Abstract

We report a 1030 nm-wavelength Yb:fiber laser that produces the shortest/direct output pulse duration (502 fs) among all-normal-dispersion fiber lasers at the highest repetition rate (605 MHz) among the passively fundamentally mode-locked fiber lasers. The laser also exhibits an optical efficiency of 70% at CW and 65% at mode-locking modes.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and Th. Udem, Science 321, 1335 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Wilke, C. Lovis, A. Manescau, T. Steinmetz, L. Pasquini, G. Lo Curto, T. W. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, and Th. Udem, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 405, L16 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Zhou, D. G. Ouzounov, and F. W. Wise, Opt. Lett. 31, 1041 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. I. Hartl, A. Romann, and M. E. Fermann, in Conference on Laser and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2011), paper CMD3.
  5. D. Liu, X. Zhu, C. Wang, J. Yu, G. Zhang, E. Fang, and J. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1726 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. J. Sobon, K. Krzempek, M. P. Nikodem, P. P. Kaczmarek, K. M. Abramski, and M. Nikodem, Opt. Commun. 284, 4203 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Li, P. A. Andrekson, and B. Bakhshi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1150 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Herr, T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, M. Engelbrecht, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, and R. Holzwarth, in CLEO:2011—Laser Applications to Photonic Applications, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper CMS3.
  9. F. Quinlan, G. Ycas, S. Osterman, and S. A. Diddams, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 063105 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. Chang, C.-H. Li, D. F. Phillips, R. L. Walsworth, and F. X. Kärtner, Opt. Express 18, 12736 (2010).
  11. F. Ö. Ilday, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, Opt. Express 13, 2716 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Yang, A. Wang, Y. Ma, Z. Fan, G. Niu, X. Zhang, Y. Liu, and Z. Zhang, “A high repetition rate all-normal dispersion Yb:fiber laser for minimum pulses,” Chin. Opt. Lett. (to be published).
  13. T. Wilken, P. Vilar-Welter, T. W. Hänsch, and Th. Udem, in Conference on Laser and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2010), paper CFK2.
  14. A. Chong, J. Buckley, W. Renninger, and F. W. Wise, Opt. Express 14, 10095 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Chong, W. H. Renninger, and F. W. Wise, Opt. Lett. 32, 2408 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Chong, W. H. Renninger, and F. W. Wise, Opt. Lett. 33, 2638 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. L. Nugent-Glandorf, T. A. Johnson, Y. Kobayashi, and S. A. Diddams, Opt. Lett. 36, 1578 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2011

G. J. Sobon, K. Krzempek, M. P. Nikodem, P. P. Kaczmarek, K. M. Abramski, and M. Nikodem, Opt. Commun. 284, 4203 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Nugent-Glandorf, T. A. Johnson, Y. Kobayashi, and S. A. Diddams, Opt. Lett. 36, 1578 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

F. Quinlan, G. Ycas, S. Osterman, and S. A. Diddams, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Chang, C.-H. Li, D. F. Phillips, R. L. Walsworth, and F. X. Kärtner, Opt. Express 18, 12736 (2010).

T. Wilke, C. Lovis, A. Manescau, T. Steinmetz, L. Pasquini, G. Lo Curto, T. W. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, and Th. Udem, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 405, L16 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Liu, X. Zhu, C. Wang, J. Yu, G. Zhang, E. Fang, and J. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1726 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and Th. Udem, Science 321, 1335 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Chong, W. H. Renninger, and F. W. Wise, Opt. Lett. 33, 2638 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

2005

2000

J. Li, P. A. Andrekson, and B. Bakhshi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1150 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Abramski, K. M.

G. J. Sobon, K. Krzempek, M. P. Nikodem, P. P. Kaczmarek, K. M. Abramski, and M. Nikodem, Opt. Commun. 284, 4203 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Andrekson, P. A.

J. Li, P. A. Andrekson, and B. Bakhshi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1150 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Araujo-Hauck, C.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and Th. Udem, Science 321, 1335 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bakhshi, B.

