Abstract

Strong hard (ε>100keV) x rays being observed from impulse atmospheric discharges with maximal voltages from U=0.5 to 0.9 MV just before the breakdown were completely stopped with the use of femtosecond-laser-filament plasma. Runaway electrons generating such x rays and being estimated to achieve their maximal energy, εU, near the positive electrode disappear if a laser filament plasma is ignited perpendicularly to the runaway near the positive electrode. A preheating mechanism for formation of the electron runaway in air is proposed.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. J. R. Dwyer, M. A. Uman, H. K. Rassoul, M. Al-Dayeh, L. Caraway, J. Jerauld, V. A. Rakov, D. M. Jordan, K. J. Rambo, V. Corbin, and B. Wright, Science 299, 694 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. M. Smith, L. I. Lopez, R. P. Lin, and C. P. Barrington-Leigh, Science 307, 1085 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Tsuchiya, T. Enoto, S. Yamada, T. Yuasa, M. Kawaharada, T. Kitaguchi, M. Kokubun, H. Kato, M. Okano, S. Nakamura, and K. Makishima, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 165002 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. R. Dwyer, Z. Saleh, H. K. Rassoul, D. Concha, M. Rahman, V. Cooray, J. Jerauld, M. A. Uman, and V. A. Rakov, J. Geophys. Res. 113, D23207 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. V. Nguyen, A. P. J. van Deursen, and U. Ebert, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 234012 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2010

K. Sugiyama, T. Fujii, M. Miki, A. Zhidkov, M. Yamaguchi, E. Hotta, and K. Nemoto, Phys. Plasmas 17, 043108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008

J. R. Dwyer, Z. Saleh, H. K. Rassoul, D. Concha, M. Rahman, V. Cooray, J. Jerauld, M. A. Uman, and V. A. Rakov, J. Geophys. Res. 113, D23207 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. V. Nguyen, A. P. J. van Deursen, and U. Ebert, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 234012 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, M. Miki, N. Goto, A. Zhidkov, T. Fukuchi, Y. Oishi, and K. Nemoto, Phys. Plasmas 15, 013107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rep. 441, 47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Tsuchiya, T. Enoto, S. Yamada, T. Yuasa, M. Kawaharada, T. Kitaguchi, M. Kokubun, H. Kato, M. Okano, S. Nakamura, and K. Makishima, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 165002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

D. M. Smith, L. I. Lopez, R. P. Lin, and C. P. Barrington-Leigh, Science 307, 1085 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

J. R. Dwyer, M. A. Uman, H. K. Rassoul, M. Al-Dayeh, L. Caraway, J. Jerauld, V. A. Rakov, D. M. Jordan, K. J. Rambo, V. Corbin, and B. Wright, Science 299, 694 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

V. A. Saranin, Phys. Uspekhi 45, 1287 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999

A. Zhidkov and A. Sasaki, Phys. Rev. E 59, 7085 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995

A. Braun, G. Korn, X. Liu, D. Du, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, Opt. Lett. 20, 73 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Marshall, M. P. McCarthy, and W. D. Rust, J. Geophys. Res. 100, 7097 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1985

M. McCarthy and G. K. Parks, Geophys. Res. Lett. 12, 393 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1971

T. Suzuki, J. Appl. Phys. 42, 3766 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Al-Dayeh, M.

J. R. Dwyer, M. A. Uman, H. K. Rassoul, M. Al-Dayeh, L. Caraway, J. Jerauld, V. A. Rakov, D. M. Jordan, K. J. Rambo, V. Corbin, and B. Wright, Science 299, 694 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Barrington-Leigh, C. P.

D. M. Smith, L. I. Lopez, R. P. Lin, and C. P. Barrington-Leigh, Science 307, 1085 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Braun, A.

Caraway, L.

J. R. Dwyer, M. A. Uman, H. K. Rassoul, M. Al-Dayeh, L. Caraway, J. Jerauld, V. A. Rakov, D. M. Jordan, K. J. Rambo, V. Corbin, and B. Wright, Science 299, 694 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Concha, D.

