Abstract

Generating and detecting ultrasound is a standard method of nondestructive evaluation of materials. Pulsed lasers are used to generate ultrasound remotely in situations that prohibit the use of contact transducers. The scanning rate is limited by the repetition rates of the pulsed lasers, ranging between 10 and 100 Hz for lasers with sufficient pulse widths and energies. Alternately, a high-power continuous-wave laser can be scanned across the surface, creating an ultrasonic wavefront. Since generation is continuous, the scanning rate can be as much as 4 orders of magnitude higher than with pulsed lasers. This paper introduces the concept, comparing the theoretical scanning speed with generation by pulsed laser.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2010 (1)

2009 (1)

P. Sprangle, A. Ting, J. Penano, R. Fischer, and B. Hafizi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 138 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2003 (2)

M. Sweeney, E. Erdelyi, M. Ketabchi, and B. Kent, Proc. SPIE 5176, 135 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Hay, W. Luo, J. L. Rose, and T. Hayashi, J. Compos. Mater. 37, 929 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

D. Levesque, M. Choquet, C. Padioleau, C. Neron, C. Corbeil, R. Talbot, A. Bendada, J. P. Monchalin, R. V. Kolarik, G. V. Jeskey, E. D. Dominik, L. J. Duly, K. J. Samblanet, S. E. Agger, K. J. Roush, and M. L. Mester, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112, 2350 (2002).

2001 (2)

M. Dubois, A. Moreau, and J. F. Bussière, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 6487 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsumoto, T. Nose, Y. Nagata, K. Kawashima, T. Yamada, H. Nakano, and S. Nagai, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 84, 1521(2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

J. N. Caron, Y. Yang, J. B. Mehl, and K. V. Steiner, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 2909 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Pierce, B. Culshaw, and Q. Shan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1030 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

D. A. Hutchins, R. J. Dewhurst, and S. B. Palmer, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 70, 1362 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Agger, S. E.

D. Levesque, M. Choquet, C. Padioleau, C. Neron, C. Corbeil, R. Talbot, A. Bendada, J. P. Monchalin, R. V. Kolarik, G. V. Jeskey, E. D. Dominik, L. J. Duly, K. J. Samblanet, S. E. Agger, K. J. Roush, and M. L. Mester, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112, 2350 (2002).

Augst, S. J.

Bendada, A.

D. Levesque, M. Choquet, C. Padioleau, C. Neron, C. Corbeil, R. Talbot, A. Bendada, J. P. Monchalin, R. V. Kolarik, G. V. Jeskey, E. D. Dominik, L. J. Duly, K. J. Samblanet, S. E. Agger, K. J. Roush, and M. L. Mester, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112, 2350 (2002).

Bramhavar, S.

T. W. Murray, S. Bramhavar, A. Sampathkumar, and B. Pouet, in Proceedings of 1st International Symposium on Laser Ultrasonics: Science, Technology and Applications (2008), 1–7.

Bussière, J. F.

M. Dubois, A. Moreau, and J. F. Bussière, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 6487 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Caron, J. N.

J. N. Caron, Y. Yang, J. B. Mehl, and K. V. Steiner, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 2909 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Caron, “Continuous laser generation of ultrasound,” U.S. patent application 20110048135 (March 3, 2011).

J. N. Caron, G. P. Dicomo, and S. Nikitin, in Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation, D. O. Thompson and D. E. Chimenti, eds. (AIP, 2011).

J. N. Caron, Y. Yang, J. B. Mehl, and K. V. Steiner, Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation 16, D. O. Thompson and D. E. Chimenti, eds. (Plenum Press, 1996), pp 531–538.

Chimenti, D. E.

M. Choquet, C. Padioleau, R. Héon, P. Houchard, C. Néron, and J. P. Monchalin, in Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation 14, D. O. Thompson and D. E. Chimenti, eds. (Plenum Press, 1994), pp. 545–552.

Choquet, M.

D. Levesque, M. Choquet, C. Padioleau, C. Neron, C. Corbeil, R. Talbot, A. Bendada, J. P. Monchalin, R. V. Kolarik, G. V. Jeskey, E. D. Dominik, L. J. Duly, K. J. Samblanet, S. E. Agger, K. J. Roush, and M. L. Mester, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112, 2350 (2002).

