Abstract

By micro-Raman spectroscopy, we show that the structured surfaces of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite and diamond induced by 800 nm, 125 fs or 532 nm, 30 ps laser pulses are capped by thin amorphous carbon layers. Based on the results, we propose that for multiphoton ablation the thin amorphous layer with a reduced bandgap can facilitate surface ionization, raise free electron density, bring on plasmonic effects, and thus promote the growth of subwavelength structures. Therefore, concerning multipulse laser ablation of wide bandgap materials, we should take into account the effects of the superficial amorphous layer produced by preceding pulses instead of the intrinsic surface.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2011

U. Chakravarty, R. Ganeev, P. Naik, J. Chakera, M. Babu, and P. Gupta, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 084347 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Garrelie, J. Colombier, F. Pigeon, S. Tonchev, N. Faure, M. Bounhalli, S. Reynaud, and O. Parriaux, Opt. Express 19, 9035 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009

D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, S. Das, R. Grunwald, and J. Bonse, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 034908 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, Phys. Rev. B 79, 125436 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, ACS Nano 3, 4062 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Bonse, A. Rosenfeld, and J. Krüger, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 104910 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Golosov, V. Emel’yanov, A. Ionin, Y. Kolobov, S. Kudryashov, A. Ligachev, Y. Novoselov, L. Seleznev, and D. Sinitsyn, JETP Lett. 90, 107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

E. Hsu, T. Crawford, C. Maunders, G. Botton, and H. Haugen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2005

J. Bonse, A. Munz, and H. Sturm, J. Appl. Phys. 97, 013538 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Jia, H. Chen, M. Huang, F. Zhao, J. Qiu, R. Li, Z. Xu, X. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

G. Dumitrua, V. Romano, H. Weber, S. Pimenov, T. Kononenko, M. Sentis, J. Hermann, and S. Bruneau, Appl. Surf. Sci. 222, 226 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

A. Borowiec and H. Haugen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4462 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

J. Robertson, Mater. Sci. Eng., R 37, 129 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

M. Chhowalla, A. Ferrari, J. Robertson, and G. Amaratunga, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1419 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Ferrari and J. Robertson, Phys. Rev. B 61, 14095 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997

S. Sattel, J. Robertson, and H. Ehrhardt, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 4566 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

B. Stuart, M. Feit, A. Rubenchik, B. Shore, and M. Perry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2248 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Amaratunga, G.

M. Chhowalla, A. Ferrari, J. Robertson, and G. Amaratunga, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1419 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Babu, M.

U. Chakravarty, R. Ganeev, P. Naik, J. Chakera, M. Babu, and P. Gupta, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 084347 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bonse, J.

J. Bonse, A. Rosenfeld, and J. Krüger, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 104910 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, S. Das, R. Grunwald, and J. Bonse, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 034908 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Bonse, A. Munz, and H. Sturm, J. Appl. Phys. 97, 013538 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Borowiec, A.

A. Borowiec and H. Haugen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4462 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Botton, G.

E. Hsu, T. Crawford, C. Maunders, G. Botton, and H. Haugen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bounhalli, M.

Bruneau, S.

G. Dumitrua, V. Romano, H. Weber, S. Pimenov, T. Kononenko, M. Sentis, J. Hermann, and S. Bruneau, Appl. Surf. Sci. 222, 226 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chakera, J.

U. Chakravarty, R. Ganeev, P. Naik, J. Chakera, M. Babu, and P. Gupta, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 084347 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chakravarty, U.

U. Chakravarty, R. Ganeev, P. Naik, J. Chakera, M. Babu, and P. Gupta, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 084347 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

T. Jia, H. Chen, M. Huang, F. Zhao, J. Qiu, R. Li, Z. Xu, X. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y.

M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, Phys. Rev. B 79, 125436 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, ACS Nano 3, 4062 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chhowalla, M.

M. Chhowalla, A. Ferrari, J. Robertson, and G. Amaratunga, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1419 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Colombier, J.

Crawford, T.

E. Hsu, T. Crawford, C. Maunders, G. Botton, and H. Haugen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Das, S.

D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, S. Das, R. Grunwald, and J. Bonse, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 034908 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dufft, D.

D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, S. Das, R. Grunwald, and J. Bonse, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 034908 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dumitrua, G.

G. Dumitrua, V. Romano, H. Weber, S. Pimenov, T. Kononenko, M. Sentis, J. Hermann, and S. Bruneau, Appl. Surf. Sci. 222, 226 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ehrhardt, H.

S. Sattel, J. Robertson, and H. Ehrhardt, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 4566 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Emel’yanov, V.

E. Golosov, V. Emel’yanov, A. Ionin, Y. Kolobov, S. Kudryashov, A. Ligachev, Y. Novoselov, L. Seleznev, and D. Sinitsyn, JETP Lett. 90, 107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Faure, N.

Feit, M.