J. R. Dwyer, Z. Saleh, H. K. Rassoul, D. Concha, M. Rahman, V. Cooray, J. Jerauld, M. A. Uman, and V. A. Rakov, J. Geophys. Res. 113, D23207 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cooray, V.

J. R. Dwyer, Z. Saleh, H. K. Rassoul, D. Concha, M. Rahman, V. Cooray, J. Jerauld, M. A. Uman, and V. A. Rakov, J. Geophys. Res. 113, D23207 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Corbin, V.

J. R. Dwyer, M. A. Uman, H. K. Rassoul, M. Al-Dayeh, L. Caraway, J. Jerauld, V. A. Rakov, D. M. Jordan, K. J. Rambo, V. Corbin, and B. Wright, Science 299, 694 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Couairon, A.

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rep. 441, 47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Du, D.

Dwyer, J. R.

J. R. Dwyer, Z. Saleh, H. K. Rassoul, D. Concha, M. Rahman, V. Cooray, J. Jerauld, M. A. Uman, and V. A. Rakov, J. Geophys. Res. 113, D23207 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Dwyer, M. A. Uman, H. K. Rassoul, M. Al-Dayeh, L. Caraway, J. Jerauld, V. A. Rakov, D. M. Jordan, K. J. Rambo, V. Corbin, and B. Wright, Science 299, 694 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ebert, U.

C. V. Nguyen, A. P. J. van Deursen, and U. Ebert, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 234012 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Enoto, T.

H. Tsuchiya, T. Enoto, S. Yamada, T. Yuasa, M. Kawaharada, T. Kitaguchi, M. Kokubun, H. Kato, M. Okano, S. Nakamura, and K. Makishima, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 165002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, T.

K. Sugiyama, T. Fujii, M. Miki, A. Zhidkov, M. Yamaguchi, E. Hotta, and K. Nemoto, Phys. Plasmas 17, 043108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, M. Miki, N. Goto, A. Zhidkov, T. Fukuchi, Y. Oishi, and K. Nemoto, Phys. Plasmas 15, 013107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fukuchi, T.

T. Fujii, M. Miki, N. Goto, A. Zhidkov, T. Fukuchi, Y. Oishi, and K. Nemoto, Phys. Plasmas 15, 013107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Goto, N.

T. Fujii, M. Miki, N. Goto, A. Zhidkov, T. Fukuchi, Y. Oishi, and K. Nemoto, Phys. Plasmas 15, 013107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hotta, E.

K. Sugiyama, T. Fujii, M. Miki, A. Zhidkov, M. Yamaguchi, E. Hotta, and K. Nemoto, Phys. Plasmas 17, 043108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jerauld, J.

J. R. Dwyer, Z. Saleh, H. K. Rassoul, D. Concha, M. Rahman, V. Cooray, J. Jerauld, M. A. Uman, and V. A. Rakov, J. Geophys. Res. 113, D23207 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Dwyer, M. A. Uman, H. K. Rassoul, M. Al-Dayeh, L. Caraway, J. Jerauld, V. A. Rakov, D. M. Jordan, K. J. Rambo, V. Corbin, and B. Wright, Science 299, 694 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jordan, D. M.

J. R. Dwyer, M. A. Uman, H. K. Rassoul, M. Al-Dayeh, L. Caraway, J. Jerauld, V. A. Rakov, D. M. Jordan, K. J. Rambo, V. Corbin, and B. Wright, Science 299, 694 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kato, H.

H. Tsuchiya, T. Enoto, S. Yamada, T. Yuasa, M. Kawaharada, T. Kitaguchi, M. Kokubun, H. Kato, M. Okano, S. Nakamura, and K. Makishima, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 165002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kawaharada, M.

H. Tsuchiya, T. Enoto, S. Yamada, T. Yuasa, M. Kawaharada, T. Kitaguchi, M. Kokubun, H. Kato, M. Okano, S. Nakamura, and K. Makishima, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 165002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kitaguchi, T.

