Abstract

This letter introduces a fluidics-based focus-stack collecting microscope. A microfluidic device transports cells through the focal plane of a microscope, resulting in an efficient method to collect focus stacks of large collections of single cells. Images from the focus stacks are used to reconstruct the quantitative phase of cells with the transport-of-intensity-equation method. Using the phase imaging flow cytometer, we measure three-dimensional shape variations of red blood and leukemia cells.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

E. Schonbrun, S. S. Gorthi, and D. Schaak, Lab Chip 12, 268 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

G. Tomaiuolo and S. Guido, Microvasc. Res. 82, 35 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Bow, I. V. Pivkin, M. Diez-Silva, S. J. Goldfless, M. Dao, J. C. Niles, S. Suresh, and J. Han, Lab Chip 11, 1065 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

2009 (2)

H. Sakai, A. Sato, N. Okuda, S. Takeoka, N. Maeda, and E. Tsuchida, Am. J. Physiol.: Heart Circ. Physiol. 297, H583 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Kaoui, G. Biros, and C. Misbah, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 188101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

B. Rappaz, A. Barbul, Y. Emery, R. Korenstein, C. Depeursinge, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, Cytometry, Part A 73, 895 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

D. A. Basiji, W. E. Ortyn, L. Liang, V. Venkatachalam, and P. Morrissey, Clin. Lab. Med. 27, 653 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

1998 (1)

D. Paganin and K. A. Nugent, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2586 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

M. R. Teague, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 73, 1434 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

R. Skalak and P. Branemark, Science 164, 717 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Barbastathis, G.

Barbul, A.

B. Rappaz, A. Barbul, Y. Emery, R. Korenstein, C. Depeursinge, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, Cytometry, Part A 73, 895 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Basiji, D. A.

D. A. Basiji, W. E. Ortyn, L. Liang, V. Venkatachalam, and P. Morrissey, Clin. Lab. Med. 27, 653 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Biros, G.

B. Kaoui, G. Biros, and C. Misbah, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 188101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bow, H.

H. Bow, I. V. Pivkin, M. Diez-Silva, S. J. Goldfless, M. Dao, J. C. Niles, S. Suresh, and J. Han, Lab Chip 11, 1065 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Branemark, P.

R. Skalak and P. Branemark, Science 164, 717 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Colomb, T.

Cuche, E.

Dao, M.

H. Bow, I. V. Pivkin, M. Diez-Silva, S. J. Goldfless, M. Dao, J. C. Niles, S. Suresh, and J. Han, Lab Chip 11, 1065 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dasari, R.

Depeursinge, C.

B. Rappaz, A. Barbul, Y. Emery, R. Korenstein, C. Depeursinge, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, Cytometry, Part A 73, 895 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Marquet, B. Rappaz, P. J. Magistretti, E. Cuche, Y. Emery, T. Colomb, and C. Depeursinge, Opt. Lett. 30, 468 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Diez-Silva, M.

H. Bow, I. V. Pivkin, M. Diez-Silva, S. J. Goldfless, M. Dao, J. C. Niles, S. Suresh, and J. Han, Lab Chip 11, 1065 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Emery, Y.

B. Rappaz, A. Barbul, Y. Emery, R. Korenstein, C. Depeursinge, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, Cytometry, Part A 73, 895 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Marquet, B. Rappaz, P. J. Magistretti, E. Cuche, Y. Emery, T. Colomb, and C. Depeursinge, Opt. Lett. 30, 468 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Feld, M.

Goldfless, S. J.

H. Bow, I. V. Pivkin, M. Diez-Silva, S. J. Goldfless, M. Dao, J. C. Niles, S. Suresh, and J. Han, Lab Chip 11, 1065 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gompper, G.

H. Noguchi and G. Gompper, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 14159 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gorthi, S. S.

E. Schonbrun, S. S. Gorthi, and D. Schaak, Lab Chip 12, 268 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Guido, S.