B. Stuart, M. Feit, A. Rubenchik, B. Shore, and M. Perry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2248 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, A.

M. Chhowalla, A. Ferrari, J. Robertson, and G. Amaratunga, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1419 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Ferrari and J. Robertson, Phys. Rev. B 61, 14095 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ganeev, R.

U. Chakravarty, R. Ganeev, P. Naik, J. Chakera, M. Babu, and P. Gupta, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 084347 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Garrelie, F.

Golosov, E.

E. Golosov, V. Emel’yanov, A. Ionin, Y. Kolobov, S. Kudryashov, A. Ligachev, Y. Novoselov, L. Seleznev, and D. Sinitsyn, JETP Lett. 90, 107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Grunwald, R.

D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, S. Das, R. Grunwald, and J. Bonse, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 034908 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, P.

U. Chakravarty, R. Ganeev, P. Naik, J. Chakera, M. Babu, and P. Gupta, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 084347 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Haugen, H.

E. Hsu, T. Crawford, C. Maunders, G. Botton, and H. Haugen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Borowiec and H. Haugen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4462 (2003).
[CrossRef]

He, X.

T. Jia, H. Chen, M. Huang, F. Zhao, J. Qiu, R. Li, Z. Xu, X. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hermann, J.

G. Dumitrua, V. Romano, H. Weber, S. Pimenov, T. Kononenko, M. Sentis, J. Hermann, and S. Bruneau, Appl. Surf. Sci. 222, 226 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, E.

E. Hsu, T. Crawford, C. Maunders, G. Botton, and H. Haugen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M.

M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, ACS Nano 3, 4062 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, Phys. Rev. B 79, 125436 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Jia, H. Chen, M. Huang, F. Zhao, J. Qiu, R. Li, Z. Xu, X. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ionin, A.

E. Golosov, V. Emel’yanov, A. Ionin, Y. Kolobov, S. Kudryashov, A. Ligachev, Y. Novoselov, L. Seleznev, and D. Sinitsyn, JETP Lett. 90, 107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jia, T.

T. Jia, H. Chen, M. Huang, F. Zhao, J. Qiu, R. Li, Z. Xu, X. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kolobov, Y.

E. Golosov, V. Emel’yanov, A. Ionin, Y. Kolobov, S. Kudryashov, A. Ligachev, Y. Novoselov, L. Seleznev, and D. Sinitsyn, JETP Lett. 90, 107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kononenko, T.

G. Dumitrua, V. Romano, H. Weber, S. Pimenov, T. Kononenko, M. Sentis, J. Hermann, and S. Bruneau, Appl. Surf. Sci. 222, 226 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Krüger, J.

J. Bonse, A. Rosenfeld, and J. Krüger, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 104910 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kudryashov, S.

E. Golosov, V. Emel’yanov, A. Ionin, Y. Kolobov, S. Kudryashov, A. Ligachev, Y. Novoselov, L. Seleznev, and D. Sinitsyn, JETP Lett. 90, 107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kuroda, H.

T. Jia, H. Chen, M. Huang, F. Zhao, J. Qiu, R. Li, Z. Xu, X. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, R.

T. Jia, H. Chen, M. Huang, F. Zhao, J. Qiu, R. Li, Z. Xu, X. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ligachev, A.

E. Golosov, V. Emel’yanov, A. Ionin, Y. Kolobov, S. Kudryashov, A. Ligachev, Y. Novoselov, L. Seleznev, and D. Sinitsyn, JETP Lett. 90, 107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Maunders, C.

E. Hsu, T. Crawford, C. Maunders, G. Botton, and H. Haugen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Munz, A.

J. Bonse, A. Munz, and H. Sturm, J. Appl. Phys. 97, 013538 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Naik, P.

U. Chakravarty, R. Ganeev, P. Naik, J. Chakera, M. Babu, and P. Gupta, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 084347 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Novoselov, Y.

E. Golosov, V. Emel’yanov, A. Ionin, Y. Kolobov, S. Kudryashov, A. Ligachev, Y. Novoselov, L. Seleznev, and D. Sinitsyn, JETP Lett. 90, 107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Parriaux, O.

Perry, M.

B. Stuart, M. Feit, A. Rubenchik, B. Shore, and M. Perry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2248 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pigeon, F.

Pimenov, S.

G. Dumitrua, V. Romano, H. Weber, S. Pimenov, T. Kononenko, M. Sentis, J. Hermann, and S. Bruneau, Appl. Surf. Sci. 222, 226 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J.

T. Jia, H. Chen, M. Huang, F. Zhao, J. Qiu, R. Li, Z. Xu, X. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Reynaud, S.

Robertson, J.

J. Robertson, Mater. Sci. Eng., R 37, 129 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Chhowalla, A. Ferrari, J. Robertson, and G. Amaratunga, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1419 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Ferrari and J. Robertson, Phys. Rev. B 61, 14095 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Sattel, J. Robertson, and H. Ehrhardt, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 4566 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Romano, V.