H. Tsuchiya, T. Enoto, S. Yamada, T. Yuasa, M. Kawaharada, T. Kitaguchi, M. Kokubun, H. Kato, M. Okano, S. Nakamura, and K. Makishima, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 165002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kokubun, M.

H. Tsuchiya, T. Enoto, S. Yamada, T. Yuasa, M. Kawaharada, T. Kitaguchi, M. Kokubun, H. Kato, M. Okano, S. Nakamura, and K. Makishima, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 165002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Korn, G.

Lin, R. P.

D. M. Smith, L. I. Lopez, R. P. Lin, and C. P. Barrington-Leigh, Science 307, 1085 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

Loeb, L. B.

L. B. Loeb and J. M. Meek, The Mechanism of the Electric Spark (Oxford University, 1941).

Lopez, L. I.

D. M. Smith, L. I. Lopez, R. P. Lin, and C. P. Barrington-Leigh, Science 307, 1085 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Makishima, K.

H. Tsuchiya, T. Enoto, S. Yamada, T. Yuasa, M. Kawaharada, T. Kitaguchi, M. Kokubun, H. Kato, M. Okano, S. Nakamura, and K. Makishima, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 165002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Marshall, T. C.

T. C. Marshall, M. P. McCarthy, and W. D. Rust, J. Geophys. Res. 100, 7097 (1995).
[CrossRef]

McCarthy, M.

M. McCarthy and G. K. Parks, Geophys. Res. Lett. 12, 393 (1985).
[CrossRef]

McCarthy, M. P.

T. C. Marshall, M. P. McCarthy, and W. D. Rust, J. Geophys. Res. 100, 7097 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Meek, J. M.

L. B. Loeb and J. M. Meek, The Mechanism of the Electric Spark (Oxford University, 1941).

Miki, M.

K. Sugiyama, T. Fujii, M. Miki, A. Zhidkov, M. Yamaguchi, E. Hotta, and K. Nemoto, Phys. Plasmas 17, 043108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, M. Miki, N. Goto, A. Zhidkov, T. Fukuchi, Y. Oishi, and K. Nemoto, Phys. Plasmas 15, 013107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, G.

Mysyrowicz, A.

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rep. 441, 47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

H. Tsuchiya, T. Enoto, S. Yamada, T. Yuasa, M. Kawaharada, T. Kitaguchi, M. Kokubun, H. Kato, M. Okano, S. Nakamura, and K. Makishima, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 165002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nemoto, K.

K. Sugiyama, T. Fujii, M. Miki, A. Zhidkov, M. Yamaguchi, E. Hotta, and K. Nemoto, Phys. Plasmas 17, 043108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, M. Miki, N. Goto, A. Zhidkov, T. Fukuchi, Y. Oishi, and K. Nemoto, Phys. Plasmas 15, 013107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, C. V.

C. V. Nguyen, A. P. J. van Deursen, and U. Ebert, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 234012 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Oishi, Y.

T. Fujii, M. Miki, N. Goto, A. Zhidkov, T. Fukuchi, Y. Oishi, and K. Nemoto, Phys. Plasmas 15, 013107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Okano, M.

H. Tsuchiya, T. Enoto, S. Yamada, T. Yuasa, M. Kawaharada, T. Kitaguchi, M. Kokubun, H. Kato, M. Okano, S. Nakamura, and K. Makishima, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 165002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Parks, G. K.

M. McCarthy and G. K. Parks, Geophys. Res. Lett. 12, 393 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Rahman, M.

J. R. Dwyer, Z. Saleh, H. K. Rassoul, D. Concha, M. Rahman, V. Cooray, J. Jerauld, M. A. Uman, and V. A. Rakov, J. Geophys. Res. 113, D23207 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Raizer, Y. P.

Y. P. Raizer, Gas Discharge Physics (Springer-Verlag, 1991), pp. 338–342.

Rakov, V. A.

