Abstract

We present the generation of intense terahertz pulses by optical rectification of 780 nm pulses in a large area gallium phosphide crystal. The velocity mismatch between optical and terahertz pulses thereby limits the bandwidth of the terahertz pulses. We show that this limitation can be overcome by a dynamic modification of the refractive index of the gallium phosphide crystal through generation of hot phonons. This is confirmed by excellent agreement between experimental results and model calculations.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Hebling, G. Almási, I. Z. Kozma, and J. Kuhl, Opt. Express 10, 1161 (2002).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. E. W. V. Stryland, M. A. Woodall, H. Vanherzeele, and M. J. Soileau, Opt. Lett. 10, 490 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. E. Serebryannikov, D. von der Linde, and A. M. Zheltikov, Opt. Lett. 33, 977 (2008).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Merlin, Solid State Commun. 102, 207 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Ushioda, J. D. McMullen, and M. J. Delaney, Phys. Rev. B 8, 4634 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Y. Yarnell, J. L. Warren, R. G. Wenzel, and P. J. Dean, Neutron Inelastic Scattering (International Atomic Energy Agency, 1968), Vol. 1, pp. 301–313.

2008 (2)

S. Casalbuoni, H. Schlarb, B. Schmidt, P. Schmüser, B. Steffen, and A. Winter, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 11, 072802 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Serebryannikov, D. von der Linde, and A. M. Zheltikov, Opt. Lett. 33, 977 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

J. Faure, J. V. Tilborg, R. A. Kaindl, and W. P. Leemans, Opt. Quantum Electron. 36, 681 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2000 (1)

F. L. Madarasz, J. O. Dimmock, N. Dietz, and K. J. Bachmann, J. Appl. Phys. 87, 1564 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1516 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

P. Y. Han and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3049 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

R. Merlin, Solid State Commun. 102, 207 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

F. Vallée, Phys. Rev. B 49, 2460 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

1979 (1)

P. H. Borcherds, K. Kunc, G. F. Alfrey, and R. L. Hall, J. Phys. C 12, 4699 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

S. Ushioda, J. D. McMullen, and M. J. Delaney, Phys. Rev. B 8, 4634 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

Alfrey, G. F.

P. H. Borcherds, K. Kunc, G. F. Alfrey, and R. L. Hall, J. Phys. C 12, 4699 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Almási, G.

Bachmann, K. J.

F. L. Madarasz, J. O. Dimmock, N. Dietz, and K. J. Bachmann, J. Appl. Phys. 87, 1564 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Borcherds, P. H.

P. H. Borcherds, K. Kunc, G. F. Alfrey, and R. L. Hall, J. Phys. C 12, 4699 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Casalbuoni, S.

S. Casalbuoni, H. Schlarb, B. Schmidt, P. Schmüser, B. Steffen, and A. Winter, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 11, 072802 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Coleman, P. D.

Dean, P. J.

J. Y. Yarnell, J. L. Warren, R. G. Wenzel, and P. J. Dean, Neutron Inelastic Scattering (International Atomic Energy Agency, 1968), Vol. 1, pp. 301–313.

Delaney, M. J.

S. Ushioda, J. D. McMullen, and M. J. Delaney, Phys. Rev. B 8, 4634 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Dietz, N.

F. L. Madarasz, J. O. Dimmock, N. Dietz, and K. J. Bachmann, J. Appl. Phys. 87, 1564 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dimmock, J. O.

F. L. Madarasz, J. O. Dimmock, N. Dietz, and K. J. Bachmann, J. Appl. Phys. 87, 1564 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Faure, J.

J. Faure, J. V. Tilborg, R. A. Kaindl, and W. P. Leemans, Opt. Quantum Electron. 36, 681 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hahn, T.

Hall, R. L.

P. H. Borcherds, K. Kunc, G. F. Alfrey, and R. L. Hall, J. Phys. C 12, 4699 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Han, P. Y.

P. Y. Han and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3049 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hebling, J.

Hunsche, S.

A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1516 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jacob, F.

Kaindl, R. A.

J. Faure, J. V. Tilborg, R. A. Kaindl, and W. P. Leemans, Opt. Quantum Electron. 36, 681 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Knox, W. H.

A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1516 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kozma, I. Z.

Kuhl, J.

Kunc, K.

P. H. Borcherds, K. Kunc, G. F. Alfrey, and R. L. Hall, J. Phys. C 12, 4699 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Leemans, W. P.

J. Faure, J. V. Tilborg, R. A. Kaindl, and W. P. Leemans, Opt. Quantum Electron. 36, 681 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Leitenstorfer, A.

A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1516 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Löffler, T.

Madarasz, F. L.