J. Li, P. A. Andrekson, and B. Bakhshi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1150 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Buckley, J.

Chang, G.

Chen, J.

Chong, A.

D’Odorico, S.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and Th. Udem, Science 321, 1335 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Diddams, S. A.

L. Nugent-Glandorf, T. A. Johnson, Y. Kobayashi, and S. A. Diddams, Opt. Lett. 36, 1578 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Quinlan, G. Ycas, S. Osterman, and S. A. Diddams, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Engelbrecht, M.

S. Herr, T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, M. Engelbrecht, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, and R. Holzwarth, in CLEO:2011—Laser Applications to Photonic Applications, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper CMS3.

Fan, Z.

H. Yang, A. Wang, Y. Ma, Z. Fan, G. Niu, X. Zhang, Y. Liu, and Z. Zhang, “A high repetition rate all-normal dispersion Yb:fiber laser for minimum pulses,” Chin. Opt. Lett. (to be published).

Fang, E.

D. Liu, X. Zhu, C. Wang, J. Yu, G. Zhang, E. Fang, and J. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1726 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fermann, M. E.

I. Hartl, A. Romann, and M. E. Fermann, in Conference on Laser and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2011), paper CMD3.

Hänsch, T. W.

T. Wilke, C. Lovis, A. Manescau, T. Steinmetz, L. Pasquini, G. Lo Curto, T. W. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, and Th. Udem, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 405, L16 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and Th. Udem, Science 321, 1335 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Herr, T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, M. Engelbrecht, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, and R. Holzwarth, in CLEO:2011—Laser Applications to Photonic Applications, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper CMS3.

T. Wilken, P. Vilar-Welter, T. W. Hänsch, and Th. Udem, in Conference on Laser and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2010), paper CFK2.

Hartl, I.

I. Hartl, A. Romann, and M. E. Fermann, in Conference on Laser and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2011), paper CMD3.

Herr, S.

S. Herr, T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, M. Engelbrecht, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, and R. Holzwarth, in CLEO:2011—Laser Applications to Photonic Applications, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper CMS3.

Holzwarth, R.

T. Wilke, C. Lovis, A. Manescau, T. Steinmetz, L. Pasquini, G. Lo Curto, T. W. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, and Th. Udem, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 405, L16 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and Th. Udem, Science 321, 1335 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Herr, T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, M. Engelbrecht, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, and R. Holzwarth, in CLEO:2011—Laser Applications to Photonic Applications, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper CMS3.

Ilday, F. Ö.

Johnson, T. A.

Kaczmarek, P. P.

G. J. Sobon, K. Krzempek, M. P. Nikodem, P. P. Kaczmarek, K. M. Abramski, and M. Nikodem, Opt. Commun. 284, 4203 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kärtner, F. X.

Kentischer, T.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and Th. Udem, Science 321, 1335 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, Y.

Krzempek, K.

G. J. Sobon, K. Krzempek, M. P. Nikodem, P. P. Kaczmarek, K. M. Abramski, and M. Nikodem, Opt. Commun. 284, 4203 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.-H.

Li, J.

J. Li, P. A. Andrekson, and B. Bakhshi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1150 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liu, D.

D. Liu, X. Zhu, C. Wang, J. Yu, G. Zhang, E. Fang, and J. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1726 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

H. Yang, A. Wang, Y. Ma, Z. Fan, G. Niu, X. Zhang, Y. Liu, and Z. Zhang, “A high repetition rate all-normal dispersion Yb:fiber laser for minimum pulses,” Chin. Opt. Lett. (to be published).

Lo Curto, G.

T. Wilke, C. Lovis, A. Manescau, T. Steinmetz, L. Pasquini, G. Lo Curto, T. W. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, and Th. Udem, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 405, L16 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lovis, C.

T. Wilke, C. Lovis, A. Manescau, T. Steinmetz, L. Pasquini, G. Lo Curto, T. W. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, and Th. Udem, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 405, L16 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ma, Y.

