Abstract

We report on a quantitative elastography technique achieved by combining phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PhS-OCT) with the surface acoustic wave (SAW) method. Different from traditional optical coherence elastography, the elastography is achieved by impulse-stimulated SAW, rather than by shear waves. PhS-OCT serves not only as a detector to measure SAW signals but also as a means to provide a cross-sectional image of the sample. The experimental results indicate that the combination of PhS-OCT with SAW is feasible to provide quantitative elastography of heterogeneous tissue samples.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2011 (3)

2009 (2)

H. C. Wang, S. Fleming, Y. C. Lee, S. Law, M. Swain, and J. Xue, Opt. Express 17, 15592 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Elgeti, M. Laule, N. Kaufels, J. Schnorr, B. Hamm, A. Samani, J. Braun, and I. Sack, J. Cardiovasc. Magn. Reson. 11, 44 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

T. Rago, F. Santini, M. Scutari, A. Pinchera, and P. Vitti, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 92, 2917 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

R. K. Wang, Z. Ma, and S. J. Kirkpatrick, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 144103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

Y. H. Sohn and S. Krishnaswamy, Ultrasonics 39, 543 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1993 (1)

S. Nazarian and M. R. Desai, J. Geotech. Eng. 119, 1094 (1993).

1992 (1)

A. Neubrand and P. Hess, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 227(1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

J. Ophir, I. Cespedes, H. Ponnekanti, Y. Yazdi, and X. Li, Ultrason. Imag. 13, 111 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

P. G. Agache, C. Monneur, J. L. Leveque, and J. De Rigal, Arch. Dermatol. Res. 269, 221 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Adie, S. G.

Agache, P. G.

P. G. Agache, C. Monneur, J. L. Leveque, and J. De Rigal, Arch. Dermatol. Res. 269, 221 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Boppart, S. A.

Braun, J.

T. Elgeti, M. Laule, N. Kaufels, J. Schnorr, B. Hamm, A. Samani, J. Braun, and I. Sack, J. Cardiovasc. Magn. Reson. 11, 44 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cespedes, I.

J. Ophir, I. Cespedes, H. Ponnekanti, Y. Yazdi, and X. Li, Ultrason. Imag. 13, 111 (1991).
[CrossRef]

De Rigal, J.

P. G. Agache, C. Monneur, J. L. Leveque, and J. De Rigal, Arch. Dermatol. Res. 269, 221 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Desai, M. R.

S. Nazarian and M. R. Desai, J. Geotech. Eng. 119, 1094 (1993).

Elgeti, T.

T. Elgeti, M. Laule, N. Kaufels, J. Schnorr, B. Hamm, A. Samani, J. Braun, and I. Sack, J. Cardiovasc. Magn. Reson. 11, 44 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fleming, S.

Gerstmann, D. K.

Guan, G.

C. Li, G. Guan, R. Reif, Z. Huang, and R. K. Wang, J. R. Soc. Interface, doi:10.1098/rsif.2011.0583 (to be published).
[CrossRef]

Hamm, B.

T. Elgeti, M. Laule, N. Kaufels, J. Schnorr, B. Hamm, A. Samani, J. Braun, and I. Sack, J. Cardiovasc. Magn. Reson. 11, 44 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hess, P.

A. Neubrand and P. Hess, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 227(1992).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Z.

C. Li, G. Guan, R. Reif, Z. Huang, and R. K. Wang, J. R. Soc. Interface, doi:10.1098/rsif.2011.0583 (to be published).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Z. H.

Kaufels, N.

T. Elgeti, M. Laule, N. Kaufels, J. Schnorr, B. Hamm, A. Samani, J. Braun, and I. Sack, J. Cardiovasc. Magn. Reson. 11, 44 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kennedy, B. F.

Kirkpatrick, S. J.

R. K. Wang, Z. Ma, and S. J. Kirkpatrick, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 144103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Krishnaswamy, S.

Y. H. Sohn and S. Krishnaswamy, Ultrasonics 39, 543 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Laule, M.

T. Elgeti, M. Laule, N. Kaufels, J. Schnorr, B. Hamm, A. Samani, J. Braun, and I. Sack, J. Cardiovasc. Magn. Reson. 11, 44 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Law, S.

Lee, Y. C.

Leveque, J. L.

P. G. Agache, C. Monneur, J. L. Leveque, and J. De Rigal, Arch. Dermatol. Res. 269, 221 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.

C. Li, G. Guan, R. Reif, Z. Huang, and R. K. Wang, J. R. Soc. Interface, doi:10.1098/rsif.2011.0583 (to be published).
[CrossRef]

Li, C. H.

Li, X.

J. Ophir, I. Cespedes, H. Ponnekanti, Y. Yazdi, and X. Li, Ultrason. Imag. 13, 111 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Liang, X.

Ma, Z.

R. K. Wang, Z. Ma, and S. J. Kirkpatrick, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 144103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Monneur, C.

P. G. Agache, C. Monneur, J. L. Leveque, and J. De Rigal, Arch. Dermatol. Res. 269, 221 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Nazarian, S.

