Abstract

We present the results of variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry and transmittance measurements to determine the variation of the complex refractive index of ion-implanted single-crystal diamond. An increase is found in both real and imaginary parts at increasing damage densities. The index depth variation is determined in the whole wavelength range between 250 and 1690 nm. The dependence from the vacancy density is evaluated, highlighting a deviation from linearity in the high-damage-density regime. A considerable increase (up to 5%) in the real part of the index is observed, attributed to an increase in polarizability, thus offering new microfabrication possibilities for waveguides and other photonic structures in diamond.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2011 (1)

I. Aharonovich, A. D. Greentree, and S. Prawer, Nat. Photon. 5, 397 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

S. Lagomarsino, P. Olivero, F. Bosia, M. Vannoni, S. Calusi, L. Giuntini, and M. Massi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 233903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Olivero, S. Calusi, L. Giuntini, S. Lagomarsino, A. Lo Giudice, M. Massi, S. Sciortino, M. Vannoni, and E. Vittone, Diam. Relat. Mater. 19, 428 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Ziegler, M. D. Ziegler, and J. P. Biersack, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 268, 1818 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Benayas, D. Jaque, Y. Yao, F. Chen, A. A. Bettiol, A. Rodenas, and A. K. Kar, Opt. Lett. 35, 3898 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2007 (1)

A. V. Khomich, R. A. Khmelnitskiy, V. A. Dravin, A. A. Gippius, E. V. Zavedeev, and I. I. Vlasov, Phys. Solid State 49, 1661 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

A. Greentree, P. Olivero, M. Draganski, E. Trajkov, J. Rabeau, P. Reichart, B. Gibson, S. Rubanov, S. Huntington, D. Jamieson, and S. J. Prawer, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18, S825 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Kok and B. W. Lovett, Nature 444, 49 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, A. V. Krasilnikova, E. Masetti, A. Duparre, E. Quesnel, and D. Ristau, Thin Solid Films 397, 229 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

K. L. Bhatia, S. Fabian, S. Kalbitzer, C. Klatt, W. Krätschmer, R. Stoll, and J. F. P. Sellschop, Thin Solid Films 324, 11 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

M. G. Jubber, M. Liehr, J. L. McGrath, J. I. B. Wilson, I. C. Drummond, P. John, D. K. Milne, R. W. McCullough, J. Geddes, D. P. Higgins, and M. Schlapp, Diam. Relat. Mater. 4, 445 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

M. Posselt, Radiat. Eff. Defects Solids 130, 87 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

R. L. Hines, Phys. Rev. 138, A1747 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Aharonovich, I.

I. Aharonovich, A. D. Greentree, and S. Prawer, Nat. Photon. 5, 397 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Azzam, R. M. A.

R. M. A. Azzam and N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, 1977).

Bashara, N. M.

R. M. A. Azzam and N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, 1977).

Benayas, A.

Bettiol, A. A.

Bhatia, K. L.

K. L. Bhatia, S. Fabian, S. Kalbitzer, C. Klatt, W. Krätschmer, R. Stoll, and J. F. P. Sellschop, Thin Solid Films 324, 11 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Biersack, J. P.

J. F. Ziegler, M. D. Ziegler, and J. P. Biersack, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 268, 1818 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1999).

Bosia, F.

S. Lagomarsino, P. Olivero, F. Bosia, M. Vannoni, S. Calusi, L. Giuntini, and M. Massi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 233903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Calusi, S.

S. Lagomarsino, P. Olivero, F. Bosia, M. Vannoni, S. Calusi, L. Giuntini, and M. Massi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 233903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Olivero, S. Calusi, L. Giuntini, S. Lagomarsino, A. Lo Giudice, M. Massi, S. Sciortino, M. Vannoni, and E. Vittone, Diam. Relat. Mater. 19, 428 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chandler, P. J.

P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, and L. Zhang, Optical Effects of Ion Implantation (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2006).

Chen, F.

de Sterke, C. M.

Draganski, M.