H. Yang, A. Wang, Y. Ma, Z. Fan, G. Niu, X. Zhang, Y. Liu, and Z. Zhang, “A high repetition rate all-normal dispersion Yb:fiber laser for minimum pulses,” Chin. Opt. Lett. (to be published).

Manescau, A.

T. Wilke, C. Lovis, A. Manescau, T. Steinmetz, L. Pasquini, G. Lo Curto, T. W. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, and Th. Udem, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 405, L16 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and Th. Udem, Science 321, 1335 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, M.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and Th. Udem, Science 321, 1335 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nikodem, M.

G. J. Sobon, K. Krzempek, M. P. Nikodem, P. P. Kaczmarek, K. M. Abramski, and M. Nikodem, Opt. Commun. 284, 4203 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nikodem, M. P.

G. J. Sobon, K. Krzempek, M. P. Nikodem, P. P. Kaczmarek, K. M. Abramski, and M. Nikodem, Opt. Commun. 284, 4203 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Niu, G.

H. Yang, A. Wang, Y. Ma, Z. Fan, G. Niu, X. Zhang, Y. Liu, and Z. Zhang, “A high repetition rate all-normal dispersion Yb:fiber laser for minimum pulses,” Chin. Opt. Lett. (to be published).

Nugent-Glandorf, L.

Osterman, S.

F. Quinlan, G. Ycas, S. Osterman, and S. A. Diddams, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ouzounov, D. G.

Pasquini, L.

T. Wilke, C. Lovis, A. Manescau, T. Steinmetz, L. Pasquini, G. Lo Curto, T. W. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, and Th. Udem, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 405, L16 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and Th. Udem, Science 321, 1335 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, D. F.

Quinlan, F.

F. Quinlan, G. Ycas, S. Osterman, and S. A. Diddams, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Renninger, W.

Renninger, W. H.

Romann, A.

I. Hartl, A. Romann, and M. E. Fermann, in Conference on Laser and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2011), paper CMD3.

Schmidt, W.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and Th. Udem, Science 321, 1335 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sobon, G. J.

G. J. Sobon, K. Krzempek, M. P. Nikodem, P. P. Kaczmarek, K. M. Abramski, and M. Nikodem, Opt. Commun. 284, 4203 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Steinmetz, T.

T. Wilke, C. Lovis, A. Manescau, T. Steinmetz, L. Pasquini, G. Lo Curto, T. W. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, and Th. Udem, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 405, L16 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and Th. Udem, Science 321, 1335 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Herr, T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, M. Engelbrecht, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, and R. Holzwarth, in CLEO:2011—Laser Applications to Photonic Applications, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper CMS3.

Udem, T.

S. Herr, T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, M. Engelbrecht, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, and R. Holzwarth, in CLEO:2011—Laser Applications to Photonic Applications, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper CMS3.

Udem, Th.

T. Wilke, C. Lovis, A. Manescau, T. Steinmetz, L. Pasquini, G. Lo Curto, T. W. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, and Th. Udem, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 405, L16 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and Th. Udem, Science 321, 1335 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Wilken, P. Vilar-Welter, T. W. Hänsch, and Th. Udem, in Conference on Laser and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2010), paper CFK2.

Vilar-Welter, P.

T. Wilken, P. Vilar-Welter, T. W. Hänsch, and Th. Udem, in Conference on Laser and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2010), paper CFK2.

Walsworth, R. L.

Wang, A.

H. Yang, A. Wang, Y. Ma, Z. Fan, G. Niu, X. Zhang, Y. Liu, and Z. Zhang, “A high repetition rate all-normal dispersion Yb:fiber laser for minimum pulses,” Chin. Opt. Lett. (to be published).

Wang, C.

D. Liu, X. Zhu, C. Wang, J. Yu, G. Zhang, E. Fang, and J. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1726 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

D. Liu, X. Zhu, C. Wang, J. Yu, G. Zhang, E. Fang, and J. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1726 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wilke, T.

