Abstract

A highly flexible Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor for ultrashort pulse diagnostics is presented. The temporal system performance is studied in detail. Reflective operation is enabled by programming tilt-tolerant microaxicons into a liquid-crystal-on-silicon spatial light modulator. Nearly undistorted pulse transfer is obtained by generating nondiffracting needle beams as subbeams. Reproducible wavefront analysis and spatially resolved second-order autocorrelation are demonstrated at incident angles up to 50° and pulse durations down to 6 fs.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2010 (1)

R. W. Bowman, A. J. Wright, and M. J. Padgett, J. Opt. 12, 124004 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

L. Hu, L. Xuan, D. Li, Z. Cao, Q. Mu, Y. Liu, Z. Peng, and X. Lu, J. Opt. A 11, 015511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. P. Zhao, N. Bai, X. Li, Z. P. Fang, Z. W. Zhong, and A. A. Hein, Appl. Opt. 48, A71 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Bock, S. K. Das, and R. Grunwald, Opt. Express 17, 7465 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Rios and D. López, Opt. Express 17, 9669 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

Z. Jaroszewicz, V. Climent, V. Duran, J. Lancis, A. Kolodziejczyk, A. Burvall, and A. T. Friberg, J. Mod. Opt. 51, 2185 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Rha, D. G. Voelz, and M. K. Giles, Opt. Eng. 43, 251 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

2002 (2)

2001 (2)

N. Lindlein, J. Pfund, and J. Schwider, Opt. Eng. 40, 837 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Platt and R. Shack, J. Refract. Surg. 17, S573 (2001).

Bai, N.

L. P. Zhao, N. Bai, X. Li, Z. P. Fang, Z. W. Zhong, and A. A. Hein, Appl. Opt. 48, A71 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Biegert, J.

Bock, M.

Bowman, R. W.

R. W. Bowman, A. J. Wright, and M. J. Padgett, J. Opt. 12, 124004 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Burvall, A.

Z. Jaroszewicz, V. Climent, V. Duran, J. Lancis, A. Kolodziejczyk, A. Burvall, and A. T. Friberg, J. Mod. Opt. 51, 2185 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cao, Z.

L. Hu, L. Xuan, D. Li, Z. Cao, Q. Mu, Y. Liu, Z. Peng, and X. Lu, J. Opt. A 11, 015511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Climent, V.

Z. Jaroszewicz, V. Climent, V. Duran, J. Lancis, A. Kolodziejczyk, A. Burvall, and A. T. Friberg, J. Mod. Opt. 51, 2185 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Daria, V.

Das, S. K.

M. Bock, S. K. Das, and R. Grunwald, Opt. Express 17, 7465 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Bock, S. K. Das, R. Grunwald, S. Osten, P. Staudt, and G. Stibenz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 151105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Duran, V.

Z. Jaroszewicz, V. Climent, V. Duran, J. Lancis, A. Kolodziejczyk, A. Burvall, and A. T. Friberg, J. Mod. Opt. 51, 2185 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Eriksen, R.

Fang, Z. P.

L. P. Zhao, N. Bai, X. Li, Z. P. Fang, Z. W. Zhong, and A. A. Hein, Appl. Opt. 48, A71 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Friberg, A. T.

Z. Jaroszewicz, V. Climent, V. Duran, J. Lancis, A. Kolodziejczyk, A. Burvall, and A. T. Friberg, J. Mod. Opt. 51, 2185 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Giles, M. K.

J. Rha, D. G. Voelz, and M. K. Giles, Opt. Eng. 43, 251 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Glueckstad, J.

Griebner, U.

Grunwald, R.

Hauri, C. P.

Hein, A. A.

L. P. Zhao, N. Bai, X. Li, Z. P. Fang, Z. W. Zhong, and A. A. Hein, Appl. Opt. 48, A71 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hu, L.

L. Hu, L. Xuan, D. Li, Z. Cao, Q. Mu, Y. Liu, Z. Peng, and X. Lu, J. Opt. A 11, 015511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huferath, S.

Jaroszewicz, Z.

Z. Jaroszewicz, V. Climent, V. Duran, J. Lancis, A. Kolodziejczyk, A. Burvall, and A. T. Friberg, J. Mod. Opt. 51, 2185 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kebbel, V.

Keller, U.

Kolodziejczyk, A.

Z. Jaroszewicz, V. Climent, V. Duran, J. Lancis, A. Kolodziejczyk, A. Burvall, and A. T. Friberg, J. Mod. Opt. 51, 2185 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lancis, J.

Z. Jaroszewicz, V. Climent, V. Duran, J. Lancis, A. Kolodziejczyk, A. Burvall, and A. T. Friberg, J. Mod. Opt. 51, 2185 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Langer, S.

Li, D.

L. Hu, L. Xuan, D. Li, Z. Cao, Q. Mu, Y. Liu, Z. Peng, and X. Lu, J. Opt. A 11, 015511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

L. P. Zhao, N. Bai, X. Li, Z. P. Fang, Z. W. Zhong, and A. A. Hein, Appl. Opt. 48, A71 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liesener, J.

L. Seifert, J. Liesener, and H. J. Tiziani, Opt. Commun. 216, 313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lindlein, N.

N. Lindlein and J. Pfund, Opt. Eng. 41, 529 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Lindlein, J. Pfund, and J. Schwider, Opt. Eng. 40, 837 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

L. Hu, L. Xuan, D. Li, Z. Cao, Q. Mu, Y. Liu, Z. Peng, and X. Lu, J. Opt. A 11, 015511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

López, D.

Lu, X.

L. Hu, L. Xuan, D. Li, Z. Cao, Q. Mu, Y. Liu, Z. Peng, and X. Lu, J. Opt. A 11, 015511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mann, K.