M. Choquet, C. Padioleau, R. Héon, P. Houchard, C. Néron, and J. P. Monchalin, in Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation 14, D. O. Thompson and D. E. Chimenti, eds. (Plenum Press, 1994), pp. 545–552.

Clarkson, W. A.

Corbeil, C.

D. Levesque, M. Choquet, C. Padioleau, C. Neron, C. Corbeil, R. Talbot, A. Bendada, J. P. Monchalin, R. V. Kolarik, G. V. Jeskey, E. D. Dominik, L. J. Duly, K. J. Samblanet, S. E. Agger, K. J. Roush, and M. L. Mester, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112, 2350 (2002).

Culshaw, B.

S. G. Pierce, B. Culshaw, and Q. Shan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1030 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dewhurst, R. J.

D. A. Hutchins, R. J. Dewhurst, and S. B. Palmer, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 70, 1362 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Dicomo, G. P.

J. N. Caron, G. P. Dicomo, and S. Nikitin, in Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation, D. O. Thompson and D. E. Chimenti, eds. (AIP, 2011).

Dominik, E. D.

D. Levesque, M. Choquet, C. Padioleau, C. Neron, C. Corbeil, R. Talbot, A. Bendada, J. P. Monchalin, R. V. Kolarik, G. V. Jeskey, E. D. Dominik, L. J. Duly, K. J. Samblanet, S. E. Agger, K. J. Roush, and M. L. Mester, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112, 2350 (2002).

Drain, L. E.

C. B. Scruby and L. E. Drain, Laser Ultrasonics (Adam Hilger, 1990).

Dubois, M.

M. Dubois, A. Moreau, and J. F. Bussière, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 6487 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Duly, L. J.

D. Levesque, M. Choquet, C. Padioleau, C. Neron, C. Corbeil, R. Talbot, A. Bendada, J. P. Monchalin, R. V. Kolarik, G. V. Jeskey, E. D. Dominik, L. J. Duly, K. J. Samblanet, S. E. Agger, K. J. Roush, and M. L. Mester, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112, 2350 (2002).

Erdelyi, E.

M. Sweeney, E. Erdelyi, M. Ketabchi, and B. Kent, Proc. SPIE 5176, 135 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fan, T. Y.

Fischer, R.

P. Sprangle, A. Ting, J. Penano, R. Fischer, and B. Hafizi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 138 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Greve, D.

A. Jain, D. Greve, and I. Oppenheim, in Proceedings of IEEE Sensors (IEEE, 2002), pp. 515–520.

Hafizi, B.

P. Sprangle, A. Ting, J. Penano, R. Fischer, and B. Hafizi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 138 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hay, T. R.

T. R. Hay, W. Luo, J. L. Rose, and T. Hayashi, J. Compos. Mater. 37, 929 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, T.

T. R. Hay, W. Luo, J. L. Rose, and T. Hayashi, J. Compos. Mater. 37, 929 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Héon, R.

M. Choquet, C. Padioleau, R. Héon, P. Houchard, C. Néron, and J. P. Monchalin, in Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation 14, D. O. Thompson and D. E. Chimenti, eds. (Plenum Press, 1994), pp. 545–552.

Houchard, P.

M. Choquet, C. Padioleau, R. Héon, P. Houchard, C. Néron, and J. P. Monchalin, in Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation 14, D. O. Thompson and D. E. Chimenti, eds. (Plenum Press, 1994), pp. 545–552.

Hutchins, D. A.

D. A. Hutchins, R. J. Dewhurst, and S. B. Palmer, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 70, 1362 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, T.

P. Ridgway, R. Russo, E. Lafond, T. Jackson, and X. Zhang, in Review of Progress in Nondestructive Evaluation, 24A, D. O. Thompson and D. E. Chimenti, eds. (AIP, 2004), pp. 1698–1705.

Jain, A.

A. Jain, D. Greve, and I. Oppenheim, in Proceedings of IEEE Sensors (IEEE, 2002), pp. 515–520.

Jeskey, G. V.

