Abstract

We report a demonstration of quantum key distribution (QKD) over a standard telecom fiber exceeding 50 dB in loss and 250 km in length. The differential phase shift QKD protocol was chosen and implemented with a 2 GHz system clock rate. By careful optimization of the 1 bit delayed Faraday–Michelson interferometer and the use of the superconducting single photon detector (SSPD), we achieved a quantum bit error rate below 2% when the fiber length was no more than 205 km, and of 3.45% for a 260 km fiber with 52.9 dB loss. We also improved the quantum efficiency of SSPD to obtain a high key rate for 50 km length.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computers, Systems and Signal Processing (IEEE, 1984), pp. 175–179.
  2. N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dusek, N. Lutkenhaus, and M. Peev, Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 1301 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. J. Rogers, Broadband Quantum Therory (Morgan & Claypool, 2010).
  5. C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, J. Cryptol. 5, 3 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R. T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. R. Towery, and S. Ten, New J. Phys. 11, 075003 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Takesue, E. Diamanti, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, Opt. Express 14, 9522 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, Nat. Photon. 1, 343 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. I. Choi, R. J. Young, and P. D. Townsend, New J. Phys. 13, 063039 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. Inoue, E. Waks, and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 037902 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. X. F. Ma, B. Qi, Y. Zhao, and H. K. Lo, Phys. Rev. A 72, 012326 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. E. Diamanti, “Security and implementation of differential phase shift quantum key distribution systems,” Ph.D. thesis (Stanford University, 2006).
  13. E. Diamanti, H. Takesue, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, Opt. Express 14, 13073 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. E. Waks, H. Takesue, and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. A 73, 012344 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Q. Zhang, H. Takesue, T. Honjo, K. Wen, T. Hirohata, M. Suyama, Y. Takiguchi, H. Kamada, Y. Tokura, O. Tadanaga, Y. Nishida, M. Asobe, and Y. Yamamoto, New J. Phys. 11, 045010 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Muller, T. Herzog, B. Huttner, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 793 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  17. G. Goltsman, A. Korneev, A. Divochiy, O. Minaeva, M. Tarkhov, N. Kaurova, V. Seleznev, B. Voronov, O. Okunev, A. Antipov, K. Smirnov, Yu. Vachtomin, I. Milostnaya, and G. Chulkova, J. Mod. Opt. 56, 1670 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 161102 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, New J. Phys. 11, 045019 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

I. Choi, R. J. Young, and P. D. Townsend, New J. Phys. 13, 063039 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 161102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (5)

Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, New J. Phys. 11, 045019 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhang, H. Takesue, T. Honjo, K. Wen, T. Hirohata, M. Suyama, Y. Takiguchi, H. Kamada, Y. Tokura, O. Tadanaga, Y. Nishida, M. Asobe, and Y. Yamamoto, New J. Phys. 11, 045010 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Goltsman, A. Korneev, A. Divochiy, O. Minaeva, M. Tarkhov, N. Kaurova, V. Seleznev, B. Voronov, O. Okunev, A. Antipov, K. Smirnov, Yu. Vachtomin, I. Milostnaya, and G. Chulkova, J. Mod. Opt. 56, 1670 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dusek, N. Lutkenhaus, and M. Peev, Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 1301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R. T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. R. Towery, and S. Ten, New J. Phys. 11, 075003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, Nat. Photon. 1, 343 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

2005 (1)

X. F. Ma, B. Qi, Y. Zhao, and H. K. Lo, Phys. Rev. A 72, 012326 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Inoue, E. Waks, and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 037902 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

A. Muller, T. Herzog, B. Huttner, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 793 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, J. Cryptol. 5, 3 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Antipov, A.

G. Goltsman, A. Korneev, A. Divochiy, O. Minaeva, M. Tarkhov, N. Kaurova, V. Seleznev, B. Voronov, O. Okunev, A. Antipov, K. Smirnov, Yu. Vachtomin, I. Milostnaya, and G. Chulkova, J. Mod. Opt. 56, 1670 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Asobe, M.

Q. Zhang, H. Takesue, T. Honjo, K. Wen, T. Hirohata, M. Suyama, Y. Takiguchi, H. Kamada, Y. Tokura, O. Tadanaga, Y. Nishida, M. Asobe, and Y. Yamamoto, New J. Phys. 11, 045010 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bechmann-Pasquinucci, H.