G. Tomaiuolo and S. Guido, Microvasc. Res. 82, 35 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Han, J.

H. Bow, I. V. Pivkin, M. Diez-Silva, S. J. Goldfless, M. Dao, J. C. Niles, S. Suresh, and J. Han, Lab Chip 11, 1065 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, T.

Kaoui, B.

B. Kaoui, G. Biros, and C. Misbah, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 188101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Korenstein, R.

B. Rappaz, A. Barbul, Y. Emery, R. Korenstein, C. Depeursinge, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, Cytometry, Part A 73, 895 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kou, S. S.

Liang, L.

D. A. Basiji, W. E. Ortyn, L. Liang, V. Venkatachalam, and P. Morrissey, Clin. Lab. Med. 27, 653 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Y.

Maeda, N.

H. Sakai, A. Sato, N. Okuda, S. Takeoka, N. Maeda, and E. Tsuchida, Am. J. Physiol.: Heart Circ. Physiol. 297, H583 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Magistretti, P. J.

B. Rappaz, A. Barbul, Y. Emery, R. Korenstein, C. Depeursinge, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, Cytometry, Part A 73, 895 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Marquet, B. Rappaz, P. J. Magistretti, E. Cuche, Y. Emery, T. Colomb, and C. Depeursinge, Opt. Lett. 30, 468 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Marquet, P.

B. Rappaz, A. Barbul, Y. Emery, R. Korenstein, C. Depeursinge, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, Cytometry, Part A 73, 895 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Marquet, B. Rappaz, P. J. Magistretti, E. Cuche, Y. Emery, T. Colomb, and C. Depeursinge, Opt. Lett. 30, 468 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Misbah, C.

B. Kaoui, G. Biros, and C. Misbah, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 188101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Morrissey, P.

D. A. Basiji, W. E. Ortyn, L. Liang, V. Venkatachalam, and P. Morrissey, Clin. Lab. Med. 27, 653 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Niles, J. C.

H. Bow, I. V. Pivkin, M. Diez-Silva, S. J. Goldfless, M. Dao, J. C. Niles, S. Suresh, and J. Han, Lab Chip 11, 1065 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Noguchi, H.

H. Noguchi and G. Gompper, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 14159 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nugent, K. A.

D. Paganin and K. A. Nugent, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2586 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Okuda, N.

H. Sakai, A. Sato, N. Okuda, S. Takeoka, N. Maeda, and E. Tsuchida, Am. J. Physiol.: Heart Circ. Physiol. 297, H583 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ortyn, W. E.

D. A. Basiji, W. E. Ortyn, L. Liang, V. Venkatachalam, and P. Morrissey, Clin. Lab. Med. 27, 653 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Paganin, D.

D. Paganin and K. A. Nugent, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2586 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pivkin, I. V.

H. Bow, I. V. Pivkin, M. Diez-Silva, S. J. Goldfless, M. Dao, J. C. Niles, S. Suresh, and J. Han, Lab Chip 11, 1065 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Popescu, G.

Rappaz, B.

B. Rappaz, A. Barbul, Y. Emery, R. Korenstein, C. Depeursinge, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, Cytometry, Part A 73, 895 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Marquet, B. Rappaz, P. J. Magistretti, E. Cuche, Y. Emery, T. Colomb, and C. Depeursinge, Opt. Lett. 30, 468 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, H.

H. Sakai, A. Sato, N. Okuda, S. Takeoka, N. Maeda, and E. Tsuchida, Am. J. Physiol.: Heart Circ. Physiol. 297, H583 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sato, A.

H. Sakai, A. Sato, N. Okuda, S. Takeoka, N. Maeda, and E. Tsuchida, Am. J. Physiol.: Heart Circ. Physiol. 297, H583 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schaak, D.

E. Schonbrun, S. S. Gorthi, and D. Schaak, Lab Chip 12, 268 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Schonbrun, E.

