Abstract

We report on the formation of one- and two-dimensional (1D and 2D) nanohole arrays on the surface of a silicon wafer by scanning with a femtosecond laser with appropriate power and speed. The underlying physical mechanism is revealed by numerical simulation based on the finite-difference time-domain technique. It is found that the length and depth of the initially formed gratings (or ripples) plays a crucial role in the generation of 1D or 2D nanohole arrays. The silicon surface decorated with such nanohole arrays can exhibit vivid structural colors through efficiently diffracting white light.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Y. Shen, C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, E. Mazur, M. Sheehy, and C. M. Friend, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1715 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, Nat. Photon. 2, 219 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Kondo, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 725 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, Nature 412, 697 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. Schaaf, ed., Laser Processing of Materials: Fundamentals, Applications and Developments (Springer, 2010).
  7. A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 041914 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 043513 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, Opt. Express 18, 6455 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Q. Zhang, H. Lin, B. Jia, L. Xu, and M. Gu, Opt. Express 18, 6885 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. E. Sipe, J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, and H. M. van Driel, Phys. Rev. B 27, 1141 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, ACS Nano 3, 4062 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. Obara, N. Maeda, T. Miyanishi, M. Terakawa, N. N. Nedyalkov, and M. Obara, Opt. Express 19, 19093 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  15. A commercially available software developed by RSoft Design Group ( http://www.rsoftdesign.com ) is used for the numerical simulations.
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    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, Opt. Express 19, A1031 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (4)

G. Obara, N. Maeda, T. Miyanishi, M. Terakawa, N. N. Nedyalkov, and M. Obara, Opt. Express 19, 19093 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Obara, Y. Tanaka, N. N. Nedyalkov, M. Terakawa, and M. Obara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 061106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Bonse, A. Rosenfeld, and J. Krüger, Appl. Surf. Sci. 257, 5420 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, Opt. Express 19, A1031 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

2009 (1)

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, ACS Nano 3, 4062 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 041914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 043513 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, Nat. Photon. 2, 219 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

M. Y. Shen, C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, E. Mazur, M. Sheehy, and C. M. Friend, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1715 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

Y. Nakata, T. Okada, and M. Maeda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4239 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

T. Kondo, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 725 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, Nature 412, 697 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

J. E. Sipe, J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, and H. M. van Driel, Phys. Rev. B 27, 1141 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Apens, D. E.

D. E. Apens, Properties of Silicon (INSPEC, IEE, 1988).

Bonse, J.

J. Bonse, A. Rosenfeld, and J. Krüger, Appl. Surf. Sci. 257, 5420 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Carey, J. E.

M. Y. Shen, C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, E. Mazur, M. Sheehy, and C. M. Friend, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1715 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y.

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, ACS Nano 3, 4062 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Crouch, C. H.

M. Y. Shen, C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, E. Mazur, M. Sheehy, and C. M. Friend, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1715 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Friend, C. M.

M. Y. Shen, C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, E. Mazur, M. Sheehy, and C. M. Friend, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1715 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gattass, R. R.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, Nat. Photon. 2, 219 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gu, M.

Guo, C.

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, Opt. Express 19, A1031 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, Opt. Express 18, 6455 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 043513 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 041914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M.

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, ACS Nano 3, 4062 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jia, B.

Juodkazis, S.

T. Kondo, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 725 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, S.

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, Nature 412, 697 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, T.

T. Kondo, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 725 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Krüger, J.

J. Bonse, A. Rosenfeld, and J. Krüger, Appl. Surf. Sci. 257, 5420 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H.

Maeda, M.

Y. Nakata, T. Okada, and M. Maeda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4239 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Maeda, N.

Matsuo, S.

T. Kondo, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 725 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, Nat. Photon. 2, 219 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Shen, C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, E. Mazur, M. Sheehy, and C. M. Friend, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1715 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Misawa, H.

T. Kondo, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 725 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Miyanishi, T.

Nakata, Y.

Y. Nakata, T. Okada, and M. Maeda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4239 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nedyalkov, N. N.

G. Obara, N. Maeda, T. Miyanishi, M. Terakawa, N. N. Nedyalkov, and M. Obara, Opt. Express 19, 19093 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Obara, Y. Tanaka, N. N. Nedyalkov, M. Terakawa, and M. Obara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 061106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Obara, G.

G. Obara, Y. Tanaka, N. N. Nedyalkov, M. Terakawa, and M. Obara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 061106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Obara, N. Maeda, T. Miyanishi, M. Terakawa, N. N. Nedyalkov, and M. Obara, Opt. Express 19, 19093 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Obara, M.

