Abstract

An experimental Mueller matrix polarimeter is used to quantify human liver fibrosis by measuring retardance and depolarization of thin biopsies. The former parameter is sensitive to fibrillar collagen, the latter is specifically sensitive to fibrillar collagen around blood vessels, which is not significant for liver fibrosis diagnosis. By using depolarization like a filter, retardance distribution enables distinguishing between disease stages and limits the high degree of observer discrepancy.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2010

L. Gaihouste, Y. Le Grand, C. Odin, D. Guyader, B. Turlin, F. Ezan, Y. Désille, T. Guilbert, A. Bessard, C. Frémin, N. Theret, and G. Baffet, J. Hepatology 52, 398 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2007

2005

R. Bataller and D. A. Brenner, J. Clin. Invest. 115, 209 (2005).

2004

G. M. Dahab, M. M. Kheriza, H. M. El-Beltagi, A. M. Fouda, O. A. El-Din, and J. Gastroenterol, Hepatology 19, 78 (2004).

B. Laude-Boulesteix, A. De Martino, B. Drévillon, and L. Schwartz, Appl. Opt. 43, 2824 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1997

K. Kiraly, M. M. Hyttinen, T. Lapvetelainen, M. Elo, I. Kiviranta, J. Dobai, L. Modis, H. J. Helminen, and J. P. A. Arokoski, J. Mol. Histol. 29, 317 (1997).

1996

1994

The French METAVIR Cooperative Study Group, Hepatology 20, 15 (1994).

1986

J. J. Gil and E. Bernabeu, J. Mod. Opt. 33, 185 (1986).

1979

L. C. U. Junqueira, G. Bignolas, and R. R. Brentani, Histochem. J. 11, 447 (1979).

Arokoski, J. P. A.

K. Kiraly, M. M. Hyttinen, T. Lapvetelainen, M. Elo, I. Kiviranta, J. Dobai, L. Modis, H. J. Helminen, and J. P. A. Arokoski, J. Mol. Histol. 29, 317 (1997).

Baffet, G.

L. Gaihouste, Y. Le Grand, C. Odin, D. Guyader, B. Turlin, F. Ezan, Y. Désille, T. Guilbert, A. Bessard, C. Frémin, N. Theret, and G. Baffet, J. Hepatology 52, 398 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bataller, R.

R. Bataller and D. A. Brenner, J. Clin. Invest. 115, 209 (2005).

Bedossa, P.

P. Bedossa and T. Poynard, Hepatology 24, 289 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bernabeu, E.

J. J. Gil and E. Bernabeu, J. Mod. Opt. 33, 185 (1986).

Bessard, A.

L. Gaihouste, Y. Le Grand, C. Odin, D. Guyader, B. Turlin, F. Ezan, Y. Désille, T. Guilbert, A. Bessard, C. Frémin, N. Theret, and G. Baffet, J. Hepatology 52, 398 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bignolas, G.

L. C. U. Junqueira, G. Bignolas, and R. R. Brentani, Histochem. J. 11, 447 (1979).

Brenner, D. A.

R. Bataller and D. A. Brenner, J. Clin. Invest. 115, 209 (2005).

Brentani, R. R.

L. C. U. Junqueira, G. Bignolas, and R. R. Brentani, Histochem. J. 11, 447 (1979).

Cariou, J.

Chipman, R. A.

Dahab, G. M.

G. M. Dahab, M. M. Kheriza, H. M. El-Beltagi, A. M. Fouda, O. A. El-Din, and J. Gastroenterol, Hepatology 19, 78 (2004).

De Martino, A.

Désille, Y.

L. Gaihouste, Y. Le Grand, C. Odin, D. Guyader, B. Turlin, F. Ezan, Y. Désille, T. Guilbert, A. Bessard, C. Frémin, N. Theret, and G. Baffet, J. Hepatology 52, 398 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dobai, J.

K. Kiraly, M. M. Hyttinen, T. Lapvetelainen, M. Elo, I. Kiviranta, J. Dobai, L. Modis, H. J. Helminen, and J. P. A. Arokoski, J. Mol. Histol. 29, 317 (1997).

Drévillon, B.

Dubreuil, M.

El-Beltagi, H. M.

G. M. Dahab, M. M. Kheriza, H. M. El-Beltagi, A. M. Fouda, O. A. El-Din, and J. Gastroenterol, Hepatology 19, 78 (2004).

El-Din, O. A.

