rauschenbach, F. Zhang, and J. Xu, Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 7, 176 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, M.

H. Suzuki, M. Sugimoto, Y. Matsui, and J. Kondoh, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1547 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, H.

H. Suzuki, M. Sugimoto, Y. Matsui, and J. Kondoh, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1547 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Talwar, D. N.

T. H. Gilani, N. Dushkina, W. L. Freeman, M. Z. Numan, D. N. Talwar, and D. P. Pulsifer, Opt. Eng. 49, 120503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tan, Y. G.

X. Yuan, B. H. Ong, Y. G. Tan, D. W. Zhang, R. Irawan, and S. C. Tjin, J. Opt. A 8, 959 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tjin, S. C.

X. Yuan, B. H. Ong, Y. G. Tan, D. W. Zhang, R. Irawan, and S. C. Tjin, J. Opt. A 8, 959 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tollin, G.

Z. Salamon, H. A. Macleod, and G. Tollin, Biophys. J. 73, 2791 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. Y.

Xu, J.

A. Shalabney, A. Lakhtakia, I. Abdulhalim, A. Lahav, C. Patzig, I. Hazek, A. Karabchevsky, B. Rauschenbach, F. Zhang, and J. Xu, Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 7, 176 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yashunsky, V.

V. Yashunsky, V. Lirtsman, M. Golosovsky, D. Davidov, and B. Aroeti, Biophys. J. 99, 4028 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, X.

X. Yuan, B. H. Ong, Y. G. Tan, D. W. Zhang, R. Irawan, and S. C. Tjin, J. Opt. A 8, 959 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yuk, J. S.

J. S. Yuk, D. Hong, J. Jung, S. Jung, H. Kim, J. Han, Y. Kim, and K. Ha, Eur. Biophys. J. 35, 469 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, D. W.

X. Yuan, B. H. Ong, Y. G. Tan, D. W. Zhang, R. Irawan, and S. C. Tjin, J. Opt. A 8, 959 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, F.

A. Shalabney, A. Lakhtakia, I. Abdulhalim, A. Lahav, C. Patzig, I. Hazek, A. Karabchevsky, B. Rauschenbach, F. Zhang, and J. Xu, Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 7, 176 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Biophys. J. (2)

V. Yashunsky, V. Lirtsman, M. Golosovsky, D. Davidov, and B. Aroeti, Biophys. J. 99, 4028 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Salamon, H. A. Macleod, and G. Tollin, Biophys. J. 73, 2791 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Biophys. J. (1)

J. S. Yuk, D. Hong, J. Jung, S. Jung, H. Kim, J. Han, Y. Kim, and K. Ha, Eur. Biophys. J. 35, 469 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Nanophoton. (1)

A. Lahav, A. Shalabaney, and I. Abdulhalim, J. Nanophoton. 3, 031501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A (1)

X. Yuan, B. H. Ong, Y. G. Tan, D. W. Zhang, R. Irawan, and S. C. Tjin, J. Opt. A 8, 959 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

A. Shalabney and I. Abdulhalim, Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 571 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

H. Suzuki, M. Sugimoto, Y. Matsui, and J. Kondoh, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1547 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

V. Kabashin and P. I. Nikitin, Opt. Commun. 150, 5 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

T. H. Gilani, N. Dushkina, W. L. Freeman, M. Z. Numan, D. N. Talwar, and D. P. Pulsifer, Opt. Eng. 49, 120503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. (1)

A. Shalabney, A. Lakhtakia, I. Abdulhalim, A. Lahav, C. Patzig, I. Hazek, A. Karabchevsky, B. Rauschenbach, F. Zhang, and J. Xu, Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 7, 176 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sensors Actuators A (1)

A. Shalabney and I. Abdulhalim, Sensors Actuators A 159, 24 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sensors Actuators B (3)

J. Homola, Sensors Actuators B 41, 207 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Shalabney, C. Khare, B. Rauschenbach, and I. Abdulhalim, Sensors Actuators B 159, 201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Gupta and J. Kondoh, Sensors Actuators B 122, 381 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic illustration of the SPR setup in the spectral interrogation mode. (b) Spectral reflectivity of SPR (dashed lines) versus NGWSPR (solid lines) in both the visible region and the IR region. In the visible region, the Ag layer thickness is 46 nm for both SPR and NGWSPR, the Si layer thickness is 10 nm, and the incidence angles are 52.3° (for SPR) and 67.3° (for NGWSPR). In the IR region, the Ag and Si layers’ thicknesses are 33 and 50 nm, respectively, and the incidence angles are 50.3° for SPR and 58.50° for NGWSPR. For all curves, the prism is SF11 and the analyte RI is 1.33.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Reflectivity versus wavelength for the SPR (curves in the left side) and NGWSPR (curves in the right side). The dotted lines correspond to the measurements and the solid lines to the theoretical calculations. For both SPR and NGWSPR, the analyte RI changes from 1.31 to 1.35 (as indicated below each curve) by steps of 0.01. The inset shows the measured resonance wavelength versus the analyte RI for both SPR and NGWSPR.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) FOM as a function of the incidence angle for both SPR and NGWSPR. (b) Spectral sensitivity as a function of the incidence angle for both SPR and NGWSPR. An SF11 prism was used, analyte RI(na)=1.33, Ag layer thickness was optimized to give full matching condition, and the Si layer thickness is 10 nm. For the same incidence angles range, the resonance wavelength varies from 860 to 530 nm in the SPR case and from 1400 to 820 nm in the NGWSPR case.

Equations (1)

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exp(2kzm·dm)=[rms·rsa·exp(2kzs·ds)+1]/[rpm·rsa·exp(2kzs·ds)+rpm·rms]rij=(kziεikzjεj)/(kziεi+kzjεj);kzi=εik02kSP2.

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