Abstract

We study the major factors causing degradation in the lateral resolution of gradient-index-lens-based catheters used for high-resolution optical coherence tomography. Chromatic aberration and astigmatism were taken into account in the propagation of broadband single-mode Gaussian beams through the catheter geometry. It was found that, while chromatic aberration did not preclude achieving high resolution, astigmatism posed a major technical difficulty, because its correction requires a very sensitive adjustment of parameters, especially for catheters with long working distances.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Z. Yaqoob, J. Wu, E. J. McDowell, X. Heng, and C. Yang, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 063001 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. I.-K. Jang, G. J. Tearney, B. MacNeill, M. Takano, F. Moselewski, N. Iftima, M. Shishkov, S. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, Circulation 111, 1551 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2009

2008

2007

Y. Chen, P. M. Andrews, A. D. Aguirre, J. M. Schmitt, and J. G. Fujimoto, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034008 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

A. R. Tumlinson, B. Považay, L. P. Hariri, J. McNally, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, and J. K. Barton, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yaqoob, J. Wu, E. J. McDowell, X. Heng, and C. Yang, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 063001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

I.-K. Jang, G. J. Tearney, B. MacNeill, M. Takano, F. Moselewski, N. Iftima, M. Shishkov, S. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, Circulation 111, 1551 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2000

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, Gastrointest. Endosc. 51, 467 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

J. G. Fujimoto, S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, and M. E. Brezinski, Heart 82, 128 (1999).

1997

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

1991

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Aguirre, A. D.

Y. Chen, P. M. Andrews, A. D. Aguirre, J. M. Schmitt, and J. G. Fujimoto, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034008 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, P. M.

Y. Chen, P. M. Andrews, A. D. Aguirre, J. M. Schmitt, and J. G. Fujimoto, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034008 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Aretz, H. T.

I.-K. Jang, G. J. Tearney, B. MacNeill, M. Takano, F. Moselewski, N. Iftima, M. Shishkov, S. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, Circulation 111, 1551 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barton, J. K.

A. R. Tumlinson, B. Považay, L. P. Hariri, J. McNally, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, and J. K. Barton, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Boppart, S. A.

J. G. Fujimoto, S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, and M. E. Brezinski, Heart 82, 128 (1999).

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. E. Brezinski, N. J. Weissman, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 21, 543 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bouma, B. E.

I.-K. Jang, G. J. Tearney, B. MacNeill, M. Takano, F. Moselewski, N. Iftima, M. Shishkov, S. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, Circulation 111, 1551 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, Gastrointest. Endosc. 51, 467 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Fujimoto, S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, and M. E. Brezinski, Heart 82, 128 (1999).

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. E. Brezinski, N. J. Weissman, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 21, 543 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brezinski, M. E.

J. G. Fujimoto, S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, and M. E. Brezinski, Heart 82, 128 (1999).

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. E. Brezinski, N. J. Weissman, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 21, 543 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, P. M. Andrews, A. D. Aguirre, J. M. Schmitt, and J. G. Fujimoto, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034008 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cobb, M. J.

Compton, C. C.

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, Gastrointest. Endosc. 51, 467 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Drexler, W.

A. R. Tumlinson, B. Považay, L. P. Hariri, J. McNally, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, and J. K. Barton, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Y. Chen, P. M. Andrews, A. D. Aguirre, J. M. Schmitt, and J. G. Fujimoto, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034008 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Fujimoto, S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, and M. E. Brezinski, Heart 82, 128 (1999).

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. E. Brezinski, N. J. Weissman, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 21, 543 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Halpern, E. F.

I.-K. Jang, G. J. Tearney, B. MacNeill, M. Takano, F. Moselewski, N. Iftima, M. Shishkov, S. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, Circulation 111, 1551 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hariri, L. P.

A. R. Tumlinson, B. Považay, L. P. Hariri, J. McNally, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, and J. K. Barton, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hee, M.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Heng, X.

Z. Yaqoob, J. Wu, E. J. McDowell, X. Heng, and C. Yang, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 063001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hermann, B.

A. R. Tumlinson, B. Považay, L. P. Hariri, J. McNally, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, and J. K. Barton, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Houser, S.

I.-K. Jang, G. J. Tearney, B. MacNeill, M. Takano, F. Moselewski, N. Iftima, M. Shishkov, S. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, Circulation 111, 1551 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Huo, L.

Hwang, J. H.

Iftima, N.

I.-K. Jang, G. J. Tearney, B. MacNeill, M. Takano, F. Moselewski, N. Iftima, M. Shishkov, S. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, Circulation 111, 1551 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jang, I.-K.

I.-K. Jang, G. J. Tearney, B. MacNeill, M. Takano, F. Moselewski, N. Iftima, M. Shishkov, S. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, Circulation 111, 1551 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.-S.

Li, X.

Lin, C.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

MacNeill, B.

I.-K. Jang, G. J. Tearney, B. MacNeill, M. Takano, F. Moselewski, N. Iftima, M. Shishkov, S. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, Circulation 111, 1551 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McDowell, E. J.