T. Wilke, C. Lovis, A. Manescau, T. Steinmetz, L. Pasquini, G. Lo Curto, T. W. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, and Th. Udem, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 405, L16 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wilken, T.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and Th. Udem, Science 321, 1335 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Wilken, P. Vilar-Welter, T. W. Hänsch, and Th. Udem, in Conference on Laser and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2010), paper CFK2.

S. Herr, T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, M. Engelbrecht, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, and R. Holzwarth, in CLEO:2011—Laser Applications to Photonic Applications, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper CMS3.

Wise, F. W.

Yang, H.

H. Yang, A. Wang, Y. Ma, Z. Fan, G. Niu, X. Zhang, Y. Liu, and Z. Zhang, “A high repetition rate all-normal dispersion Yb:fiber laser for minimum pulses,” Chin. Opt. Lett. (to be published).

Ycas, G.

F. Quinlan, G. Ycas, S. Osterman, and S. A. Diddams, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.

D. Liu, X. Zhu, C. Wang, J. Yu, G. Zhang, E. Fang, and J. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1726 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G.

D. Liu, X. Zhu, C. Wang, J. Yu, G. Zhang, E. Fang, and J. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1726 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

H. Yang, A. Wang, Y. Ma, Z. Fan, G. Niu, X. Zhang, Y. Liu, and Z. Zhang, “A high repetition rate all-normal dispersion Yb:fiber laser for minimum pulses,” Chin. Opt. Lett. (to be published).

Zhang, Z.

H. Yang, A. Wang, Y. Ma, Z. Fan, G. Niu, X. Zhang, Y. Liu, and Z. Zhang, “A high repetition rate all-normal dispersion Yb:fiber laser for minimum pulses,” Chin. Opt. Lett. (to be published).

Zhou, S.

Zhu, X.

D. Liu, X. Zhu, C. Wang, J. Yu, G. Zhang, E. Fang, and J. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1726 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Opt. Lett.

H. Yang, A. Wang, Y. Ma, Z. Fan, G. Niu, X. Zhang, Y. Liu, and Z. Zhang, “A high repetition rate all-normal dispersion Yb:fiber laser for minimum pulses,” Chin. Opt. Lett. (to be published).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

D. Liu, X. Zhu, C. Wang, J. Yu, G. Zhang, E. Fang, and J. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1726 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, P. A. Andrekson, and B. Bakhshi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1150 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc.

T. Wilke, C. Lovis, A. Manescau, T. Steinmetz, L. Pasquini, G. Lo Curto, T. W. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, and Th. Udem, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 405, L16 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

G. J. Sobon, K. Krzempek, M. P. Nikodem, P. P. Kaczmarek, K. M. Abramski, and M. Nikodem, Opt. Commun. 284, 4203 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

F. Quinlan, G. Ycas, S. Osterman, and S. A. Diddams, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Science

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and Th. Udem, Science 321, 1335 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other

S. Herr, T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, M. Engelbrecht, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, and R. Holzwarth, in CLEO:2011—Laser Applications to Photonic Applications, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper CMS3.

I. Hartl, A. Romann, and M. E. Fermann, in Conference on Laser and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2011), paper CMD3.

T. Wilken, P. Vilar-Welter, T. W. Hänsch, and Th. Udem, in Conference on Laser and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2010), paper CFK2.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the laser. polarization beam splitter (PBS); single mode fiber (SMF); λ/2, half-wave plate; λ/4, quarter-wave plate; WDM collimator, combined collimator and wavelength-division multiplexer.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic of the WDM collimator.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

CW output power as a function of the pump power.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental (a) and simulated (b) spectral profile of the output pulse for the laser operated at 605 MHz.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Intensity autocorrelation trace of the direct output pulses; (b) fringe-resolved autocorrelation trace of the pulses after compression and zero-phase Fourier-transform of the spectrum (91 fs, inset).

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