J. R. Dwyer, Z. Saleh, H. K. Rassoul, D. Concha, M. Rahman, V. Cooray, J. Jerauld, M. A. Uman, and V. A. Rakov, J. Geophys. Res. 113, D23207 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Dwyer, M. A. Uman, H. K. Rassoul, M. Al-Dayeh, L. Caraway, J. Jerauld, V. A. Rakov, D. M. Jordan, K. J. Rambo, V. Corbin, and B. Wright, Science 299, 694 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rambo, K. J.

J. R. Dwyer, M. A. Uman, H. K. Rassoul, M. Al-Dayeh, L. Caraway, J. Jerauld, V. A. Rakov, D. M. Jordan, K. J. Rambo, V. Corbin, and B. Wright, Science 299, 694 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rassoul, H. K.

J. R. Dwyer, Z. Saleh, H. K. Rassoul, D. Concha, M. Rahman, V. Cooray, J. Jerauld, M. A. Uman, and V. A. Rakov, J. Geophys. Res. 113, D23207 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Dwyer, M. A. Uman, H. K. Rassoul, M. Al-Dayeh, L. Caraway, J. Jerauld, V. A. Rakov, D. M. Jordan, K. J. Rambo, V. Corbin, and B. Wright, Science 299, 694 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rust, W. D.

T. C. Marshall, M. P. McCarthy, and W. D. Rust, J. Geophys. Res. 100, 7097 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Saleh, Z.

J. R. Dwyer, Z. Saleh, H. K. Rassoul, D. Concha, M. Rahman, V. Cooray, J. Jerauld, M. A. Uman, and V. A. Rakov, J. Geophys. Res. 113, D23207 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Saranin, V. A.

V. A. Saranin, Phys. Uspekhi 45, 1287 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, A.

A. Zhidkov and A. Sasaki, Phys. Rev. E 59, 7085 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. M.

D. M. Smith, L. I. Lopez, R. P. Lin, and C. P. Barrington-Leigh, Science 307, 1085 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Squier, J.

Sugiyama, K.

K. Sugiyama, T. Fujii, M. Miki, A. Zhidkov, M. Yamaguchi, E. Hotta, and K. Nemoto, Phys. Plasmas 17, 043108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, T.

T. Suzuki, J. Appl. Phys. 42, 3766 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchiya, H.

H. Tsuchiya, T. Enoto, S. Yamada, T. Yuasa, M. Kawaharada, T. Kitaguchi, M. Kokubun, H. Kato, M. Okano, S. Nakamura, and K. Makishima, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 165002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Uman, M. A.

J. R. Dwyer, Z. Saleh, H. K. Rassoul, D. Concha, M. Rahman, V. Cooray, J. Jerauld, M. A. Uman, and V. A. Rakov, J. Geophys. Res. 113, D23207 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Dwyer, M. A. Uman, H. K. Rassoul, M. Al-Dayeh, L. Caraway, J. Jerauld, V. A. Rakov, D. M. Jordan, K. J. Rambo, V. Corbin, and B. Wright, Science 299, 694 (2003).
[CrossRef]

van Deursen, A. P. J.

C. V. Nguyen, A. P. J. van Deursen, and U. Ebert, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 234012 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wright, B.

J. R. Dwyer, M. A. Uman, H. K. Rassoul, M. Al-Dayeh, L. Caraway, J. Jerauld, V. A. Rakov, D. M. Jordan, K. J. Rambo, V. Corbin, and B. Wright, Science 299, 694 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, S.

H. Tsuchiya, T. Enoto, S. Yamada, T. Yuasa, M. Kawaharada, T. Kitaguchi, M. Kokubun, H. Kato, M. Okano, S. Nakamura, and K. Makishima, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 165002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, M.

K. Sugiyama, T. Fujii, M. Miki, A. Zhidkov, M. Yamaguchi, E. Hotta, and K. Nemoto, Phys. Plasmas 17, 043108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yuasa, T.

