Abstract

In this Letter, the fabrication and characterization of a microsphere resonator from the semiconductor germanium is demonstrated. Whispering gallery modes are excited in a 46 μm diameter germanium microsphere resonator using evanescent coupling from a tapered silica optical fiber with a waist diameter of 2 μm. Resonances with Q factors as high as 3.8×104 at wavelengths near 2 μm are observed. Because of their ultrahigh optical nonlinearities and extremely broad transparency window, germanium microsphere resonators offer the potential for optical processing devices, in particular at long wavelengths, such as around 2 μm.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2011

N. Vukovic, N. Healy, P. Horak, J. R. Sparks, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 031117 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S.-L. Cheng, G. Shambat, J. Lu, H.-Y. Yu, K. Saraswat, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and Y. Nishi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 211101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Hon, R. Soref, and B. Jalali, J. Appl. Phys. 110, 011301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

G. S. Murugan, Y. Panitchob, E. J. Tull, P. N. Bartlett, D. W. Hewak, M. N. Zervas, and J. S. Wilkinson, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 053105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2007

2006

V. S. Ilchenko and A. B. Matsko, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 15 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

Y. O. Yilmaz, A. Demir, A. Kurt, and A. Serpenguzel, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1662 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Ouvrard, A. Garnache, L. Cerutti, F. Genty, and D. Romanini, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2020 (2005).

2004

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

A. A. Savchenkov, V. S. Ilchenko, T. Handley, and L. Maleki, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 543 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Savchenkov, V. S. Ilchenko, T. Handley, and L. Maleki, Opt. Lett. 28, 649 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999

Ahn, D.

Almeida, V. R.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Badding, J. V.

N. Vukovic, N. Healy, P. Horak, J. R. Sparks, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 031117 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ballato, J.

Barrios, C. A.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bartlett, P. N.

G. S. Murugan, Y. Panitchob, E. J. Tull, P. N. Bartlett, D. W. Hewak, M. N. Zervas, and J. S. Wilkinson, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 053105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Beals, M.

Cerutti, L.

A. Ouvrard, A. Garnache, L. Cerutti, F. Genty, and D. Romanini, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2020 (2005).

Chen, J.

Cheng, S.-L.

S.-L. Cheng, G. Shambat, J. Lu, H.-Y. Yu, K. Saraswat, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and Y. Nishi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 211101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Demir, A.

Y. O. Yilmaz, A. Demir, A. Kurt, and A. Serpenguzel, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1662 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Elliott, G. R.

Foy, P.

Garnache, A.

A. Ouvrard, A. Garnache, L. Cerutti, F. Genty, and D. Romanini, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2020 (2005).

Genty, F.

A. Ouvrard, A. Garnache, L. Cerutti, F. Genty, and D. Romanini, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2020 (2005).

Giziewicz, W.

Handley, T.

A. A. Savchenkov, V. S. Ilchenko, T. Handley, and L. Maleki, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 543 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Savchenkov, V. S. Ilchenko, T. Handley, and L. Maleki, Opt. Lett. 28, 649 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

Hawkins, T.

Healy, N.

N. Vukovic, N. Healy, P. Horak, J. R. Sparks, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 031117 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hewak, D. W.

G. S. Murugan, Y. Panitchob, E. J. Tull, P. N. Bartlett, D. W. Hewak, M. N. Zervas, and J. S. Wilkinson, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 053105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Elliott, D. W. Hewak, G. S. Murugan, and J. S. Wilkinson, Opt. Express 15, 17542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hon, N. K.

Hong, C.-Y.

Horak, P.

N. Vukovic, N. Healy, P. Horak, J. R. Sparks, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 031117 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ilchenko, V. S.

V. S. Ilchenko and A. B. Matsko, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 15 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Savchenkov, V. S. Ilchenko, T. Handley, and L. Maleki, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 543 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Savchenkov, V. S. Ilchenko, T. Handley, and L. Maleki, Opt. Lett. 28, 649 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jalali, B.

Kamins, T. I.

S.-L. Cheng, G. Shambat, J. Lu, H.-Y. Yu, K. Saraswat, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and Y. Nishi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 211101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kärtner, F. X.

Kimerling, L. C.

Kurt, A.

Y. O. Yilmaz, A. Demir, A. Kurt, and A. Serpenguzel, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1662 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Laine, J. P.

Lipson, M.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Little, B. E.

Liu, J.

Lu, J.

S.-L. Cheng, G. Shambat, J. Lu, H.-Y. Yu, K. Saraswat, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and Y. Nishi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 211101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Maleki, L.

A. A. Savchenkov, V. S. Ilchenko, T. Handley, and L. Maleki, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 543 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Savchenkov, V. S. Ilchenko, T. Handley, and L. Maleki, Opt. Lett. 28, 649 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Matsko, A. B.

V. S. Ilchenko and A. B. Matsko, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 15 (2006).
[CrossRef]

McMillen, C.

Michel, J.

Murugan, G. S.

G. S. Murugan, Y. Panitchob, E. J. Tull, P. N. Bartlett, D. W. Hewak, M. N. Zervas, and J. S. Wilkinson, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 053105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Elliott, D. W. Hewak, G. S. Murugan, and J. S. Wilkinson, Opt. Express 15, 17542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nishi, Y.