D. Levesque, M. Choquet, C. Padioleau, C. Neron, C. Corbeil, R. Talbot, A. Bendada, J. P. Monchalin, R. V. Kolarik, G. V. Jeskey, E. D. Dominik, L. J. Duly, K. J. Samblanet, S. E. Agger, K. J. Roush, and M. L. Mester, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112, 2350 (2002).

Kawashima, K.

T. Matsumoto, T. Nose, Y. Nagata, K. Kawashima, T. Yamada, H. Nakano, and S. Nagai, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 84, 1521(2001).
[CrossRef]

Kent, B.

M. Sweeney, E. Erdelyi, M. Ketabchi, and B. Kent, Proc. SPIE 5176, 135 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ketabchi, M.

M. Sweeney, E. Erdelyi, M. Ketabchi, and B. Kent, Proc. SPIE 5176, 135 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kolarik, R. V.

D. Levesque, M. Choquet, C. Padioleau, C. Neron, C. Corbeil, R. Talbot, A. Bendada, J. P. Monchalin, R. V. Kolarik, G. V. Jeskey, E. D. Dominik, L. J. Duly, K. J. Samblanet, S. E. Agger, K. J. Roush, and M. L. Mester, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112, 2350 (2002).

Lafond, E.

P. Ridgway, R. Russo, E. Lafond, T. Jackson, and X. Zhang, in Review of Progress in Nondestructive Evaluation, 24A, D. O. Thompson and D. E. Chimenti, eds. (AIP, 2004), pp. 1698–1705.

Levesque, D.

D. Levesque, M. Choquet, C. Padioleau, C. Neron, C. Corbeil, R. Talbot, A. Bendada, J. P. Monchalin, R. V. Kolarik, G. V. Jeskey, E. D. Dominik, L. J. Duly, K. J. Samblanet, S. E. Agger, K. J. Roush, and M. L. Mester, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112, 2350 (2002).

Luo, W.

T. R. Hay, W. Luo, J. L. Rose, and T. Hayashi, J. Compos. Mater. 37, 929 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, T.

T. Matsumoto, T. Nose, Y. Nagata, K. Kawashima, T. Yamada, H. Nakano, and S. Nagai, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 84, 1521(2001).
[CrossRef]

Mehl, J. B.

J. N. Caron, Y. Yang, J. B. Mehl, and K. V. Steiner, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 2909 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Caron, Y. Yang, J. B. Mehl, and K. V. Steiner, Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation 16, D. O. Thompson and D. E. Chimenti, eds. (Plenum Press, 1996), pp 531–538.

Mester, M. L.

D. Levesque, M. Choquet, C. Padioleau, C. Neron, C. Corbeil, R. Talbot, A. Bendada, J. P. Monchalin, R. V. Kolarik, G. V. Jeskey, E. D. Dominik, L. J. Duly, K. J. Samblanet, S. E. Agger, K. J. Roush, and M. L. Mester, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112, 2350 (2002).

Monchalin, J. P.

D. Levesque, M. Choquet, C. Padioleau, C. Neron, C. Corbeil, R. Talbot, A. Bendada, J. P. Monchalin, R. V. Kolarik, G. V. Jeskey, E. D. Dominik, L. J. Duly, K. J. Samblanet, S. E. Agger, K. J. Roush, and M. L. Mester, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112, 2350 (2002).

M. Choquet, C. Padioleau, R. Héon, P. Houchard, C. Néron, and J. P. Monchalin, in Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation 14, D. O. Thompson and D. E. Chimenti, eds. (Plenum Press, 1994), pp. 545–552.

Moreau, A.

M. Dubois, A. Moreau, and J. F. Bussière, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 6487 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Murray, T. W.

T. W. Murray, S. Bramhavar, A. Sampathkumar, and B. Pouet, in Proceedings of 1st International Symposium on Laser Ultrasonics: Science, Technology and Applications (2008), 1–7.

Nagai, S.

T. Matsumoto, T. Nose, Y. Nagata, K. Kawashima, T. Yamada, H. Nakano, and S. Nagai, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 84, 1521(2001).
[CrossRef]

Nagata, Y.

