Abstract

We present a simple yet efficient method to automatically fabricate the twisted nematic structure by one-step exposure on an empty glass cell coated with photocrosslinkable polymer liquid crystal (PCLC) films. The resultant photoalignment directions of two substrates can be orthogonal to each other by controlling the difference between the exposure energy for upper and lower PCLC films and the twisted nematic (TN) structure can be automatically fabricated. The vector grating liquid crystalline cell with TN structure was also fabricated by means of a developed method, and the diffraction properties were well explained by the theoretical calculation on the basis of Jones calculus.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. Ichimura, Chem. Rev. 100, 1847 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Ikeda, J. Mater. Chem. 13, 2037 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Ichimura, A. Akita, H. Akiyama, K. Kudo, and Y. Hayashi, Macromolecules 30, 903 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. N. Kawatsuki, H. Ono, H. Takatsuka, T. Yamamoto, and O. Sangen, Macromolecules 30, 6680 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. N. Kawatsuki, K. Goto, T. Kawakami, and T. Yamamoto, Macromolecules 35, 706 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Ono, A. Emoto, F. Takahashi, N. Kawatsuki, and T. Hasegawa, J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1298 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Ono, S. Oikawa, and N. Kawatsuki, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 123523 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Ono, M. Hishida, A. Emoto, T. Shioda, and N. Kawatsuki, Appl. Opt. 26, 1151 (2009).
  10. N. Kawatsuki, H. Takatsuka, and T. Yamamoto, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, L209 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Emoto, T. Wada, T. Shioda, T. Sasaki, S. Manabe, N. Kawatsuki, and H. Ono, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 032502 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

A. Emoto, T. Wada, T. Shioda, T. Sasaki, S. Manabe, N. Kawatsuki, and H. Ono, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 032502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2007 (1)

H. Ono, S. Oikawa, and N. Kawatsuki, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 123523 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

H. Ono, A. Emoto, F. Takahashi, N. Kawatsuki, and T. Hasegawa, J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1298 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Ikeda, J. Mater. Chem. 13, 2037 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

N. Kawatsuki, K. Goto, T. Kawakami, and T. Yamamoto, Macromolecules 35, 706 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

N. Kawatsuki, H. Takatsuka, and T. Yamamoto, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, L209 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

K. Ichimura, Chem. Rev. 100, 1847 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

K. Ichimura, A. Akita, H. Akiyama, K. Kudo, and Y. Hayashi, Macromolecules 30, 903 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. Kawatsuki, H. Ono, H. Takatsuka, T. Yamamoto, and O. Sangen, Macromolecules 30, 6680 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, and A. Schuster, Nature 381, 212 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Akita, A.

K. Ichimura, A. Akita, H. Akiyama, K. Kudo, and Y. Hayashi, Macromolecules 30, 903 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Akiyama, H.

K. Ichimura, A. Akita, H. Akiyama, K. Kudo, and Y. Hayashi, Macromolecules 30, 903 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Emoto, A.

A. Emoto, T. Wada, T. Shioda, T. Sasaki, S. Manabe, N. Kawatsuki, and H. Ono, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 032502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Ono, M. Hishida, A. Emoto, T. Shioda, and N. Kawatsuki, Appl. Opt. 26, 1151 (2009).

H. Ono, A. Emoto, F. Takahashi, N. Kawatsuki, and T. Hasegawa, J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1298 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Goto, K.

N. Kawatsuki, K. Goto, T. Kawakami, and T. Yamamoto, Macromolecules 35, 706 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hasegawa, T.

H. Ono, A. Emoto, F. Takahashi, N. Kawatsuki, and T. Hasegawa, J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1298 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, Y.

K. Ichimura, A. Akita, H. Akiyama, K. Kudo, and Y. Hayashi, Macromolecules 30, 903 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hishida, M.

Ichimura, K.

K. Ichimura, Chem. Rev. 100, 1847 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Ichimura, A. Akita, H. Akiyama, K. Kudo, and Y. Hayashi, Macromolecules 30, 903 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, T.

T. Ikeda, J. Mater. Chem. 13, 2037 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kawakami, T.

N. Kawatsuki, K. Goto, T. Kawakami, and T. Yamamoto, Macromolecules 35, 706 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kawatsuki, N.

A. Emoto, T. Wada, T. Shioda, T. Sasaki, S. Manabe, N. Kawatsuki, and H. Ono, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 032502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Ono, M. Hishida, A. Emoto, T. Shioda, and N. Kawatsuki, Appl. Opt. 26, 1151 (2009).

H. Ono, S. Oikawa, and N. Kawatsuki, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 123523 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Ono, A. Emoto, F. Takahashi, N. Kawatsuki, and T. Hasegawa, J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1298 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Kawatsuki, K. Goto, T. Kawakami, and T. Yamamoto, Macromolecules 35, 706 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Kawatsuki, H. Takatsuka, and T. Yamamoto, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, L209 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Kawatsuki, H. Ono, H. Takatsuka, T. Yamamoto, and O. Sangen, Macromolecules 30, 6680 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kudo, K.