H. Tsuchiya, T. Enoto, S. Yamada, T. Yuasa, M. Kawaharada, T. Kitaguchi, M. Kokubun, H. Kato, M. Okano, S. Nakamura, and K. Makishima, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 165002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhidkov, A.

K. Sugiyama, T. Fujii, M. Miki, A. Zhidkov, M. Yamaguchi, E. Hotta, and K. Nemoto, Phys. Plasmas 17, 043108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, M. Miki, N. Goto, A. Zhidkov, T. Fukuchi, Y. Oishi, and K. Nemoto, Phys. Plasmas 15, 013107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Zhidkov and A. Sasaki, Phys. Rev. E 59, 7085 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett.

M. McCarthy and G. K. Parks, Geophys. Res. Lett. 12, 393 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

T. Suzuki, J. Appl. Phys. 42, 3766 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

J. R. Dwyer, Z. Saleh, H. K. Rassoul, D. Concha, M. Rahman, V. Cooray, J. Jerauld, M. A. Uman, and V. A. Rakov, J. Geophys. Res. 113, D23207 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Marshall, M. P. McCarthy, and W. D. Rust, J. Geophys. Res. 100, 7097 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys.

C. V. Nguyen, A. P. J. van Deursen, and U. Ebert, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 234012 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Plasmas

T. Fujii, M. Miki, N. Goto, A. Zhidkov, T. Fukuchi, Y. Oishi, and K. Nemoto, Phys. Plasmas 15, 013107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Sugiyama, T. Fujii, M. Miki, A. Zhidkov, M. Yamaguchi, E. Hotta, and K. Nemoto, Phys. Plasmas 17, 043108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rep.

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rep. 441, 47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E

A. Zhidkov and A. Sasaki, Phys. Rev. E 59, 7085 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

H. Tsuchiya, T. Enoto, S. Yamada, T. Yuasa, M. Kawaharada, T. Kitaguchi, M. Kokubun, H. Kato, M. Okano, S. Nakamura, and K. Makishima, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 165002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Uspekhi

V. A. Saranin, Phys. Uspekhi 45, 1287 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Science

J. R. Dwyer, M. A. Uman, H. K. Rassoul, M. Al-Dayeh, L. Caraway, J. Jerauld, V. A. Rakov, D. M. Jordan, K. J. Rambo, V. Corbin, and B. Wright, Science 299, 694 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Smith, L. I. Lopez, R. P. Lin, and C. P. Barrington-Leigh, Science 307, 1085 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other

Y. P. Raizer, Gas Discharge Physics (Springer-Verlag, 1991), pp. 338–342.

CERN Program Library, http://geant4.web.cern.ch/geant4/ .

L. B. Loeb and J. M. Meek, The Mechanism of the Electric Spark (Oxford University, 1941).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup and photographs of discharges (a) without and (b) with LFP with a CV of 650 kV taken using a UV lens and a filter (blocking 400–800 nm).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Typical waveforms of voltage, current, and PMT signal for discharges with and without LFP with a CV of 650 kV.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Calculated backward x-ray spectra from a brass target produced by electron beams with energies (εe) of 300 keV, 500 keV, 700 keV, and 1.0 MeV. The inset is the measured depletion of x rays after attenuators with a CV of 750 kV, shown by solid circles [room temperature (Troom): 15–18 °C; relative humidity (RH): 40%56%; atmospheric pressure (Patm): 992–1000 hPa] and triangles (Troom: 14–15 °C, RH: 45%–58%, Patm: 985–993 hPa), and calculated curves for several fitting parameters of x-ray energy (εx0).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Kinetic energy distribution of electrons at the axis of the maximum field strength for the needle-shaped plasma at initial electron density Ne=1014cm3 and t=2ns. The circle shows the runaway electrons. The inset is spatial distribution of the x component of the electric field near the plasma with needle shape; initial plasma density Ne=1013cm3, air at normal pressure, external field E=29kV/cm and directed from the left to right; Emax is the maximum field strength at the time of output.

Metrics