T. Matsumoto, T. Nose, Y. Nagata, K. Kawashima, T. Yamada, H. Nakano, and S. Nagai, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 84, 1521(2001).
[CrossRef]

Nakano, H.

T. Matsumoto, T. Nose, Y. Nagata, K. Kawashima, T. Yamada, H. Nakano, and S. Nagai, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 84, 1521(2001).
[CrossRef]

Neron, C.

D. Levesque, M. Choquet, C. Padioleau, C. Neron, C. Corbeil, R. Talbot, A. Bendada, J. P. Monchalin, R. V. Kolarik, G. V. Jeskey, E. D. Dominik, L. J. Duly, K. J. Samblanet, S. E. Agger, K. J. Roush, and M. L. Mester, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112, 2350 (2002).

Néron, C.

M. Choquet, C. Padioleau, R. Héon, P. Houchard, C. Néron, and J. P. Monchalin, in Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation 14, D. O. Thompson and D. E. Chimenti, eds. (Plenum Press, 1994), pp. 545–552.

Nikitin, S.

J. N. Caron, G. P. Dicomo, and S. Nikitin, in Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation, D. O. Thompson and D. E. Chimenti, eds. (AIP, 2011).

Nilsson, J.

Nose, T.

T. Matsumoto, T. Nose, Y. Nagata, K. Kawashima, T. Yamada, H. Nakano, and S. Nagai, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 84, 1521(2001).
[CrossRef]

Oppenheim, I.

A. Jain, D. Greve, and I. Oppenheim, in Proceedings of IEEE Sensors (IEEE, 2002), pp. 515–520.

Padioleau, C.

D. Levesque, M. Choquet, C. Padioleau, C. Neron, C. Corbeil, R. Talbot, A. Bendada, J. P. Monchalin, R. V. Kolarik, G. V. Jeskey, E. D. Dominik, L. J. Duly, K. J. Samblanet, S. E. Agger, K. J. Roush, and M. L. Mester, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112, 2350 (2002).

M. Choquet, C. Padioleau, R. Héon, P. Houchard, C. Néron, and J. P. Monchalin, in Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation 14, D. O. Thompson and D. E. Chimenti, eds. (Plenum Press, 1994), pp. 545–552.

Palmer, S. B.

D. A. Hutchins, R. J. Dewhurst, and S. B. Palmer, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 70, 1362 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Penano, J.

P. Sprangle, A. Ting, J. Penano, R. Fischer, and B. Hafizi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 138 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pierce, S. G.

S. G. Pierce, B. Culshaw, and Q. Shan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1030 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pouet, B.

T. W. Murray, S. Bramhavar, A. Sampathkumar, and B. Pouet, in Proceedings of 1st International Symposium on Laser Ultrasonics: Science, Technology and Applications (2008), 1–7.

Ranka, J. K.

Richardson, D. J.

Ridgway, P.

P. Ridgway, R. Russo, E. Lafond, T. Jackson, and X. Zhang, in Review of Progress in Nondestructive Evaluation, 24A, D. O. Thompson and D. E. Chimenti, eds. (AIP, 2004), pp. 1698–1705.

Rose, J. L.

T. R. Hay, W. Luo, J. L. Rose, and T. Hayashi, J. Compos. Mater. 37, 929 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Roush, K. J.

D. Levesque, M. Choquet, C. Padioleau, C. Neron, C. Corbeil, R. Talbot, A. Bendada, J. P. Monchalin, R. V. Kolarik, G. V. Jeskey, E. D. Dominik, L. J. Duly, K. J. Samblanet, S. E. Agger, K. J. Roush, and M. L. Mester, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112, 2350 (2002).

Russo, R.

P. Ridgway, R. Russo, E. Lafond, T. Jackson, and X. Zhang, in Review of Progress in Nondestructive Evaluation, 24A, D. O. Thompson and D. E. Chimenti, eds. (AIP, 2004), pp. 1698–1705.

Samblanet, K. J.

D. Levesque, M. Choquet, C. Padioleau, C. Neron, C. Corbeil, R. Talbot, A. Bendada, J. P. Monchalin, R. V. Kolarik, G. V. Jeskey, E. D. Dominik, L. J. Duly, K. J. Samblanet, S. E. Agger, K. J. Roush, and M. L. Mester, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112, 2350 (2002).