A. Greentree, P. Olivero, M. Draganski, E. Trajkov, J. Rabeau, P. Reichart, B. Gibson, S. Rubanov, S. Huntington, D. Jamieson, and S. J. Prawer, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18, S825 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dravin, V. A.

A. V. Khomich, R. A. Khmelnitskiy, V. A. Dravin, A. A. Gippius, E. V. Zavedeev, and I. I. Vlasov, Phys. Solid State 49, 1661 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Drummond, I. C.

M. G. Jubber, M. Liehr, J. L. McGrath, J. I. B. Wilson, I. C. Drummond, P. John, D. K. Milne, R. W. McCullough, J. Geddes, D. P. Higgins, and M. Schlapp, Diam. Relat. Mater. 4, 445 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Duparre, A.

A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, A. V. Krasilnikova, E. Masetti, A. Duparre, E. Quesnel, and D. Ristau, Thin Solid Films 397, 229 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fabian, S.

K. L. Bhatia, S. Fabian, S. Kalbitzer, C. Klatt, W. Krätschmer, R. Stoll, and J. F. P. Sellschop, Thin Solid Films 324, 11 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Geddes, J.

M. G. Jubber, M. Liehr, J. L. McGrath, J. I. B. Wilson, I. C. Drummond, P. John, D. K. Milne, R. W. McCullough, J. Geddes, D. P. Higgins, and M. Schlapp, Diam. Relat. Mater. 4, 445 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, B.

A. Greentree, P. Olivero, M. Draganski, E. Trajkov, J. Rabeau, P. Reichart, B. Gibson, S. Rubanov, S. Huntington, D. Jamieson, and S. J. Prawer, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18, S825 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gippius, A. A.

A. V. Khomich, R. A. Khmelnitskiy, V. A. Dravin, A. A. Gippius, E. V. Zavedeev, and I. I. Vlasov, Phys. Solid State 49, 1661 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Giuntini, L.

S. Lagomarsino, P. Olivero, F. Bosia, M. Vannoni, S. Calusi, L. Giuntini, and M. Massi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 233903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Olivero, S. Calusi, L. Giuntini, S. Lagomarsino, A. Lo Giudice, M. Massi, S. Sciortino, M. Vannoni, and E. Vittone, Diam. Relat. Mater. 19, 428 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Greentree, A.

A. Greentree, P. Olivero, M. Draganski, E. Trajkov, J. Rabeau, P. Reichart, B. Gibson, S. Rubanov, S. Huntington, D. Jamieson, and S. J. Prawer, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18, S825 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Greentree, A. D.

Higgins, D. P.

M. G. Jubber, M. Liehr, J. L. McGrath, J. I. B. Wilson, I. C. Drummond, P. John, D. K. Milne, R. W. McCullough, J. Geddes, D. P. Higgins, and M. Schlapp, Diam. Relat. Mater. 4, 445 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hines, R. L.

R. L. Hines, Phys. Rev. 138, A1747 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Huntington, S.

A. Greentree, P. Olivero, M. Draganski, E. Trajkov, J. Rabeau, P. Reichart, B. Gibson, S. Rubanov, S. Huntington, D. Jamieson, and S. J. Prawer, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18, S825 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jamieson, D.

A. Greentree, P. Olivero, M. Draganski, E. Trajkov, J. Rabeau, P. Reichart, B. Gibson, S. Rubanov, S. Huntington, D. Jamieson, and S. J. Prawer, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18, S825 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jaque, D.

John, P.

M. G. Jubber, M. Liehr, J. L. McGrath, J. I. B. Wilson, I. C. Drummond, P. John, D. K. Milne, R. W. McCullough, J. Geddes, D. P. Higgins, and M. Schlapp, Diam. Relat. Mater. 4, 445 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jubber, M. G.

M. G. Jubber, M. Liehr, J. L. McGrath, J. I. B. Wilson, I. C. Drummond, P. John, D. K. Milne, R. W. McCullough, J. Geddes, D. P. Higgins, and M. Schlapp, Diam. Relat. Mater. 4, 445 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kalbitzer, S.

