Abstract

We demonstrate that direct femtosecond laser writing in silver-containing zinc and gallium phosphate glass enables generation of three-dimensional (3D) optical second-order nonlinear microstructures having an χ(2) value about 2.5 times that of quartz. The proposed physical model involves photo-reduction, photo-dissociation, and migration of silver species within the glass matrix. 3D laser-written second-order nonlinear structures could become a new class of nonlinear optical components.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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2011

A. Royon, Y. Petit, G. Papon, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, Opt. Mat. Exp. 1, 866 (2011).

2010

M. Bellec, A. Royon, K. Bourhis, J. Choi, B. Bousquet, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, J.-J. Videau, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 15584 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2008

2007

M. Dussauze, E. Fargin, V. Rodriguez, A. Malakho, and E. Kamitsos, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 083532 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Dussauze, E. Kamitsos, E. Fargin, and V. Rodriguez, J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 14560 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Dai, B. Zhu, J. Qiu, H. Ma, B. Lu, and B. Yu, Chem. Phys. Lett. 443, 253 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2003

2000

1996

P. Kazansky, A. Smith, P. Russell, G. Yang, and G. Sessler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 269 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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K. Tanaka, K. Kashima, K. Hirao, N. Soga, A. Mito, and H. Nasu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, L843 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991

1986

Bellec, M.

Bourhis, K.

M. Bellec, A. Royon, K. Bourhis, J. Choi, B. Bousquet, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, J.-J. Videau, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 15584 (2010).
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M. Bellec, A. Royon, B. Bousquet, K. Bourhis, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, Opt. Express 17, 10304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bousquet, B.

Boyd, R. W.

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, 3rd ed. (Academic Press, 2008).

Brueck, S.

Canioni, L.

A. Royon, Y. Petit, G. Papon, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, Opt. Mat. Exp. 1, 866 (2011).

M. Bellec, A. Royon, K. Bourhis, J. Choi, B. Bousquet, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, J.-J. Videau, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 15584 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Bellec, A. Royon, B. Bousquet, K. Bourhis, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, Opt. Express 17, 10304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Canioni, M. Bellec, A. Royon, B. Bousquet, and T. Cardinal, Opt. Lett. 33, 360 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cardinal, T.

Choi, J.

M. Bellec, A. Royon, K. Bourhis, J. Choi, B. Bousquet, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, J.-J. Videau, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 15584 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cravetchi, I.

Dai, Y.

Y. Dai, B. Zhu, J. Qiu, H. Ma, B. Lu, and B. Yu, Chem. Phys. Lett. 443, 253 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dussauze, M.

M. Dussauze, E. Fargin, V. Rodriguez, A. Malakho, and E. Kamitsos, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 083532 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Dussauze, E. Kamitsos, E. Fargin, and V. Rodriguez, J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 14560 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fargin, E.

M. Dussauze, E. Kamitsos, E. Fargin, and V. Rodriguez, J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 14560 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Dussauze, E. Fargin, V. Rodriguez, A. Malakho, and E. Kamitsos, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 083532 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Graener, H.

Hirao, K.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Opt. Lett. 25, 408 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Tanaka, K. Kashima, K. Hirao, N. Soga, A. Mito, and H. Nasu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, L843 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kamitsos, E.

M. Dussauze, E. Fargin, V. Rodriguez, A. Malakho, and E. Kamitsos, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 083532 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Dussauze, E. Kamitsos, E. Fargin, and V. Rodriguez, J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 14560 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kashima, K.

K. Tanaka, K. Kashima, K. Hirao, N. Soga, A. Mito, and H. Nasu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, L843 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kazansky, P.

P. Kazansky, A. Smith, P. Russell, G. Yang, and G. Sessler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 269 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lange, J.

Lu, B.

Y. Dai, B. Zhu, J. Qiu, H. Ma, B. Lu, and B. Yu, Chem. Phys. Lett. 443, 253 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ma, H.

Y. Dai, B. Zhu, J. Qiu, H. Ma, B. Lu, and B. Yu, Chem. Phys. Lett. 443, 253 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Malakho, A.

M. Dussauze, E. Fargin, V. Rodriguez, A. Malakho, and E. Kamitsos, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 083532 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Margulis, W.

Mito, A.

K. Tanaka, K. Kashima, K. Hirao, N. Soga, A. Mito, and H. Nasu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, L843 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mitsuyu, T.

Miura, K.

Mukherjee, N.

Myers, R.

Nasu, H.

K. Tanaka, K. Kashima, K. Hirao, N. Soga, A. Mito, and H. Nasu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, L843 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Österberg, U.

Papon, G.

A. Royon, Y. Petit, G. Papon, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, Opt. Mat. Exp. 1, 866 (2011).

Petit, Y.

A. Royon, Y. Petit, G. Papon, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, Opt. Mat. Exp. 1, 866 (2011).

Podlipensky, A.

Qiu, J.

Y. Dai, B. Zhu, J. Qiu, H. Ma, B. Lu, and B. Yu, Chem. Phys. Lett. 443, 253 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, J. Qiu, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Opt. Lett. 25, 408 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, M.

