Abstract

We fabricate a simple, compact, and stable temperature sensor based on a liquid-sealed photonic crystal fiber (PCF) in-line nonpolarimetric modal interferometer. Different from other reported PCF devices, it does not need expensive polarimetric devices, and the liquid is sealed in one fiber. The device consists of a stub of isopropanol-filled PCF spliced between standard single-mode fibers. The temperature sensitivity (166pm/°C) increases over an order of magnitude compared with those of the previous sensors based on air-sealed PCF interferometers built via fusion splicing with the same mechanism. In addition, the refractive index sensitivity also increases. Higher temperature sensitivity can be realized by infiltrating some liquid having a higher thermo-optic coefficient into the microholes of the PCF.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2011

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S. Y. Zhang, Q. Zhong, X. S. Qian, X. W. Lin, F. Xu, W. Hu, and Y. Q. Lu, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 023107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2008

2007

2006

T. R. Wolinski, K. Szaniawska, S. Ertman, P. Lesiak, A. W. Domanski, R. Dabrowski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, and J. Wojcik, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 985 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

Alkeskjold, T. T.

Anawati,

Badenes, G.

J. Villatoro, V. Finazzi, G. Badenes, and V. Pruneri, J. Sens.747803 (2009).

R. Jha, J. Villatoro, G. Badenes, and V. Pruneri, Opt. Lett. 34, 617 (2009).
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[CrossRef]

J. Villatoro, V. Finazzi, V. P. Minkovich, V. Pruneri, and G. Badenes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bang, O.

Bjarklev, A.

Bock, W. J.

Broeng, J.

Cardenas-Sevilla, G. A.

Chan, C. C.

H. P. Gong, C. C. Chan, Y. F. Zhang, W. C. Wong, and X. Y. Dong, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 017004 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Cusano, A.

Dabrowski, R.

T. R. Wolinski, K. Szaniawska, S. Ertman, P. Lesiak, A. W. Domanski, R. Dabrowski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, and J. Wojcik, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 985 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Demokan, M. S.

Deng, Y.

Y. Geng, X. Li, X. Tan, Y. Deng, and Y. Yu, Appl. Phys. B 102, 595 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Domanski, A. W.

T. R. Wolinski, K. Szaniawska, S. Ertman, P. Lesiak, A. W. Domanski, R. Dabrowski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, and J. Wojcik, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 985 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dong, X.

Dong, X. Y.

H. P. Gong, C. C. Chan, Y. F. Zhang, W. C. Wong, and X. Y. Dong, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 017004 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ertman, S.

T. R. Wolinski, K. Szaniawska, S. Ertman, P. Lesiak, A. W. Domanski, R. Dabrowski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, and J. Wojcik, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 985 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Eskildsen, L.

Farrell, G.

Feng, J.

Finazzi, V.

G. A. Cardenas-Sevilla, V. Finazzi, J. Villatoro, and V. Pruneri, Opt. Express 19, 7596 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Villatoro, V. Finazzi, G. Badenes, and V. Pruneri, J. Sens.747803 (2009).

J. Villatoro, V. Finazzi, V. P. Minkovich, V. Pruneri, and G. Badenes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Geng, Y.

Y. Geng, X. Li, X. Tan, Y. Deng, and Y. Yu, Appl. Phys. B 102, 595 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Giordano, M.

Gong, H. P.

H. P. Gong, C. C. Chan, Y. F. Zhang, W. C. Wong, and X. Y. Dong, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 017004 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Guo, J.

Gupta, S.

H. V. Thakur, S. M. Nalawade, S. Gupta, R. Kitture, and S. N. Kale, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 161101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

He, S.

Hermann, D. S.

Hu, W.

S. Y. Zhang, Q. Zhong, X. S. Qian, X. W. Lin, F. Xu, W. Hu, and Y. Q. Lu, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 023107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jha, R.

Jin, S.

Jin, W.

Kale, S. N.

H. V. Thakur, S. M. Nalawade, S. Gupta, R. Kitture, and S. N. Kale, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 161101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kitture, R.

H. V. Thakur, S. M. Nalawade, S. Gupta, R. Kitture, and S. N. Kale, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 161101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Korwin-Pawlowski, M. L.

Kou, J. L.

Laegsgaard, J.

Lesiak, P.

T. R. Wolinski, K. Szaniawska, S. Ertman, P. Lesiak, A. W. Domanski, R. Dabrowski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, and J. Wojcik, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 985 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

Li, X.

Y. Geng, X. Li, X. Tan, Y. Deng, and Y. Yu, Appl. Phys. B 102, 595 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lin, X. W.