S. Nazarian and M. R. Desai, J. Geotech. Eng. 119, 1094 (1993).

Neubrand, A.

A. Neubrand and P. Hess, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 227(1992).
[CrossRef]

Ophir, J.

J. Ophir, I. Cespedes, H. Ponnekanti, Y. Yazdi, and X. Li, Ultrason. Imag. 13, 111 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Pinchera, A.

T. Rago, F. Santini, M. Scutari, A. Pinchera, and P. Vitti, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 92, 2917 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ponnekanti, H.

J. Ophir, I. Cespedes, H. Ponnekanti, Y. Yazdi, and X. Li, Ultrason. Imag. 13, 111 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Quirk, B. C.

Rago, T.

T. Rago, F. Santini, M. Scutari, A. Pinchera, and P. Vitti, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 92, 2917 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Reif, R.

C. Li, G. Guan, R. Reif, Z. Huang, and R. K. Wang, J. R. Soc. Interface, doi:10.1098/rsif.2011.0583 (to be published).
[CrossRef]

Sack, I.

T. Elgeti, M. Laule, N. Kaufels, J. Schnorr, B. Hamm, A. Samani, J. Braun, and I. Sack, J. Cardiovasc. Magn. Reson. 11, 44 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Samani, A.

T. Elgeti, M. Laule, N. Kaufels, J. Schnorr, B. Hamm, A. Samani, J. Braun, and I. Sack, J. Cardiovasc. Magn. Reson. 11, 44 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sampson, D. D.

Santini, F.

T. Rago, F. Santini, M. Scutari, A. Pinchera, and P. Vitti, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 92, 2917 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, J. M.

Schnorr, J.

T. Elgeti, M. Laule, N. Kaufels, J. Schnorr, B. Hamm, A. Samani, J. Braun, and I. Sack, J. Cardiovasc. Magn. Reson. 11, 44 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Scutari, M.

T. Rago, F. Santini, M. Scutari, A. Pinchera, and P. Vitti, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 92, 2917 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sohn, Y. H.

Y. H. Sohn and S. Krishnaswamy, Ultrasonics 39, 543 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Standish, B.

C. Sun, B. Standish, and V. X. D. Yang, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 043001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C.

C. Sun, B. Standish, and V. X. D. Yang, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 043001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Swain, M.

Vitti, P.

T. Rago, F. Santini, M. Scutari, A. Pinchera, and P. Vitti, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 92, 2917 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H. C.

Wang, R. K.

R. K. Wang, Z. Ma, and S. J. Kirkpatrick, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 144103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Li, G. Guan, R. Reif, Z. Huang, and R. K. Wang, J. R. Soc. Interface, doi:10.1098/rsif.2011.0583 (to be published).
[CrossRef]

Wang, R. K. K.

Xue, J.

Yang, V. X. D.

C. Sun, B. Standish, and V. X. D. Yang, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 043001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yazdi, Y.

J. Ophir, I. Cespedes, H. Ponnekanti, Y. Yazdi, and X. Li, Ultrason. Imag. 13, 111 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. K. Wang, Z. Ma, and S. J. Kirkpatrick, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 144103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Arch. Dermatol. Res. (1)

P. G. Agache, C. Monneur, J. L. Leveque, and J. De Rigal, Arch. Dermatol. Res. 269, 221 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Neubrand and P. Hess, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 227(1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

C. Sun, B. Standish, and V. X. D. Yang, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 043001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Cardiovasc. Magn. Reson. (1)

T. Elgeti, M. Laule, N. Kaufels, J. Schnorr, B. Hamm, A. Samani, J. Braun, and I. Sack, J. Cardiovasc. Magn. Reson. 11, 44 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1)

T. Rago, F. Santini, M. Scutari, A. Pinchera, and P. Vitti, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 92, 2917 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Geotech. Eng. (1)

S. Nazarian and M. R. Desai, J. Geotech. Eng. 119, 1094 (1993).

J. R. Soc. Interface (1)

C. Li, G. Guan, R. Reif, Z. Huang, and R. K. Wang, J. R. Soc. Interface, doi:10.1098/rsif.2011.0583 (to be published).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Ultrason. Imag. (1)

J. Ophir, I. Cespedes, H. Ponnekanti, Y. Yazdi, and X. Li, Ultrason. Imag. 13, 111 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ultrasonics (1)

Y. H. Sohn and S. Krishnaswamy, Ultrasonics 39, 543 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) OCT image of the phantom with 1% agar as the substrate layer, 2% agar and 3% agar as upper layer and (b) elastogram of the phantom evaluated from the phase velocity curves. (c) OCT image of the phantom with 2% agar (outlined by the dashed box) embedded within an 1% agar background and (d) the resulting elastogram. The color bar represents the value of elasticity (Pa). The same also applies to Fig. 2.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) OCT image of human forearm skin in vivo with a hard nodule in the middle and (b) the resulting elastogram.

Equations (3)

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CR(f)=0.87+1.12υ1+υE(f)2ρ(1+υ),
zλ=CRf.
fmax=22CRπr0,

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