K. Ichimura, A. Akita, H. Akiyama, K. Kudo, and Y. Hayashi, Macromolecules 30, 903 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Manabe, S.

A. Emoto, T. Wada, T. Shioda, T. Sasaki, S. Manabe, N. Kawatsuki, and H. Ono, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 032502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Oikawa, S.

H. Ono, S. Oikawa, and N. Kawatsuki, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 123523 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ono, H.

A. Emoto, T. Wada, T. Shioda, T. Sasaki, S. Manabe, N. Kawatsuki, and H. Ono, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 032502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Ono, M. Hishida, A. Emoto, T. Shioda, and N. Kawatsuki, Appl. Opt. 26, 1151 (2009).

H. Ono, S. Oikawa, and N. Kawatsuki, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 123523 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Ono, A. Emoto, F. Takahashi, N. Kawatsuki, and T. Hasegawa, J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1298 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Kawatsuki, H. Ono, H. Takatsuka, T. Yamamoto, and O. Sangen, Macromolecules 30, 6680 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sangen, O.

N. Kawatsuki, H. Ono, H. Takatsuka, T. Yamamoto, and O. Sangen, Macromolecules 30, 6680 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, T.

A. Emoto, T. Wada, T. Shioda, T. Sasaki, S. Manabe, N. Kawatsuki, and H. Ono, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 032502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schadt, M.

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, and A. Schuster, Nature 381, 212 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schuster, A.

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, and A. Schuster, Nature 381, 212 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Seiberle, H.

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, and A. Schuster, Nature 381, 212 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shioda, T.

A. Emoto, T. Wada, T. Shioda, T. Sasaki, S. Manabe, N. Kawatsuki, and H. Ono, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 032502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Ono, M. Hishida, A. Emoto, T. Shioda, and N. Kawatsuki, Appl. Opt. 26, 1151 (2009).

Takahashi, F.

H. Ono, A. Emoto, F. Takahashi, N. Kawatsuki, and T. Hasegawa, J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1298 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Takatsuka, H.

N. Kawatsuki, H. Takatsuka, and T. Yamamoto, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, L209 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Kawatsuki, H. Ono, H. Takatsuka, T. Yamamoto, and O. Sangen, Macromolecules 30, 6680 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wada, T.

A. Emoto, T. Wada, T. Shioda, T. Sasaki, S. Manabe, N. Kawatsuki, and H. Ono, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 032502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, T.

N. Kawatsuki, K. Goto, T. Kawakami, and T. Yamamoto, Macromolecules 35, 706 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Kawatsuki, H. Takatsuka, and T. Yamamoto, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, L209 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Kawatsuki, H. Ono, H. Takatsuka, T. Yamamoto, and O. Sangen, Macromolecules 30, 6680 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Chem. Rev. (1)

K. Ichimura, Chem. Rev. 100, 1847 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

H. Ono, A. Emoto, F. Takahashi, N. Kawatsuki, and T. Hasegawa, J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1298 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Ono, S. Oikawa, and N. Kawatsuki, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 123523 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

T. Ikeda, J. Mater. Chem. 13, 2037 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

N. Kawatsuki, H. Takatsuka, and T. Yamamoto, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, L209 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Emoto, T. Wada, T. Shioda, T. Sasaki, S. Manabe, N. Kawatsuki, and H. Ono, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 032502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Macromolecules (3)

K. Ichimura, A. Akita, H. Akiyama, K. Kudo, and Y. Hayashi, Macromolecules 30, 903 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. Kawatsuki, H. Ono, H. Takatsuka, T. Yamamoto, and O. Sangen, Macromolecules 30, 6680 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. Kawatsuki, K. Goto, T. Kawakami, and T. Yamamoto, Macromolecules 35, 706 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, and A. Schuster, Nature 381, 212 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematics for explaining the principle of the developed technique for fabrication of TN structure. Full and open circles represent the order parameter before and after annealing, respectively, and the experimental detail can be found elsewhere [6]. (b) Experimental procedure of one-step exposure for fabricating the TN structure.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Polar plots of (a) a probe beam, transmitted through the LC cell with (b) 800 mJ and (c) 1700 mJ of LPUV exposure energy, respectively. Right-hand side pictures in (b) and (c) show the polarized optical microscopy (POM) and polarizer-analyzer configurations represented as green arrows.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Schematic illustration of the cross section of LC alignment in the vector grating with TN structure and (b) POM pictures under (0°)–(0°) and (0°)–(90°) polarizer-analyzer configurations.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Polar plots of the probe and first-order diffracted beams from vector grating cell.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

WTN=R(π2)·[exp(iΓ/2)00exp(iΓ/2)]=[0exp(iΓ/2)exp(iΓ/2)0],
T=R(ξ2)·WTN·R(ξ2),
T±1=isin(Γ/2)2[±i11i].
E±1=T±1·[ExEy][ExiEyEyiEx].

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