K. L. Bhatia, S. Fabian, S. Kalbitzer, C. Klatt, W. Krätschmer, R. Stoll, and J. F. P. Sellschop, Thin Solid Films 324, 11 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kar, A. K.

Khmelnitskiy, R. A.

A. V. Khomich, R. A. Khmelnitskiy, V. A. Dravin, A. A. Gippius, E. V. Zavedeev, and I. I. Vlasov, Phys. Solid State 49, 1661 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Khomich, A. V.

A. V. Khomich, R. A. Khmelnitskiy, V. A. Dravin, A. A. Gippius, E. V. Zavedeev, and I. I. Vlasov, Phys. Solid State 49, 1661 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Klatt, C.

K. L. Bhatia, S. Fabian, S. Kalbitzer, C. Klatt, W. Krätschmer, R. Stoll, and J. F. P. Sellschop, Thin Solid Films 324, 11 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kok, P.

P. Kok and B. W. Lovett, Nature 444, 49 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Krasilnikova, A. V.

A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, A. V. Krasilnikova, E. Masetti, A. Duparre, E. Quesnel, and D. Ristau, Thin Solid Films 397, 229 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Krätschmer, W.

K. L. Bhatia, S. Fabian, S. Kalbitzer, C. Klatt, W. Krätschmer, R. Stoll, and J. F. P. Sellschop, Thin Solid Films 324, 11 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lagomarsino, S.

P. Olivero, S. Calusi, L. Giuntini, S. Lagomarsino, A. Lo Giudice, M. Massi, S. Sciortino, M. Vannoni, and E. Vittone, Diam. Relat. Mater. 19, 428 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Lagomarsino, P. Olivero, F. Bosia, M. Vannoni, S. Calusi, L. Giuntini, and M. Massi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 233903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liehr, M.

M. G. Jubber, M. Liehr, J. L. McGrath, J. I. B. Wilson, I. C. Drummond, P. John, D. K. Milne, R. W. McCullough, J. Geddes, D. P. Higgins, and M. Schlapp, Diam. Relat. Mater. 4, 445 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lo Giudice, A.

P. Olivero, S. Calusi, L. Giuntini, S. Lagomarsino, A. Lo Giudice, M. Massi, S. Sciortino, M. Vannoni, and E. Vittone, Diam. Relat. Mater. 19, 428 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lovett, B. W.

P. Kok and B. W. Lovett, Nature 444, 49 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Masetti, E.

A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, A. V. Krasilnikova, E. Masetti, A. Duparre, E. Quesnel, and D. Ristau, Thin Solid Films 397, 229 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Massi, M.

P. Olivero, S. Calusi, L. Giuntini, S. Lagomarsino, A. Lo Giudice, M. Massi, S. Sciortino, M. Vannoni, and E. Vittone, Diam. Relat. Mater. 19, 428 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Lagomarsino, P. Olivero, F. Bosia, M. Vannoni, S. Calusi, L. Giuntini, and M. Massi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 233903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

McCullough, R. W.

M. G. Jubber, M. Liehr, J. L. McGrath, J. I. B. Wilson, I. C. Drummond, P. John, D. K. Milne, R. W. McCullough, J. Geddes, D. P. Higgins, and M. Schlapp, Diam. Relat. Mater. 4, 445 (1995).
[CrossRef]

McGrath, J. L.

M. G. Jubber, M. Liehr, J. L. McGrath, J. I. B. Wilson, I. C. Drummond, P. John, D. K. Milne, R. W. McCullough, J. Geddes, D. P. Higgins, and M. Schlapp, Diam. Relat. Mater. 4, 445 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Milne, D. K.

M. G. Jubber, M. Liehr, J. L. McGrath, J. I. B. Wilson, I. C. Drummond, P. John, D. K. Milne, R. W. McCullough, J. Geddes, D. P. Higgins, and M. Schlapp, Diam. Relat. Mater. 4, 445 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Olivero, P.

S. Lagomarsino, P. Olivero, F. Bosia, M. