Abstract

In this Letter, polymer-stabilized liquid crystals with experimentally observed large electro-optic effect are introduced to the electro-optical detection to improve the voltage sensitivity. The Kerr constant of materials prepared in this study reached as high as 7.2×109m/V2, increasing by 1000 times the sensitivity of the conventional electro-optical materials. The noncontact detection configuration, using a laser beam as a probe, enables quick two-dimensional scanning measurements.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. Q. Wu and X. C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1604 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. O. Mitrofanov, A. Gasparyan, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 202103 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  18. R. L. Jin, H. Yang, D. Zhao, F. Zhu, Y. H. Yu, Q. D. Chen, M. B. Yi, and H. B. Sun, J. Photon. 1, 57 (2011).

2011 (4)

Y. C. Yang, and D. K. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 023502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Choi, H. Higuchi, and H. Kikuchi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 131905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Jin, H. Yang, D. Zhao, F. Zhu, Y. H. Yu, Q. D. Chen, M. B. Yi, and H. B. Sun, J. Photon. 1, 57 (2011).

R. L. Jin, H. Yang, Y. H. Yu, D. Zhao, J. Yao, F. Zhu, Q. D. Chen, M. B. Yi, and H. B. Sun, Opt. Lett. 36, 1158 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

R. L. Jin, H. Yang, D. Zhao, Q. D. Chen, Z. X. Yan, M. B. Yi, and H. B. Sun, Opt. Lett. 35, 580 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Kundu, J. P. Hill, G. J. Richards, K. Ariga, A. H. Khan, U. Thupakula, and S. Acharya, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2, 2759 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

S. Acharya, S. Kundu, J. P. Hill, G. J. Richards, and K. Ariga, Adv. Mater. 21, 989 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

K. Ariga, J. P. Hill, and Q. Ji, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 9, 2319 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

T. D. Kim, J. Luo, J. W. Ka, S. Hau, Y. Tian, Z. Shi, N. M. Tucker, S. H. Jang, J. W. Kang, and A. K.-Y. Ken, Adv. Mater. 18, 3038 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

Y. Haseba, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, Adv. Mater. 17, 2311 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O. Mitrofanov, A. Gasparyan, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 202103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

1998 (2)

K. Yang, G. David, S. V. Robertson, J. F. Whitaker, and L. P. B. Katehi, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 46, 2338 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Woo, H. K. Shim, and K. S. Lee, Macromol. Chem. Phys. 199, 1427 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

Q. Wu and X. C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1604 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

M. Shinagawa and T. Nagatsuma, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 41, 375 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

T. Nagatsuma, T. Shibata, E. Sano, and A. Iwata, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4001 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Acharya, S.

S. Kundu, J. P. Hill, G. J. Richards, K. Ariga, A. H. Khan, U. Thupakula, and S. Acharya, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2, 2759 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Acharya, S. Kundu, J. P. Hill, G. J. Richards, and K. Ariga, Adv. Mater. 21, 989 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ariga, K.

S. Kundu, J. P. Hill, G. J. Richards, K. Ariga, A. H. Khan, U. Thupakula, and S. Acharya, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2, 2759 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Acharya, S. Kundu, J. P. Hill, G. J. Richards, and K. Ariga, Adv. Mater. 21, 989 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Ariga, J. P. Hill, and Q. Ji, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 9, 2319 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q. D.

Choi, H.

H. Choi, H. Higuchi, and H. Kikuchi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 131905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

David, G.

K. Yang, G. David, S. V. Robertson, J. F. Whitaker, and L. P. B. Katehi, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 46, 2338 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gasparyan, A.

O. Mitrofanov, A. Gasparyan, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 202103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Han, P. Y.

Haseba, Y.

Y. Haseba, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, Adv. Mater. 17, 2311 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hau, S.

T. D. Kim, J. Luo, J. W. Ka, S. Hau, Y. Tian, Z. Shi, N. M. Tucker, S. H. Jang, J. W. Kang, and A. K.-Y. Ken, Adv. Mater. 18, 3038 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Higuchi, H.

H. Choi, H. Higuchi, and H. Kikuchi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 131905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hill, J. P.

S. Kundu, J. P. Hill, G. J. Richards, K. Ariga, A. H. Khan, U. Thupakula, and S. Acharya, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2, 2759 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Acharya, S. Kundu, J. P. Hill, G. J. Richards, and K. Ariga, Adv. Mater. 21, 989 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Ariga, J. P. Hill, and Q. Ji, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 9, 2319 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Iwata, A.

T. Nagatsuma, T. Shibata, E. Sano, and A. Iwata, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4001 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Jang, S. H.

T. D. Kim, J. Luo, J. W. Ka, S. Hau, Y. Tian, Z. Shi, N. M. Tucker, S. H. Jang, J. W. Kang, and A. K.-Y. Ken, Adv. Mater. 18, 3038 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ji, Q.

K. Ariga, J. P. Hill, and Q. Ji, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 9, 2319 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jin, R. L.

Ka, J. W.

T. D. Kim, J. Luo, J. W. Ka, S. Hau, Y. Tian, Z. Shi, N. M. Tucker, S. H. Jang, J. W. Kang, and A. K.-Y. Ken, Adv. Mater. 18, 3038 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kajiyama, T.

Y. Haseba, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, Adv. Mater. 17, 2311 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J. W.

T. D. Kim, J. Luo, J. W. Ka, S. Hau, Y. Tian, Z. Shi, N. M. Tucker, S. H. Jang, J. W. Kang, and A. K.-Y. Ken, Adv. Mater. 18, 3038 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Katehi, L. P. B.

K. Yang, G. David, S. V. Robertson, J. F. Whitaker, and L. P. B. Katehi, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 46, 2338 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ken, A. K.-Y.

T. D. Kim, J. Luo, J. W. Ka, S. Hau, Y. Tian, Z. Shi, N. M. Tucker, S. H. Jang, J. W. Kang, and A. K.-Y. Ken, Adv. Mater. 18, 3038 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Khan, A. H.

S. Kundu, J. P. Hill, G. J. Richards, K. Ariga, A. H. Khan, U. Thupakula, and S. Acharya, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2, 2759 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kikuchi, H.

H. Choi, H. Higuchi, and H. Kikuchi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 131905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Haseba, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, Adv. Mater. 17, 2311 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, T. D.

T. D. Kim, J. Luo, J. W. Ka, S. Hau, Y. Tian, Z. Shi, N. M. Tucker, S. H. Jang, J. W. Kang, and A. K.-Y. Ken, Adv. Mater. 18, 3038 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kundu, S.

S. Kundu, J. P. Hill, G. J. Richards, K. Ariga, A. H. Khan, U. Thupakula, and S. Acharya, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2, 2759 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Acharya, S. Kundu, J. P. Hill, G. J. Richards, and K. Ariga, Adv. Mater. 21, 989 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. S.

H. Y. Woo, H. K. Shim, and K. S. Lee, Macromol. Chem. Phys. 199, 1427 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Luo, J.

T. D. Kim, J. Luo, J. W. Ka, S. Hau, Y. Tian, Z. Shi, N. M. Tucker, S. H. Jang, J. W. Kang, and A. K.-Y. Ken, Adv. Mater. 18, 3038 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mitrofanov, O.

O. Mitrofanov, A. Gasparyan, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 202103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nagamura, T.

Y. Haseba, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, Adv. Mater. 17, 2311 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nagatsuma, T.

M. Shinagawa and T. Nagatsuma, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 41, 375 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Nagatsuma, T. Shibata, E. Sano, and A. Iwata, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4001 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Pan, F.

Pfeiffer, L. N.

O. Mitrofanov, A. Gasparyan, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 202103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rajsuman, R.

R. Rajsuman, Proc. IEEE, 88, 544 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Richards, G. J.

S. Kundu, J. P. Hill, G. J. Richards, K. Ariga, A. H. Khan, U. Thupakula, and S. Acharya, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2, 2759 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Acharya, S. Kundu, J. P. Hill, G. J. Richards, and K. Ariga, Adv. Mater. 21, 989 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, S. V.

K. Yang, G. David, S. V. Robertson, J. F. Whitaker, and L. P. B. Katehi, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 46, 2338 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sano, E.

T. Nagatsuma, T. Shibata, E. Sano, and A. Iwata, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4001 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Z.

T. D. Kim, J. Luo, J. W. Ka, S. Hau, Y. Tian, Z. Shi, N. M. Tucker, S. H. Jang, J. W. Kang, and A. K.-Y. Ken, Adv. Mater. 18, 3038 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shibata, T.

T. Nagatsuma, T. Shibata, E. Sano, and A. Iwata, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4001 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Shim, H. K.

H. Y. Woo, H. K. Shim, and K. S. Lee, Macromol. Chem. Phys. 199, 1427 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shinagawa, M.

M. Shinagawa and T. Nagatsuma, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 41, 375 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H. B.

Tani, M.

Thupakula, U.

S. Kundu, J. P. Hill, G. J. Richards, K. Ariga, A. H. Khan, U. Thupakula, and S. Acharya, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2, 2759 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tian, Y.

T. D. Kim, J. Luo, J. W. Ka, S. Hau, Y. Tian, Z. Shi, N. M. Tucker, S. H. Jang, J. W. Kang, and A. K.-Y. Ken, Adv. Mater. 18, 3038 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tucker, N. M.

T. D. Kim, J. Luo, J. W. Ka, S. Hau, Y. Tian, Z. Shi, N. M. Tucker, S. H. Jang, J. W. Kang, and A. K.-Y. Ken, Adv. Mater. 18, 3038 (2006).
[CrossRef]

West, K. W.

O. Mitrofanov, A. Gasparyan, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 202103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Whitaker, J. F.

K. Yang, G. David, S. V. Robertson, J. F. Whitaker, and L. P. B. Katehi, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 46, 2338 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Woo, H. Y.

H. Y. Woo, H. K. Shim, and K. S. Lee, Macromol. Chem. Phys. 199, 1427 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Q.

Q. Wu and X. C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1604 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yan, Z. X.

Yang, D. K.

Y. C. Yang, and D. K. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 023502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

Yang, K.

K. Yang, G. David, S. V. Robertson, J. F. Whitaker, and L. P. B. Katehi, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 46, 2338 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y. C.

Y. C. Yang, and D. K. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 023502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yao, J.

Yi, M. B.

Yu, Y. H.

R. L. Jin, H. Yang, D. Zhao, F. Zhu, Y. H. Yu, Q. D. Chen, M. B. Yi, and H. B. Sun, J. Photon. 1, 57 (2011).

R. L. Jin, H. Yang, Y. H. Yu, D. Zhao, J. Yao, F. Zhu, Q. D. Chen, M. B. Yi, and H. B. Sun, Opt. Lett. 36, 1158 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. C.

Zhao, D.

Zhu, F.

R. L. Jin, H. Yang, D. Zhao, F. Zhu, Y. H. Yu, Q. D. Chen, M. B. Yi, and H. B. Sun, J. Photon. 1, 57 (2011).

R. L. Jin, H. Yang, Y. H. Yu, D. Zhao, J. Yao, F. Zhu, Q. D. Chen, M. B. Yi, and H. B. Sun, Opt. Lett. 36, 1158 (2011).
[CrossRef]

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (1)

S. Kundu, J. P. Hill, G. J. Richards, K. Ariga, A. H. Khan, U. Thupakula, and S. Acharya, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2, 2759 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (3)

T. D. Kim, J. Luo, J. W. Ka, S. Hau, Y. Tian, Z. Shi, N. M. Tucker, S. H. Jang, J. W. Kang, and A. K.-Y. Ken, Adv. Mater. 18, 3038 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Haseba, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, Adv. Mater. 17, 2311 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Acharya, S. Kundu, J. P. Hill, G. J. Richards, and K. Ariga, Adv. Mater. 21, 989 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

Y. C. Yang, and D. K. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 023502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Choi, H. Higuchi, and H. Kikuchi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 131905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu and X. C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1604 (1996).
[CrossRef]

O. Mitrofanov, A. Gasparyan, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 202103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (1)

M. Shinagawa and T. Nagatsuma, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 41, 375 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

K. Yang, G. David, S. V. Robertson, J. F. Whitaker, and L. P. B. Katehi, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 46, 2338 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Nagatsuma, T. Shibata, E. Sano, and A. Iwata, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4001 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Photon. (1)

R. L. Jin, H. Yang, D. Zhao, F. Zhu, Y. H. Yu, Q. D. Chen, M. B. Yi, and H. B. Sun, J. Photon. 1, 57 (2011).

Macromol. Chem. Phys. (1)

H. Y. Woo, H. K. Shim, and K. S. Lee, Macromol. Chem. Phys. 199, 1427 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. (1)

K. Ariga, J. P. Hill, and Q. Ji, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 9, 2319 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

R. Rajsuman, Proc. IEEE, 88, 544 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The field-induced birefringence measurement of PSLCs. (a) The schematic experimental setup. (b) The voltage-birefringence curves for the samples with different chiral pitches. The inset shows the voltage-transmittance curves of PSLCs of 0.81 μm pitch.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The schematic electro-optical system based on PBLCs. The inset shows the probe configuration.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The typical data of the electro-optical probe experiment. The solid line is the applied electric signal to the line of the coplanar waveguide, and the circle-dot line shows the modulation light intensity read by a photodiode detector. The inset is the measured circuit and the spot of the probing beam monitored by a camera.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The electro-optical measurement of interdigital electrodes. (a) The measured two-dimensional electric distribution. (b) The measurement of an electrode with open defects. The upper curve is the applied voltage, and the lower curves are the signals measured on each side of the broken line. The insets of (a) and (b) are the interdigital electrodes with their finger and spacing of 10 μm.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Iout=Iinsin2(πLΔn/λ),
Δn=λKE2,
d=2λ1NA2πNA,

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