E. Schonbrun, S. S. Gorthi, and D. Schaak, Lab Chip 12, 268 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sheppard, C. J. R.

Skalak, R.

R. Skalak and P. Branemark, Science 164, 717 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Suresh, S.

H. Bow, I. V. Pivkin, M. Diez-Silva, S. J. Goldfless, M. Dao, J. C. Niles, S. Suresh, and J. Han, Lab Chip 11, 1065 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Takeoka, S.

H. Sakai, A. Sato, N. Okuda, S. Takeoka, N. Maeda, and E. Tsuchida, Am. J. Physiol.: Heart Circ. Physiol. 297, H583 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Teague, M. R.

M. R. Teague, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 73, 1434 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Tomaiuolo, G.

G. Tomaiuolo and S. Guido, Microvasc. Res. 82, 35 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchida, E.

H. Sakai, A. Sato, N. Okuda, S. Takeoka, N. Maeda, and E. Tsuchida, Am. J. Physiol.: Heart Circ. Physiol. 297, H583 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Venkatachalam, V.

D. A. Basiji, W. E. Ortyn, L. Liang, V. Venkatachalam, and P. Morrissey, Clin. Lab. Med. 27, 653 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Waller, L.

Yang, S. Y.

Am. J. Physiol.: Heart Circ. Physiol. (1)

H. Sakai, A. Sato, N. Okuda, S. Takeoka, N. Maeda, and E. Tsuchida, Am. J. Physiol.: Heart Circ. Physiol. 297, H583 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Clin. Lab. Med. (1)

D. A. Basiji, W. E. Ortyn, L. Liang, V. Venkatachalam, and P. Morrissey, Clin. Lab. Med. 27, 653 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cytometry, Part A (1)

B. Rappaz, A. Barbul, Y. Emery, R. Korenstein, C. Depeursinge, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, Cytometry, Part A 73, 895 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

M. R. Teague, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 73, 1434 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Lab Chip (2)

H. Bow, I. V. Pivkin, M. Diez-Silva, S. J. Goldfless, M. Dao, J. C. Niles, S. Suresh, and J. Han, Lab Chip 11, 1065 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Schonbrun, S. S. Gorthi, and D. Schaak, Lab Chip 12, 268 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Microvasc. Res. (1)

G. Tomaiuolo and S. Guido, Microvasc. Res. 82, 35 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

B. Kaoui, G. Biros, and C. Misbah, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 188101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Paganin and K. A. Nugent, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2586 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

H. Noguchi and G. Gompper, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 14159 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

R. Skalak and P. Branemark, Science 164, 717 (1969).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic of the focus-stack collecting microscope. In our experiments, the microfluidic device is mounted at an angle (θ) of 4° with respect to the x axis, cells are imaged with a 50× micro-objective lens onto a fast complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) camera. (b) Top view of the schematic, not drawn to scale. (c), (d) Focus stacks of an individual red blood cell and a leukemia cell recorded with the proposed technique in nine frames, with defocus between each frame (Δz) being 675 nm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Quantitative phase imaging with PIFC of a red blood cell and a leukemia cell in flow; flow velocity (ν) is 40mm/sec. (a), (d) In-focus images. (b), (e) Reconstructed phase images of cells. (c), (f) Profiles along the marked lines in (b) and (e), respectively.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Scatterplot of RBCs subjected to isotonic and hypotonic solutions. (b)–(i) Phase images in the gated regions marked in (a). Normal RBCs (b)–(e) in flow took parachutelike or slipperlike shapes. Spherized RBCs (f)–(i) remained spherical even in flow.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δz=Δxtanθ=(Δpn)(px)Mtanθ,
·[I0(x,y)ϕ(x,y)]=kI(x,y,z)z|z=0,
2ψ(x,y)=kI(x,y,z)z|z=0.
2ϕ(x,y)=·(ψ(x,y)I0(x,y)).
h(x,y)=ϕ(x,y)kΔn,

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