V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dusek, N. Lutkenhaus, and M. Peev, Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 1301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, C. H.

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, J. Cryptol. 5, 3 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computers, Systems and Signal Processing (IEEE, 1984), pp. 175–179.

Bessette, F.

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, J. Cryptol. 5, 3 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Brassard, G.

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, J. Cryptol. 5, 3 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computers, Systems and Signal Processing (IEEE, 1984), pp. 175–179.

Cerf, N. J.

V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dusek, N. Lutkenhaus, and M. Peev, Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 1301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Choi, I.

I. Choi, R. J. Young, and P. D. Townsend, New J. Phys. 13, 063039 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chulkova, G.

G. Goltsman, A. Korneev, A. Divochiy, O. Minaeva, M. Tarkhov, N. Kaurova, V. Seleznev, B. Voronov, O. Okunev, A. Antipov, K. Smirnov, Yu. Vachtomin, I. Milostnaya, and G. Chulkova, J. Mod. Opt. 56, 1670 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Diamanti, E.

E. Diamanti, H. Takesue, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, Opt. Express 14, 13073 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Takesue, E. Diamanti, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, Opt. Express 14, 9522 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Diamanti, “Security and implementation of differential phase shift quantum key distribution systems,” Ph.D. thesis (Stanford University, 2006).

Divochiy, A.

G. Goltsman, A. Korneev, A. Divochiy, O. Minaeva, M. Tarkhov, N. Kaurova, V. Seleznev, B. Voronov, O. Okunev, A. Antipov, K. Smirnov, Yu. Vachtomin, I. Milostnaya, and G. Chulkova, J. Mod. Opt. 56, 1670 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dixon, A. R.

A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 161102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, New J. Phys. 11, 045019 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dusek, M.

V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dusek, N. Lutkenhaus, and M. Peev, Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 1301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dynes, J. F.

A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 161102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, New J. Phys. 11, 045019 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

Gisin, N.

D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R. T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. R. Towery, and S. Ten, New J. Phys. 11, 075003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Muller, T. Herzog, B. Huttner, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 793 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Goltsman, G.

G. Goltsman, A. Korneev, A. Divochiy, O. Minaeva, M. Tarkhov, N. Kaurova, V. Seleznev, B. Voronov, O. Okunev, A. Antipov, K. Smirnov, Yu. Vachtomin, I. Milostnaya, and G. Chulkova, J. Mod. Opt. 56, 1670 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gray, S.

D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R. T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. R. Towery, and S. Ten, New J. Phys. 11, 075003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hadfield, R. H.

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, Nat. Photon. 1, 343 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Herzog, T.

A. Muller, T. Herzog, B. Huttner, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 793 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hirohata, T.

Q. Zhang, H. Takesue, T. Honjo, K. Wen, T. Hirohata, M. Suyama, Y. Takiguchi, H. Kamada, Y. Tokura, O. Tadanaga, Y. Nishida, M. Asobe, and Y. Yamamoto, New J. Phys. 11, 045010 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Honjo, T.

Q. Zhang, H. Takesue, T. Honjo, K. Wen, T. Hirohata, M. Suyama, Y. Takiguchi, H. Kamada, Y. Tokura, O. Tadanaga, Y. Nishida, M. Asobe, and Y. Yamamoto, New J. Phys. 11, 045010 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, Nat. Photon. 1, 343 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huttner, B.

A. Muller, T. Herzog, B. Huttner, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 793 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, K.

K. Inoue, E. Waks, and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 037902 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kamada, H.

Q. Zhang, H. Takesue, T. Honjo, K. Wen, T. Hirohata, M. Suyama, Y. Takiguchi, H. Kamada, Y. Tokura, O. Tadanaga, Y. Nishida, M. Asobe, and Y. Yamamoto, New J. Phys. 11, 045010 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kaurova, N.

G. Goltsman, A. Korneev, A. Divochiy, O. Minaeva, M. Tarkhov, N. Kaurova, V. Seleznev, B. Voronov, O. Okunev, A. Antipov, K. Smirnov, Yu. Vachtomin, I. Milostnaya, and G. Chulkova, J. Mod. Opt. 56, 1670 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Korneev, A.

G. Goltsman, A. Korneev, A. Divochiy, O. Minaeva, M. Tarkhov, N. Kaurova, V. Seleznev, B. Voronov, O. Okunev, A. Antipov, K. Smirnov, Yu. Vachtomin, I. Milostnaya, and G. Chulkova, J. Mod. Opt. 56, 1670 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Langrock, C.