G. Obara, Y. Tanaka, N. N. Nedyalkov, M. Terakawa, and M. Obara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 061106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Obara, N. Maeda, T. Miyanishi, M. Terakawa, N. N. Nedyalkov, and M. Obara, Opt. Express 19, 19093 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Okada, T.

Y. Nakata, T. Okada, and M. Maeda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4239 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Preston, J. S.

J. E. Sipe, J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, and H. M. van Driel, Phys. Rev. B 27, 1141 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Rosenfeld, A.

J. Bonse, A. Rosenfeld, and J. Krüger, Appl. Surf. Sci. 257, 5420 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sheehy, M.

M. Y. Shen, C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, E. Mazur, M. Sheehy, and C. M. Friend, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1715 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shen, M. Y.

M. Y. Shen, C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, E. Mazur, M. Sheehy, and C. M. Friend, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1715 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sipe, J. E.

J. E. Sipe, J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, and H. M. van Driel, Phys. Rev. B 27, 1141 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H. B.

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, Nature 412, 697 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Takada, K.

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, Nature 412, 697 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, T.

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, Nature 412, 697 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, Y.

G. Obara, Y. Tanaka, N. N. Nedyalkov, M. Terakawa, and M. Obara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 061106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Terakawa, M.

G. Obara, Y. Tanaka, N. N. Nedyalkov, M. Terakawa, and M. Obara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 061106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Obara, N. Maeda, T. Miyanishi, M. Terakawa, N. N. Nedyalkov, and M. Obara, Opt. Express 19, 19093 (2011).
[CrossRef]

van Driel, H. M.

J. E. Sipe, J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, and H. M. van Driel, Phys. Rev. B 27, 1141 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Vorobyev, A. Y.

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, Opt. Express 19, A1031 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, Opt. Express 18, 6455 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 041914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 043513 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xu, L.

Xu, N. S.

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, ACS Nano 3, 4062 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z. Z.

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, ACS Nano 3, 4062 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Young, J. F.

J. E. Sipe, J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, and H. M. van Driel, Phys. Rev. B 27, 1141 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Younkin, R.

M. Y. Shen, C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, E. Mazur, M. Sheehy, and C. M. Friend, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1715 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q.

Zhao, F. L.

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, ACS Nano 3, 4062 (2009).
[CrossRef]

ACS Nano (1)

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, ACS Nano 3, 4062 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

G. Obara, Y. Tanaka, N. N. Nedyalkov, M. Terakawa, and M. Obara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 061106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Shen, C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, E. Mazur, M. Sheehy, and C. M. Friend, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1715 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Nakata, T. Okada, and M. Maeda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4239 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Kondo, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 725 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 041914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

J. Bonse, A. Rosenfeld, and J. Krüger, Appl. Surf. Sci. 257, 5420 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 043513 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon. (1)

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, Nat. Photon. 2, 219 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, Nature 412, 697 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

J. E. Sipe, J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, and H. M. van Driel, Phys. Rev. B 27, 1141 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

P. Schaaf, ed., Laser Processing of Materials: Fundamentals, Applications and Developments (Springer, 2010).

A commercially available software developed by RSoft Design Group ( http://www.rsoftdesign.com ) is used for the numerical simulations.

D. E. Apens, Properties of Silicon (INSPEC, IEE, 1988).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

1D and 2D nanoholes arrays induced on the surface of a silicon wafer by scanning a fs laser with a speed of 1mm/s and different fluences (F): (a) F=103.5mJ/cm2, (b) F=111.4mJ/cm2, (c) F=119.3mJ/cm2, (d) F=135.3mJ/cm2, (e) F=159.2mJ/cm2, (f) F=111.4mJ/cm2. In each case, the laser polarization is indicated by an arrow and the scanning direction was chosen to be parallel to the laser polarization.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic showing the geometry of the initially formed grooves (ripples) on the surface of the silicon wafer that was employed in numerical simulation (a) and the calculated electric field distributions on the surface of grooves whose structural parameters are chosen to be (b) l=4.0μm, h=0.06μm; (c) l=4.0μm, h=0.12μm; (d) l=8.0μm, h=0.10μm; (e) l=8.0μm, h=0.16μm; (f) l=16μm, h=0.18μm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a), (c) Surface colors observed by shining a white light on the surface of the silicon with different incidence angles. The SEM images for the processed silicon surface are presented in (b) and (d). The 2D nanohole array was fabricated with a laser fluence of 159.2mJ/cm2, a scanning speed of 1mm/s, and an interspace of 30 μm.

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