Z. Yaqoob, J. Wu, E. J. McDowell, X. Heng, and C. Yang, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 063001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

McNally, J.

A. R. Tumlinson, B. Považay, L. P. Hariri, J. McNally, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, and J. K. Barton, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Meemon, P.

Moselewski, F.

I.-K. Jang, G. J. Tearney, B. MacNeill, M. Takano, F. Moselewski, N. Iftima, M. Shishkov, S. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, Circulation 111, 1551 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Murali, S.

Nishioka, N. S.

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, Gastrointest. Endosc. 51, 467 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pitris, C.

J. G. Fujimoto, S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, and M. E. Brezinski, Heart 82, 128 (1999).

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Považay, B.

A. R. Tumlinson, B. Považay, L. P. Hariri, J. McNally, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, and J. K. Barton, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Puliafito, C.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rolland, J.

Sattmann, H.

A. R. Tumlinson, B. Považay, L. P. Hariri, J. McNally, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, and J. K. Barton, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, J. M.

Y. Chen, P. M. Andrews, A. D. Aguirre, J. M. Schmitt, and J. G. Fujimoto, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034008 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schuman, J.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Shishkov, M.

I.-K. Jang, G. J. Tearney, B. MacNeill, M. Takano, F. Moselewski, N. Iftima, M. Shishkov, S. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, Circulation 111, 1551 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Southern, J. F.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. E. Brezinski, N. J. Weissman, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 21, 543 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stinson, W.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Swanson, E.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Takano, M.

I.-K. Jang, G. J. Tearney, B. MacNeill, M. Takano, F. Moselewski, N. Iftima, M. Shishkov, S. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, Circulation 111, 1551 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tearney, G. J.

I.-K. Jang, G. J. Tearney, B. MacNeill, M. Takano, F. Moselewski, N. Iftima, M. Shishkov, S. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, Circulation 111, 1551 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, Gastrointest. Endosc. 51, 467 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Fujimoto, S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, and M. E. Brezinski, Heart 82, 128 (1999).

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. E. Brezinski, N. J. Weissman, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 21, 543 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tumlinson, A. R.

A. R. Tumlinson, B. Považay, L. P. Hariri, J. McNally, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, and J. K. Barton, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Unterhuber, A.

A. R. Tumlinson, B. Považay, L. P. Hariri, J. McNally, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, and J. K. Barton, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Weissman, N. J.

Wu, J.

Z. Yaqoob, J. Wu, E. J. McDowell, X. Heng, and C. Yang, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 063001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.

Xi, J.

Yang, C.

Z. Yaqoob, J. Wu, E. J. McDowell, X. Heng, and C. Yang, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 063001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yaqoob, Z.

Z. Yaqoob, J. Wu, E. J. McDowell, X. Heng, and C. Yang, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 063001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Circulation

I.-K. Jang, G. J. Tearney, B. MacNeill, M. Takano, F. Moselewski, N. Iftima, M. Shishkov, S. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, Circulation 111, 1551 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gastrointest. Endosc.

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, Gastrointest. Endosc. 51, 467 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Heart

J. G. Fujimoto, S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, and M. E. Brezinski, Heart 82, 128 (1999).

J. Biomed. Opt.

Z. Yaqoob, J. Wu, E. J. McDowell, X. Heng, and C. Yang, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 063001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, P. M. Andrews, A. D. Aguirre, J. M. Schmitt, and J. G. Fujimoto, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034008 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Tumlinson, B. Považay, L. P. Hariri, J. McNally, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, and J. K. Barton, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Science

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of a forward-directed probe and its main components: glass rod and GRIN lens. All simulations in this article assume the presence of tissue beyond the catheter.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Chromatic aberration in OCT catheters. (a) Axial and lateral resolutions for OCT as a function of the spectral bandwidth. (b) Broadband lateral resolution (green crosses) and lateral resolution at center wavelength λ0 (black dots) versus working distance (the working distance is varied by changing the length of the glass rod from 2 to 9 mm at a fixed pitch of 0.18). (c) Probe design chart showing the values of the broadband lateral resolution Δr (green) and working distance zr (black) as functions of the parameters rod length lr and GRIN lens pitch. Red lines indicate the maximum beam radius inside the GRIN lens. All calculations use λ0=800nm. (b) and (c) use a bandwidth of 120 nm (FWHM).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Correction of astigmatism in OCT probes. (a) Schematic of beam waist along both the longitudinal (x) and azimuthal (y) orientations. (b) Azimuthal resolution Δy (green) and astigmatic ratio Δx/Δy (blue) as functions of rod length and lens pitch before matching refractive index (both Δx and Δy are measured at a distance zy from the catheter). The horizontal line indicates the rod length used for (c) and (d), which corresponds to a maximum beam radius of 375 μm inside the GRIN lens. (c) Azimuthal resolution (green) and resolution astigmatic ratio (blue) and (d) azimuthal working distance zy (green) and working distance astigmatic ratio zx/zy (blue) as functions of matching refractive index nc and pitch. The red curve corresponds to parameters that fully suppress astigmatism.

Equations (1)

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nc()=nt[1+R1R2(1ntns)]1

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