S. Y. Zhang, Q. Zhong, X. S. Qian, X. W. Lin, F. Xu, W. Hu, and Y. Q. Lu, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 023107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y. Q.

Manzillo, P. F.

Mathews, S.

Minkovich, V. P.

J. Villatoro, V. P. Minkovich, V. Pruneri, and G. Badenes, Opt. Express 15, 1491 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Villatoro, V. Finazzi, V. P. Minkovich, V. Pruneri, and G. Badenes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nalawade, S. M.

H. V. Thakur, S. M. Nalawade, S. Gupta, R. Kitture, and S. N. Kale, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 161101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, E.

T. R. Wolinski, K. Szaniawska, S. Ertman, P. Lesiak, A. W. Domanski, R. Dabrowski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, and J. Wojcik, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 985 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pilla, P.

Pruneri, V.

Qian, W.

Qian, X. S.

S. Y. Zhang, Q. Zhong, X. S. Qian, X. W. Lin, F. Xu, W. Hu, and Y. Q. Lu, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 023107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, S. J.

Rindorf, L.

Scolari, L.

Semenova, Y.

Szaniawska, K.

T. R. Wolinski, K. Szaniawska, S. Ertman, P. Lesiak, A. W. Domanski, R. Dabrowski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, and J. Wojcik, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 985 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tan, X.

Y. Geng, X. Li, X. Tan, Y. Deng, and Y. Yu, Appl. Phys. B 102, 595 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Thakur, H. V.

H. V. Thakur, S. M. Nalawade, S. Gupta, R. Kitture, and S. N. Kale, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 161101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Villatoro, J.

Wang, Q. J.

Wang, Y.

Wei, H.

Wei, L.

Weirich, J.

Wojcik, J.

T. R. Wolinski, K. Szaniawska, S. Ertman, P. Lesiak, A. W. Domanski, R. Dabrowski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, and J. Wojcik, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 985 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wolinski, T. R.

T. R. Wolinski, K. Szaniawska, S. Ertman, P. Lesiak, A. W. Domanski, R. Dabrowski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, and J. Wojcik, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 985 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wong, W. C.

H. P. Gong, C. C. Chan, Y. F. Zhang, W. C. Wong, and X. Y. Dong, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 017004 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. T.

Xiao, L.

Xu, F.

Yu, Y.

Y. Geng, X. Li, X. Tan, Y. Deng, and Y. Yu, Appl. Phys. B 102, 595 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.

Zhang, S. Y.

S. Y. Zhang, Q. Zhong, X. S. Qian, X. W. Lin, F. Xu, W. Hu, and Y. Q. Lu, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 023107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y. F.

H. P. Gong, C. C. Chan, Y. F. Zhang, W. C. Wong, and X. Y. Dong, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 017004 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z.

Zhao, C. L.

Zhao, C.-L.

Zhong, Q.

S. Y. Zhang, Q. Zhong, X. S. Qian, X. W. Lin, F. Xu, W. Hu, and Y. Q. Lu, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 023107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

Y. Geng, X. Li, X. Tan, Y. Deng, and Y. Yu, Appl. Phys. B 102, 595 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

H. V. Thakur, S. M. Nalawade, S. Gupta, R. Kitture, and S. N. Kale, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 161101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Villatoro, V. Finazzi, V. P. Minkovich, V. Pruneri, and G. Badenes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

S. Y. Zhang, Q. Zhong, X. S. Qian, X. W. Lin, F. Xu, W. Hu, and Y. Q. Lu, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 023107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

H. P. Gong, C. C. Chan, Y. F. Zhang, W. C. Wong, and X. Y. Dong, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 017004 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Sens.

J. Villatoro, V. Finazzi, G. Badenes, and V. Pruneri, J. Sens.747803 (2009).

Meas. Sci. Technol.

T. R. Wolinski, K. Szaniawska, S. Ertman, P. Lesiak, A. W. Domanski, R. Dabrowski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, and J. Wojcik, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 985 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Scanning electron microscope image of the cross section of the PCF used for the experiment. (b) Microscopic image of the PCF-SMF splicing area showing the collapsed region at the end of the PCF.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup used for temperature and refractive index sensing measurement. The PCF length is about 11.5 mm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Transmission spectra of the isopropanol-sealed PCF interferometer under different temperatures. (b) Relationship between temperature and the resonant dip wavelength of dip A and dip B.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Transmission spectra of the isopropanol-sealed PCF when immersed in different liquids. (b) Relationship between outer liquid refractive indices and the resonant dip wavelength of dip A and dip B.

Equations (1)

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I=Ico+Icl+2IcoIclcos(2πΔneffL/λ),

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