S.-L. Cheng, G. Shambat, J. Lu, H.-Y. Yu, K. Saraswat, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and Y. Nishi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 211101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ouvrard, A.

A. Ouvrard, A. Garnache, L. Cerutti, F. Genty, and D. Romanini, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2020 (2005).

Panepucci, R. R.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Panitchob, Y.

G. S. Murugan, Y. Panitchob, E. J. Tull, P. N. Bartlett, D. W. Hewak, M. N. Zervas, and J. S. Wilkinson, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 053105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Peacock, A. C.

N. Vukovic, N. Healy, P. Horak, J. R. Sparks, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 031117 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rice, R.

Romanini, D.

A. Ouvrard, A. Garnache, L. Cerutti, F. Genty, and D. Romanini, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2020 (2005).

Saraswat, K.

S.-L. Cheng, G. Shambat, J. Lu, H.-Y. Yu, K. Saraswat, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and Y. Nishi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 211101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Savchenkov, A. A.

A. A. Savchenkov, V. S. Ilchenko, T. Handley, and L. Maleki, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 543 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Savchenkov, V. S. Ilchenko, T. Handley, and L. Maleki, Opt. Lett. 28, 649 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sazio, P. J. A.

N. Vukovic, N. Healy, P. Horak, J. R. Sparks, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 031117 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Serpenguzel, A.

Y. O. Yilmaz, A. Demir, A. Kurt, and A. Serpenguzel, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1662 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shambat, G.

S.-L. Cheng, G. Shambat, J. Lu, H.-Y. Yu, K. Saraswat, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and Y. Nishi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 211101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R.

N. K. Hon, R. Soref, and B. Jalali, J. Appl. Phys. 110, 011301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sparks, J. R.

N. Vukovic, N. Healy, P. Horak, J. R. Sparks, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 031117 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Stolen, R.

Tull, E. J.

G. S. Murugan, Y. Panitchob, E. J. Tull, P. N. Bartlett, D. W. Hewak, M. N. Zervas, and J. S. Wilkinson, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 053105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vuckovic, J.

S.-L. Cheng, G. Shambat, J. Lu, H.-Y. Yu, K. Saraswat, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and Y. Nishi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 211101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vukovic, N.

N. Vukovic, N. Healy, P. Horak, J. R. Sparks, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 031117 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, J. S.

G. S. Murugan, Y. Panitchob, E. J. Tull, P. N. Bartlett, D. W. Hewak, M. N. Zervas, and J. S. Wilkinson, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 053105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Elliott, D. W. Hewak, G. S. Murugan, and J. S. Wilkinson, Opt. Express 15, 17542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yazgan-Kokuoz, B.

Yilmaz, Y. O.

Y. O. Yilmaz, A. Demir, A. Kurt, and A. Serpenguzel, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1662 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yu, H.-Y.

S.-L. Cheng, G. Shambat, J. Lu, H.-Y. Yu, K. Saraswat, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and Y. Nishi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 211101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zervas, M. N.

G. S. Murugan, Y. Panitchob, E. J. Tull, P. N. Bartlett, D. W. Hewak, M. N. Zervas, and J. S. Wilkinson, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 053105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

N. Vukovic, N. Healy, P. Horak, J. R. Sparks, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 031117 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S.-L. Cheng, G. Shambat, J. Lu, H.-Y. Yu, K. Saraswat, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and Y. Nishi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 211101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

V. S. Ilchenko and A. B. Matsko, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 15 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

A. Ouvrard, A. Garnache, L. Cerutti, F. Genty, and D. Romanini, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2020 (2005).

A. A. Savchenkov, V. S. Ilchenko, T. Handley, and L. Maleki, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 543 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. O. Yilmaz, A. Demir, A. Kurt, and A. Serpenguzel, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1662 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

G. S. Murugan, Y. Panitchob, E. J. Tull, P. N. Bartlett, D. W. Hewak, M. N. Zervas, and J. S. Wilkinson, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 053105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Hon, R. Soref, and B. Jalali, J. Appl. Phys. 110, 011301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Nature

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Microscope images of (a) germanium-core fiber after CO2 laser heating and (b) germanium microresonator after the borosilicate cladding was removed by buffered HF. The resonator had a diameter of 46 μm and was connected to a stem to facilitate handling.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental apparatus used for microsphere resonance characterization.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Emission spectrum of the F43H63 emission (1.8–2.2 µm) from a 4-m-long thulium-doped fiber pumped by a 1550 nm laser.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Top: experimental resonance spectrum for wavelengths between 1975 and 2025 nm for the microsphere with a diameter of 46 μm. Bottom: experimental resonance spectrum in the region of 1997.5–2002.5 nm. (b) Normalized transmission as a function of wavelength.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Effective index at λ=2μm for the fundamental mode of a silica fiber taper with diameter d in the range 1–4 µm (red dashed curve) and whispering gallery modes in a Ge microsphere for different sphere sizes (blue solid curves). The latter are calculated for radial mode numbers 1n6 and m=l, where l and m are the azimuthal and polar mode numbers; l is chosen to provide resonances at 2μm1.

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