Lo, H. K.

X. F. Ma, B. Qi, Y. Zhao, and H. K. Lo, Phys. Rev. A 72, 012326 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lutkenhaus, N.

V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dusek, N. Lutkenhaus, and M. Peev, Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 1301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ma, X. F.

X. F. Ma, B. Qi, Y. Zhao, and H. K. Lo, Phys. Rev. A 72, 012326 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Milostnaya, I.

G. Goltsman, A. Korneev, A. Divochiy, O. Minaeva, M. Tarkhov, N. Kaurova, V. Seleznev, B. Voronov, O. Okunev, A. Antipov, K. Smirnov, Yu. Vachtomin, I. Milostnaya, and G. Chulkova, J. Mod. Opt. 56, 1670 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Minaeva, O.

G. Goltsman, A. Korneev, A. Divochiy, O. Minaeva, M. Tarkhov, N. Kaurova, V. Seleznev, B. Voronov, O. Okunev, A. Antipov, K. Smirnov, Yu. Vachtomin, I. Milostnaya, and G. Chulkova, J. Mod. Opt. 56, 1670 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Muller, A.

A. Muller, T. Herzog, B. Huttner, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 793 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nam, S. W.

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, Nat. Photon. 1, 343 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nishida, Y.

Q. Zhang, H. Takesue, T. Honjo, K. Wen, T. Hirohata, M. Suyama, Y. Takiguchi, H. Kamada, Y. Tokura, O. Tadanaga, Y. Nishida, M. Asobe, and Y. Yamamoto, New J. Phys. 11, 045010 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Okunev, O.

G. Goltsman, A. Korneev, A. Divochiy, O. Minaeva, M. Tarkhov, N. Kaurova, V. Seleznev, B. Voronov, O. Okunev, A. Antipov, K. Smirnov, Yu. Vachtomin, I. Milostnaya, and G. Chulkova, J. Mod. Opt. 56, 1670 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Peev, M.

V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dusek, N. Lutkenhaus, and M. Peev, Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 1301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Qi, B.

X. F. Ma, B. Qi, Y. Zhao, and H. K. Lo, Phys. Rev. A 72, 012326 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ribordy, G.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, D. J.

D. J. Rogers, Broadband Quantum Therory (Morgan & Claypool, 2010).

Salvail, L.

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, J. Cryptol. 5, 3 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Scarani, V.

V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dusek, N. Lutkenhaus, and M. Peev, Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 1301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Seleznev, V.

G. Goltsman, A. Korneev, A. Divochiy, O. Minaeva, M. Tarkhov, N. Kaurova, V. Seleznev, B. Voronov, O. Okunev, A. Antipov, K. Smirnov, Yu. Vachtomin, I. Milostnaya, and G. Chulkova, J. Mod. Opt. 56, 1670 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sharpe, A. W.

A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 161102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, New J. Phys. 11, 045019 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shields, A. J.

A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 161102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, New J. Phys. 11, 045019 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Smirnov, K.

G. Goltsman, A. Korneev, A. Divochiy, O. Minaeva, M. Tarkhov, N. Kaurova, V. Seleznev, B. Voronov, O. Okunev, A. Antipov, K. Smirnov, Yu. Vachtomin, I. Milostnaya, and G. Chulkova, J. Mod. Opt. 56, 1670 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Smolin, J.

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, J. Cryptol. 5, 3 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Stucki, D.

D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R. T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. R. Towery, and S. Ten, New J. Phys. 11, 075003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Suyama, M.

Q. Zhang, H. Takesue, T. Honjo, K. Wen, T. Hirohata, M. Suyama, Y. Takiguchi, H. Kamada, Y. Tokura, O. Tadanaga, Y. Nishida, M. Asobe, and Y. Yamamoto, New J. Phys. 11, 045010 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tadanaga, O.

Q. Zhang, H. Takesue, T. Honjo, K. Wen, T. Hirohata, M. Suyama, Y. Takiguchi, H. Kamada, Y. Tokura, O. Tadanaga, Y. Nishida, M. Asobe, and Y. Yamamoto, New J. Phys. 11, 045010 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Takesue, H.