G. Dumitrua, V. Romano, H. Weber, S. Pimenov, T. Kononenko, M. Sentis, J. Hermann, and S. Bruneau, Appl. Surf. Sci. 222, 226 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rosenfeld, A.

J. Bonse, A. Rosenfeld, and J. Krüger, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 104910 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, S. Das, R. Grunwald, and J. Bonse, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 034908 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rubenchik, A.

B. Stuart, M. Feit, A. Rubenchik, B. Shore, and M. Perry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2248 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sattel, S.

S. Sattel, J. Robertson, and H. Ehrhardt, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 4566 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Seleznev, L.

E. Golosov, V. Emel’yanov, A. Ionin, Y. Kolobov, S. Kudryashov, A. Ligachev, Y. Novoselov, L. Seleznev, and D. Sinitsyn, JETP Lett. 90, 107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sentis, M.

G. Dumitrua, V. Romano, H. Weber, S. Pimenov, T. Kononenko, M. Sentis, J. Hermann, and S. Bruneau, Appl. Surf. Sci. 222, 226 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shore, B.

B. Stuart, M. Feit, A. Rubenchik, B. Shore, and M. Perry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2248 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sinitsyn, D.

E. Golosov, V. Emel’yanov, A. Ionin, Y. Kolobov, S. Kudryashov, A. Ligachev, Y. Novoselov, L. Seleznev, and D. Sinitsyn, JETP Lett. 90, 107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stuart, B.

B. Stuart, M. Feit, A. Rubenchik, B. Shore, and M. Perry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2248 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sturm, H.

J. Bonse, A. Munz, and H. Sturm, J. Appl. Phys. 97, 013538 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tonchev, S.

Weber, H.

G. Dumitrua, V. Romano, H. Weber, S. Pimenov, T. Kononenko, M. Sentis, J. Hermann, and S. Bruneau, Appl. Surf. Sci. 222, 226 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xu, N.

M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, Phys. Rev. B 79, 125436 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, ACS Nano 3, 4062 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z.

M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, ACS Nano 3, 4062 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, Phys. Rev. B 79, 125436 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Jia, H. Chen, M. Huang, F. Zhao, J. Qiu, R. Li, Z. Xu, X. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

T. Jia, H. Chen, M. Huang, F. Zhao, J. Qiu, R. Li, Z. Xu, X. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, F.

M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, Phys. Rev. B 79, 125436 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, ACS Nano 3, 4062 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Jia, H. Chen, M. Huang, F. Zhao, J. Qiu, R. Li, Z. Xu, X. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

ACS Nano

M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, ACS Nano 3, 4062 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. Borowiec and H. Haugen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4462 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Hsu, T. Crawford, C. Maunders, G. Botton, and H. Haugen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Chhowalla, A. Ferrari, J. Robertson, and G. Amaratunga, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1419 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci.

G. Dumitrua, V. Romano, H. Weber, S. Pimenov, T. Kononenko, M. Sentis, J. Hermann, and S. Bruneau, Appl. Surf. Sci. 222, 226 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

S. Sattel, J. Robertson, and H. Ehrhardt, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 4566 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Bonse, A. Munz, and H. Sturm, J. Appl. Phys. 97, 013538 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, S. Das, R. Grunwald, and J. Bonse, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 034908 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Bonse, A. Rosenfeld, and J. Krüger, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 104910 (2009).
[CrossRef]

U. Chakravarty, R. Ganeev, P. Naik, J. Chakera, M. Babu, and P. Gupta, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 084347 (2011).
[CrossRef]

JETP Lett.

E. Golosov, V. Emel’yanov, A. Ionin, Y. Kolobov, S. Kudryashov, A. Ligachev, Y. Novoselov, L. Seleznev, and D. Sinitsyn, JETP Lett. 90, 107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng., R

J. Robertson, Mater. Sci. Eng., R 37, 129 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. B

M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, Phys. Rev. B 79, 125436 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Jia, H. Chen, M. Huang, F. Zhao, J. Qiu, R. Li, Z. Xu, X. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Ferrari and J. Robertson, Phys. Rev. B 61, 14095 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

B. Stuart, M. Feit, A. Rubenchik, B. Shore, and M. Perry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2248 (1995).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of (a) diamond surface ablated by 800 nm 125 fs laser of 25,000 pulses at a fluence 1.9J/cm2 and HOPG surface ablated by (b) 532 nm 30 ps laser of 100 pulses at a fluence 46J/cm2 and (c) 800 nm 125 fs laser of 100,000 pulses at a fluence 0.17J/cm2. (d) MRS spectra of different regions as denoted by the black circles in the respective SEM images.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematics of the density of states for a (a) general amorphous material and the (b) specific carbon allotropes—diamond (I), a-C (II), and a-C with greater disorder (III).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Schematic of effects of a-L on laser ablation.

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