G. M. Dahab, M. M. Kheriza, H. M. El-Beltagi, A. M. Fouda, O. A. El-Din, and J. Gastroenterol, Hepatology 19, 78 (2004).

Elo, M.

K. Kiraly, M. M. Hyttinen, T. Lapvetelainen, M. Elo, I. Kiviranta, J. Dobai, L. Modis, H. J. Helminen, and J. P. A. Arokoski, J. Mol. Histol. 29, 317 (1997).

Ezan, F.

L. Gaihouste, Y. Le Grand, C. Odin, D. Guyader, B. Turlin, F. Ezan, Y. Désille, T. Guilbert, A. Bessard, C. Frémin, N. Theret, and G. Baffet, J. Hepatology 52, 398 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fouda, A. M.

G. M. Dahab, M. M. Kheriza, H. M. El-Beltagi, A. M. Fouda, O. A. El-Din, and J. Gastroenterol, Hepatology 19, 78 (2004).

Frémin, C.

L. Gaihouste, Y. Le Grand, C. Odin, D. Guyader, B. Turlin, F. Ezan, Y. Désille, T. Guilbert, A. Bessard, C. Frémin, N. Theret, and G. Baffet, J. Hepatology 52, 398 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gaihouste, L.

L. Gaihouste, Y. Le Grand, C. Odin, D. Guyader, B. Turlin, F. Ezan, Y. Désille, T. Guilbert, A. Bessard, C. Frémin, N. Theret, and G. Baffet, J. Hepatology 52, 398 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gastroenterol, J.

G. M. Dahab, M. M. Kheriza, H. M. El-Beltagi, A. M. Fouda, O. A. El-Din, and J. Gastroenterol, Hepatology 19, 78 (2004).

Gil, J. J.

J. J. Gil and E. Bernabeu, J. Mod. Opt. 33, 185 (1986).

Guilbert, T.

L. Gaihouste, Y. Le Grand, C. Odin, D. Guyader, B. Turlin, F. Ezan, Y. Désille, T. Guilbert, A. Bessard, C. Frémin, N. Theret, and G. Baffet, J. Hepatology 52, 398 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Guyader, D.

L. Gaihouste, Y. Le Grand, C. Odin, D. Guyader, B. Turlin, F. Ezan, Y. Désille, T. Guilbert, A. Bessard, C. Frémin, N. Theret, and G. Baffet, J. Hepatology 52, 398 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Helminen, H. J.

K. Kiraly, M. M. Hyttinen, T. Lapvetelainen, M. Elo, I. Kiviranta, J. Dobai, L. Modis, H. J. Helminen, and J. P. A. Arokoski, J. Mol. Histol. 29, 317 (1997).

Hyttinen, M. M.

K. Kiraly, M. M. Hyttinen, T. Lapvetelainen, M. Elo, I. Kiviranta, J. Dobai, L. Modis, H. J. Helminen, and J. P. A. Arokoski, J. Mol. Histol. 29, 317 (1997).

Junqueira, L. C. U.

L. C. U. Junqueira, G. Bignolas, and R. R. Brentani, Histochem. J. 11, 447 (1979).

Kheriza, M. M.

G. M. Dahab, M. M. Kheriza, H. M. El-Beltagi, A. M. Fouda, O. A. El-Din, and J. Gastroenterol, Hepatology 19, 78 (2004).

Kiraly, K.

K. Kiraly, M. M. Hyttinen, T. Lapvetelainen, M. Elo, I. Kiviranta, J. Dobai, L. Modis, H. J. Helminen, and J. P. A. Arokoski, J. Mol. Histol. 29, 317 (1997).

Kiviranta, I.

K. Kiraly, M. M. Hyttinen, T. Lapvetelainen, M. Elo, I. Kiviranta, J. Dobai, L. Modis, H. J. Helminen, and J. P. A. Arokoski, J. Mol. Histol. 29, 317 (1997).

Lapvetelainen, T.

K. Kiraly, M. M. Hyttinen, T. Lapvetelainen, M. Elo, I. Kiviranta, J. Dobai, L. Modis, H. J. Helminen, and J. P. A. Arokoski, J. Mol. Histol. 29, 317 (1997).

Laude-Boulesteix, B.

Le Grand, Y.