Q. Zhang, H. Takesue, T. Honjo, K. Wen, T. Hirohata, M. Suyama, Y. Takiguchi, H. Kamada, Y. Tokura, O. Tadanaga, Y. Nishida, M. Asobe, and Y. Yamamoto, New J. Phys. 11, 045010 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, Nat. Photon. 1, 343 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Takesue, E. Diamanti, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, Opt. Express 14, 9522 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Waks, H. Takesue, and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. A 73, 012344 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Diamanti, H. Takesue, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, Opt. Express 14, 13073 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Takiguchi, Y.

Q. Zhang, H. Takesue, T. Honjo, K. Wen, T. Hirohata, M. Suyama, Y. Takiguchi, H. Kamada, Y. Tokura, O. Tadanaga, Y. Nishida, M. Asobe, and Y. Yamamoto, New J. Phys. 11, 045010 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tamaki, K.

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, Nat. Photon. 1, 343 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tarkhov, M.

G. Goltsman, A. Korneev, A. Divochiy, O. Minaeva, M. Tarkhov, N. Kaurova, V. Seleznev, B. Voronov, O. Okunev, A. Antipov, K. Smirnov, Yu. Vachtomin, I. Milostnaya, and G. Chulkova, J. Mod. Opt. 56, 1670 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ten, S.

D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R. T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. R. Towery, and S. Ten, New J. Phys. 11, 075003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thew, R. T.

D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R. T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. R. Towery, and S. Ten, New J. Phys. 11, 075003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, W.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Muller, T. Herzog, B. Huttner, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 793 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tokura, Y.

Q. Zhang, H. Takesue, T. Honjo, K. Wen, T. Hirohata, M. Suyama, Y. Takiguchi, H. Kamada, Y. Tokura, O. Tadanaga, Y. Nishida, M. Asobe, and Y. Yamamoto, New J. Phys. 11, 045010 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Towery, C. R.

D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R. T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. R. Towery, and S. Ten, New J. Phys. 11, 075003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Townsend, P. D.

I. Choi, R. J. Young, and P. D. Townsend, New J. Phys. 13, 063039 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vachtomin, Yu.

G. Goltsman, A. Korneev, A. Divochiy, O. Minaeva, M. Tarkhov, N. Kaurova, V. Seleznev, B. Voronov, O. Okunev, A. Antipov, K. Smirnov, Yu. Vachtomin, I. Milostnaya, and G. Chulkova, J. Mod. Opt. 56, 1670 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vannel, F.

D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R. T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. R. Towery, and S. Ten, New J. Phys. 11, 075003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Voronov, B.

G. Goltsman, A. Korneev, A. Divochiy, O. Minaeva, M. Tarkhov, N. Kaurova, V. Seleznev, B. Voronov, O. Okunev, A. Antipov, K. Smirnov, Yu. Vachtomin, I. Milostnaya, and G. Chulkova, J. Mod. Opt. 56, 1670 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Waks, E.

E. Waks, H. Takesue, and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. A 73, 012344 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Inoue, E. Waks, and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 037902 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Walenta, N.

D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R. T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. R. Towery, and S. Ten, New J. Phys. 11, 075003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wen, K.

Q. Zhang, H. Takesue, T. Honjo, K. Wen, T. Hirohata, M. Suyama, Y. Takiguchi, H. Kamada, Y. Tokura, O. Tadanaga, Y. Nishida, M. Asobe, and Y. Yamamoto, New J. Phys. 11, 045010 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, Y.

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Other (3)

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E. Diamanti, “Security and implementation of differential phase shift quantum key distribution systems,” Ph.D. thesis (Stanford University, 2006).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the DPS-QKD setup. CW Laser, continuous wave laser; IM, intensity modulator; PM, phase modulator; Amp, electronic amplifier; PG, pattern generator; VA, variable attenuator; STF, standard telecom fiber; CIR, three-port optical circulator; BS, beam splitter; FM, Faraday mirror; FMI, 2 GHz, 1 bit delay Faraday–Michelson interferometer; SSPD, superconducting single photon detector with two channels D0 and D1; TDC, time-to-digital convertor; Com, common start channel.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

QBER without phase modulation and active compensation.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental results of DPS-QKD.

Equations (5)

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η=ηD·10-α·l+αIL10,
pclickpsignal+pdark,
Rsifted=f·pclick·e-f·pclick·td,
e=es·psignal+ed·pdarkpclick,
Rsecure=Rsifted·{τ-f(e)·H2(e)},

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