A. Royon, Y. Petit, G. Papon, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, Opt. Mat. Exp. 1, 866 (2011).

M. Bellec, A. Royon, K. Bourhis, J. Choi, B. Bousquet, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, J.-J. Videau, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 15584 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Bellec, A. Royon, B. Bousquet, K. Bourhis, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, Opt. Express 17, 10304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, V.

M. Dussauze, E. Kamitsos, E. Fargin, and V. Rodriguez, J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 14560 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Dussauze, E. Fargin, V. Rodriguez, A. Malakho, and E. Kamitsos, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 083532 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Royon, A.

A. Royon, Y. Petit, G. Papon, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, Opt. Mat. Exp. 1, 866 (2011).

M. Bellec, A. Royon, K. Bourhis, J. Choi, B. Bousquet, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, J.-J. Videau, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 15584 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Bellec, A. Royon, B. Bousquet, K. Bourhis, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, Opt. Express 17, 10304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Canioni, M. Bellec, A. Royon, B. Bousquet, and T. Cardinal, Opt. Lett. 33, 360 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P.

P. Kazansky, A. Smith, P. Russell, G. Yang, and G. Sessler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 269 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Saleh, B. E. A.

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, 1991).

Seifert, G.

Sessler, G.

P. Kazansky, A. Smith, P. Russell, G. Yang, and G. Sessler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 269 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Smith, A.

P. Kazansky, A. Smith, P. Russell, G. Yang, and G. Sessler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 269 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Soga, N.

K. Tanaka, K. Kashima, K. Hirao, N. Soga, A. Mito, and H. Nasu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, L843 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, K.

K. Tanaka, K. Kashima, K. Hirao, N. Soga, A. Mito, and H. Nasu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, L843 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Teich, M. C.

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, 1991).

Treguer, M.

M. Bellec, A. Royon, K. Bourhis, J. Choi, B. Bousquet, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, J.-J. Videau, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 15584 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Bellec, A. Royon, B. Bousquet, K. Bourhis, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, Opt. Express 17, 10304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Videau, J.-J.

M. Bellec, A. Royon, K. Bourhis, J. Choi, B. Bousquet, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, J.-J. Videau, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 15584 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, G.

P. Kazansky, A. Smith, P. Russell, G. Yang, and G. Sessler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 269 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yu, B.

Y. Dai, B. Zhu, J. Qiu, H. Ma, B. Lu, and B. Yu, Chem. Phys. Lett. 443, 253 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zarzycki, J.

J. Zarzycki, Glasses and the Vitreous State (Cambridge University, 1991), Vol. 9.

Zhu, B.

Y. Dai, B. Zhu, J. Qiu, H. Ma, B. Lu, and B. Yu, Chem. Phys. Lett. 443, 253 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

P. Kazansky, A. Smith, P. Russell, G. Yang, and G. Sessler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 269 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

Y. Dai, B. Zhu, J. Qiu, H. Ma, B. Lu, and B. Yu, Chem. Phys. Lett. 443, 253 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

M. Dussauze, E. Fargin, V. Rodriguez, A. Malakho, and E. Kamitsos, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 083532 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C

M. Bellec, A. Royon, K. Bourhis, J. Choi, B. Bousquet, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, J.-J. Videau, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 15584 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Dussauze, E. Kamitsos, E. Fargin, and V. Rodriguez, J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 14560 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

K. Tanaka, K. Kashima, K. Hirao, N. Soga, A. Mito, and H. Nasu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, L843 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Mat. Exp.

A. Royon, Y. Petit, G. Papon, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, Opt. Mat. Exp. 1, 866 (2011).

Other

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, 1991).

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, 3rd ed. (Academic Press, 2008).

J. Zarzycki, Glasses and the Vitreous State (Cambridge University, 1991), Vol. 9.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Confocal fluorescence image of a photo-induced ring structure with an excitation at 405 nm. The scale bar is 5μm. (b) Schematic representation of a possible radial distribution of the silver species inside the ring. The permanent electric field is Edc.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Experimental setup for SH observation of a single ring microstructure (P: polarizer, O: microscope objective, M: dichroic mirror HR IR, F: bandpass filter at 522nm±40nm, A: analyzer, L: lens). (b) SH spectra at different probe irradiances of the fundamental beam. (c) Evolution of the SH intensity versus the irradiance of the fundamental beam. The quadratic evolution is respected, evidencing the SHG process.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental and associated theoretical images of the SH signal for parallel HH (a),(c) and crossed HV (b),(d) polarizers and analyzers. (e) Evolution of the SH intensity versus the angle of the electric field vector for parallel (HH) and crossed (HV) polarizers and analyzers.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental images of the SH signal for a parallel HH polarizer and analyzer of a (a) single ring structure and of (b) bulk quartz attenuated 5000 times. (c) Evolution of the normalized SH intensity of the ring structure (green full line) and of bulk quartz (green dotted line) versus the radial coordinate. The gray zones correspond to the integration areas where the χ(2) of the ring is measured.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Px(2ω)=3ε0χxxxx(3)Eprobe_x2(Edccosθ),Py(2ω)=3ε0χyxxy(3)Eprobe_x2(Edcsinθ),
IHH(2ω)|χxxxx(3)|2|Eprobe_x2|2|Edc|2|cosθ|2,IHV(2ω)|χyxxy(3)|2|Eprobe_x2|2|Edc|2|sinθ|2.

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