L. Gaihouste, Y. Le Grand, C. Odin, D. Guyader, B. Turlin, F. Ezan, Y. Désille, T. Guilbert, A. Bessard, C. Frémin, N. Theret, and G. Baffet, J. Hepatology 52, 398 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Le Jeune, B.

Lu, S.-Y.

Modis, L.

K. Kiraly, M. M. Hyttinen, T. Lapvetelainen, M. Elo, I. Kiviranta, J. Dobai, L. Modis, H. J. Helminen, and J. P. A. Arokoski, J. Mol. Histol. 29, 317 (1997).

Odin, C.

L. Gaihouste, Y. Le Grand, C. Odin, D. Guyader, B. Turlin, F. Ezan, Y. Désille, T. Guilbert, A. Bessard, C. Frémin, N. Theret, and G. Baffet, J. Hepatology 52, 398 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Poynard, T.

P. Bedossa and T. Poynard, Hepatology 24, 289 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rivet, S.

Schwartz, L.

Theret, N.

L. Gaihouste, Y. Le Grand, C. Odin, D. Guyader, B. Turlin, F. Ezan, Y. Désille, T. Guilbert, A. Bessard, C. Frémin, N. Theret, and G. Baffet, J. Hepatology 52, 398 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Turlin, B.

L. Gaihouste, Y. Le Grand, C. Odin, D. Guyader, B. Turlin, F. Ezan, Y. Désille, T. Guilbert, A. Bessard, C. Frémin, N. Theret, and G. Baffet, J. Hepatology 52, 398 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Hepatology

P. Bedossa and T. Poynard, Hepatology 24, 289 (1996).
[CrossRef]

The French METAVIR Cooperative Study Group, Hepatology 20, 15 (1994).

G. M. Dahab, M. M. Kheriza, H. M. El-Beltagi, A. M. Fouda, O. A. El-Din, and J. Gastroenterol, Hepatology 19, 78 (2004).

Histochem. J.

L. C. U. Junqueira, G. Bignolas, and R. R. Brentani, Histochem. J. 11, 447 (1979).

J. Clin. Invest.

R. Bataller and D. A. Brenner, J. Clin. Invest. 115, 209 (2005).

J. Hepatology

L. Gaihouste, Y. Le Grand, C. Odin, D. Guyader, B. Turlin, F. Ezan, Y. Désille, T. Guilbert, A. Bessard, C. Frémin, N. Theret, and G. Baffet, J. Hepatology 52, 398 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt.

J. J. Gil and E. Bernabeu, J. Mod. Opt. 33, 185 (1986).

J. Mol. Histol.

K. Kiraly, M. M. Hyttinen, T. Lapvetelainen, M. Elo, I. Kiviranta, J. Dobai, L. Modis, H. J. Helminen, and J. P. A. Arokoski, J. Mol. Histol. 29, 317 (1997).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Opt. Express

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Diagram of the Snapshot Mueller Matrix Polarimeter setup. O1, O2: 10× objectives, SM: scattering medium, L1, L2: lenses, OF: optical fiber, other abbreviations defined in text.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Retardance (R) and depolarization index (PD) images of 2.5×2.5mm2 ROIs of stained surgical human liver biopsies (F0 and F4 Metavir grades). Images were obtained with a 50 μm estimated resolution and a 40 μm step size. For comparison, SHG images of the same ROIs were done with a 2.5 μm estimated resolution, under circular illumination. The Non-Polarized (NP) images of the global biopsies are also shown, and the scale bars are equal to 0.25 cm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Retardance values obtained by a F0 grade liver (a) and a F4 grade liver (c) on a surface of 1.5×1.5cm2 area with a 250 μm step size (3600 measurements), after PD filtering. (b) and (d) Experimental distribution of retardance values respectively for F0 and F4 grade liver (filled circles). Data were fitted by a Gaussian curve (solid curve) for the weaker retardance values.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Plot of liver samples according to N index and R¯/R0. The Non-Polarized (NP) images of 3 biopsies are also presented. Samples are named according to the disease grade measured by two pathologists, which accounts for the double notation “F0/F1,” “F1/F2,” and “F2/F3.”

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Retardance image of F4 grade liver. (a) Spot size >50μm, (b) spot size 50μm, (c) spot size <50μm.

Equations (2)

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R¯=1NsupR>RlimR,
N=NsupNtot,

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