Marowski, G.

Mu, Q.

L. Hu, L. Xuan, D. Li, Z. Cao, Q. Mu, Y. Liu, Z. Peng, and X. Lu, J. Opt. A 11, 015511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Néron, J.-L.

Neumann, U.

Osten, S.

M. Bock, S. K. Das, R. Grunwald, S. Osten, P. Staudt, and G. Stibenz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 151105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Padgett, M. J.

R. W. Bowman, A. J. Wright, and M. J. Padgett, J. Opt. 12, 124004 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Peng, Z.

L. Hu, L. Xuan, D. Li, Z. Cao, Q. Mu, Y. Liu, Z. Peng, and X. Lu, J. Opt. A 11, 015511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pfund, J.

N. Lindlein and J. Pfund, Opt. Eng. 41, 529 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Lindlein, J. Pfund, and J. Schwider, Opt. Eng. 40, 837 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Piché, M.

Platt, B. C.

B. C. Platt and R. Shack, J. Refract. Surg. 17, S573 (2001).

Reimann, K.

Rha, J.

J. Rha, D. G. Voelz, and M. K. Giles, Opt. Eng. 43, 251 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rios, S.

Rodrigo, P.

Schaefer, B.

Schwider, J.

N. Lindlein, J. Pfund, and J. Schwider, Opt. Eng. 40, 837 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Seifert, L.

L. Seifert, J. Liesener, and H. J. Tiziani, Opt. Commun. 216, 313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shack, R.

B. C. Platt and R. Shack, J. Refract. Surg. 17, S573 (2001).

Staudt, P.

M. Bock, S. K. Das, R. Grunwald, S. Osten, P. Staudt, and G. Stibenz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 151105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Steinmeyer, G.

Stibenz, G.

Tiziani, H. J.

L. Seifert, J. Liesener, and H. J. Tiziani, Opt. Commun. 216, 313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Voelz, D. G.

J. Rha, D. G. Voelz, and M. K. Giles, Opt. Eng. 43, 251 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wright, A. J.

R. W. Bowman, A. J. Wright, and M. J. Padgett, J. Opt. 12, 124004 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xuan, L.

L. Hu, L. Xuan, D. Li, Z. Cao, Q. Mu, Y. Liu, Z. Peng, and X. Lu, J. Opt. A 11, 015511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, L. P.

L. P. Zhao, N. Bai, X. Li, Z. P. Fang, Z. W. Zhong, and A. A. Hein, Appl. Opt. 48, A71 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, Z. W.

L. P. Zhao, N. Bai, X. Li, Z. P. Fang, Z. W. Zhong, and A. A. Hein, Appl. Opt. 48, A71 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt (1)

L. P. Zhao, N. Bai, X. Li, Z. P. Fang, Z. W. Zhong, and A. A. Hein, Appl. Opt. 48, A71 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Bock, S. K. Das, R. Grunwald, S. Osten, P. Staudt, and G. Stibenz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 151105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

Z. Jaroszewicz, V. Climent, V. Duran, J. Lancis, A. Kolodziejczyk, A. Burvall, and A. T. Friberg, J. Mod. Opt. 51, 2185 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. (1)

R. W. Bowman, A. J. Wright, and M. J. Padgett, J. Opt. 12, 124004 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A (1)

L. Hu, L. Xuan, D. Li, Z. Cao, Q. Mu, Y. Liu, Z. Peng, and X. Lu, J. Opt. A 11, 015511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Refract. Surg. (1)

B. C. Platt and R. Shack, J. Refract. Surg. 17, S573 (2001).

Opt. Commun. (1)

L. Seifert, J. Liesener, and H. J. Tiziani, Opt. Commun. 216, 313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (3)

N. Lindlein, J. Pfund, and J. Schwider, Opt. Eng. 40, 837 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Rha, D. G. Voelz, and M. K. Giles, Opt. Eng. 43, 251 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Lindlein and J. Pfund, Opt. Eng. 41, 529 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (3)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Adaptive Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor for ultrashort pulses based on needle beams (schematic). Microlenses of a classical SHS are replaced by microaxicons programmed in the phase map of a reflective SLM. The phase map is adapted to varying conditions and generates subbeams with spatiotemporally undistorted propagation (inset). Interferometer and nonlinear crystal enable the measurement of position-dependent second-order autocorrelation traces. At pulse durations <10fs, chirp was precompensated by chirped mirrors (not drawn).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Aberration correction of SHS subbeams (needle beams) at oblique incidence in reflection (SLM: Brillian): (a) distorted profile at 50° incident angle (period 82 µm), (b) profile horizontally corrected by a stretch factor 1.54 (center distance from SLM: 7 mm), (c) and (d) corresponding angular-dependent transversal profiles of selected spots (white squares) obtained by radial cuts starting from centers of gravity.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Temporal properties of the subbeams: (a) second-order autocorrelation of an individual needle beam for two radial positions, (b) spatial homogeneity of an individual beam with respect to its pulse duration: fully radially resolved autocorrelation.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Temporal and angular analysis of a few-cycle wave packet with and without phase object (convex lens, f=1000mm),: needle beam arrays of (a) reference and (b) distorted wave (low-pass filtered); (c) and (d) 2D temporal mapping (FWHM of autocorrelation traces) for both, respectively; (e) vector plot of elongations (arrows: lengths and color encoded); (f) retrieved SHG wavefront after adaptive beam correction (detector: EMCCD, axicon pitch: 360 µm, distance: 53 mm, initial pulse duration: 6 fs, SLM: Pluto, maximum phase interval 2π). Fields of view in (a) through (d) 2.4×2.4mm2.

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