Sampathkumar, A.

T. W. Murray, S. Bramhavar, A. Sampathkumar, and B. Pouet, in Proceedings of 1st International Symposium on Laser Ultrasonics: Science, Technology and Applications (2008), 1–7.

Sanchez, A.

Scruby, C. B.

C. B. Scruby and L. E. Drain, Laser Ultrasonics (Adam Hilger, 1990).

Shan, Q.

S. G. Pierce, B. Culshaw, and Q. Shan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1030 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sprangle, P.

P. Sprangle, A. Ting, J. Penano, R. Fischer, and B. Hafizi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 138 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Steiner, K. V.

J. N. Caron, Y. Yang, J. B. Mehl, and K. V. Steiner, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 2909 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Caron, Y. Yang, J. B. Mehl, and K. V. Steiner, Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation 16, D. O. Thompson and D. E. Chimenti, eds. (Plenum Press, 1996), pp 531–538.

Stiles, E.

E. Stiles, in Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Fiber Lasers (2009).

Sweeney, M.

M. Sweeney, E. Erdelyi, M. Ketabchi, and B. Kent, Proc. SPIE 5176, 135 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Talbot, R.

D. Levesque, M. Choquet, C. Padioleau, C. Neron, C. Corbeil, R. Talbot, A. Bendada, J. P. Monchalin, R. V. Kolarik, G. V. Jeskey, E. D. Dominik, L. J. Duly, K. J. Samblanet, S. E. Agger, K. J. Roush, and M. L. Mester, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112, 2350 (2002).

Thompson, D. O.

M. Choquet, C. Padioleau, R. Héon, P. Houchard, C. Néron, and J. P. Monchalin, in Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation 14, D. O. Thompson and D. E. Chimenti, eds. (Plenum Press, 1994), pp. 545–552.

Ting, A.

P. Sprangle, A. Ting, J. Penano, R. Fischer, and B. Hafizi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 138 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, T.

T. Matsumoto, T. Nose, Y. Nagata, K. Kawashima, T. Yamada, H. Nakano, and S. Nagai, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 84, 1521(2001).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

J. N. Caron, Y. Yang, J. B. Mehl, and K. V. Steiner, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 2909 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Caron, Y. Yang, J. B. Mehl, and K. V. Steiner, Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation 16, D. O. Thompson and D. E. Chimenti, eds. (Plenum Press, 1996), pp 531–538.

Zhang, X.

P. Ridgway, R. Russo, E. Lafond, T. Jackson, and X. Zhang, in Review of Progress in Nondestructive Evaluation, 24A, D. O. Thompson and D. E. Chimenti, eds. (AIP, 2004), pp. 1698–1705.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. G. Pierce, B. Culshaw, and Q. Shan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1030 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

P. Sprangle, A. Ting, J. Penano, R. Fischer, and B. Hafizi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 138 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (2)

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Conceptual design of a CLGU system. A cw laser is directed off a fast scanning mirror onto the surface of the test material. As with pulsed-laser generation, the rapid heating from the scanned beam creates the thermoelastic expansion necessary for ultrasound generation.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

In this configuration, a rotating polygon mirror rapidly directs the laser across the material surface. After traveling through the material, an airborne ultrasonic wavefront is sensed using the GCLAD technique.

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P(x,y,t)=APpe2((xxo)2+(yyo)2)a2e2(t/τ)2,
E(xo,yo)=APpe2t2τ2dt=π2τAPp,
P(x,y,t)=APse2((xxovt)2+(yyo)2)a2,
E(xo,yo)=APse2(vt)2a2dt=π2avAPs.
v=aPsτPp.
νv2a.
Pb(x,y,t)=APse2((xxovt)2+(yyo)2)b2,
E(x,y)=APse2b2((xxovt)2+(yyo)2)dt=π2APsbve2b2(yyo)2,
E(x,y)=π2τAPpe2((xxo)2+(yyo)2)a2.
v=bPsτPpe2b2(yyo)2e2a2((xxo)2(yyo)2)

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