F. L. Madarasz, J. O. Dimmock, N. Dietz, and K. J. Bachmann, J. Appl. Phys. 87, 1564 (2000).
[CrossRef]

McMullen, J. D.

S. Ushioda, J. D. McMullen, and M. J. Delaney, Phys. Rev. B 8, 4634 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Merlin, R.

R. Merlin, Solid State Commun. 102, 207 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nuss, M. C.

A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1516 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Parsons, D. F.

Roskos, H. G.

Schlarb, H.

S. Casalbuoni, H. Schlarb, B. Schmidt, P. Schmüser, B. Steffen, and A. Winter, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 11, 072802 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, B.

S. Casalbuoni, H. Schlarb, B. Schmidt, P. Schmüser, B. Steffen, and A. Winter, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 11, 072802 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schmüser, P.

S. Casalbuoni, H. Schlarb, B. Schmidt, P. Schmüser, B. Steffen, and A. Winter, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 11, 072802 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Serebryannikov, E. E.

Shah, J.

A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1516 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Soileau, M. J.

Steffen, B.

S. Casalbuoni, H. Schlarb, B. Schmidt, P. Schmüser, B. Steffen, and A. Winter, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 11, 072802 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stryland, E. W. V.

Thomson, M.

Tilborg, J. V.

J. Faure, J. V. Tilborg, R. A. Kaindl, and W. P. Leemans, Opt. Quantum Electron. 36, 681 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ushioda, S.

S. Ushioda, J. D. McMullen, and M. J. Delaney, Phys. Rev. B 8, 4634 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Vallée, F.

F. Vallée, Phys. Rev. B 49, 2460 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Vanherzeele, H.

von der Linde, D.

Warren, J. L.

J. Y. Yarnell, J. L. Warren, R. G. Wenzel, and P. J. Dean, Neutron Inelastic Scattering (International Atomic Energy Agency, 1968), Vol. 1, pp. 301–313.

Wenzel, R. G.

J. Y. Yarnell, J. L. Warren, R. G. Wenzel, and P. J. Dean, Neutron Inelastic Scattering (International Atomic Energy Agency, 1968), Vol. 1, pp. 301–313.

Winter, A.

S. Casalbuoni, H. Schlarb, B. Schmidt, P. Schmüser, B. Steffen, and A. Winter, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 11, 072802 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Woodall, M. A.

Yarnell, J. Y.

J. Y. Yarnell, J. L. Warren, R. G. Wenzel, and P. J. Dean, Neutron Inelastic Scattering (International Atomic Energy Agency, 1968), Vol. 1, pp. 301–313.

Zhang, X.-C.

P. Y. Han and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3049 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zheltikov, A. M.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

P. Y. Han and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3049 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1516 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

F. L. Madarasz, J. O. Dimmock, N. Dietz, and K. J. Bachmann, J. Appl. Phys. 87, 1564 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. C (1)

P. H. Borcherds, K. Kunc, G. F. Alfrey, and R. L. Hall, J. Phys. C 12, 4699 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Faure, J. V. Tilborg, R. A. Kaindl, and W. P. Leemans, Opt. Quantum Electron. 36, 681 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

S. Ushioda, J. D. McMullen, and M. J. Delaney, Phys. Rev. B 8, 4634 (1973).
[CrossRef]

F. Vallée, Phys. Rev. B 49, 2460 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams (1)

S. Casalbuoni, H. Schlarb, B. Schmidt, P. Schmüser, B. Steffen, and A. Winter, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 11, 072802 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Commun. (1)

R. Merlin, Solid State Commun. 102, 207 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

J. Y. Yarnell, J. L. Warren, R. G. Wenzel, and P. J. Dean, Neutron Inelastic Scattering (International Atomic Energy Agency, 1968), Vol. 1, pp. 301–313.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Comparison of experimental (dots) and calculated (solid curve) THz spectra for low pump fluence. The minimum indicated by the vertical arrow is attributed to the velocity mismatch between pump and THz pulses; the minima at higher frequencies arise from the response function of the detector crystal (asterisks). The time domain data is shown in the inset.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Real part of the THz refractive index. The solid curve is a fit of Eq. (2) to the experimental data (dots).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Measured THz spectra for different pump fluences. (b) Calculated spectra for different effective phonon temperatures.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

nNIR2=4.1705+4.911310.1174/λ2+1.99281756.46/λ2,
n(Ω)=ε(Ω)=ε+ε(ωLO2ωTO2)ωTO2Ω2+iΓΩ,
Γ=Γ0[1+n˜(ωLA(X))+n˜(ωTA(X))],
n˜(ω)=1/[exp(ω/kBT)1],

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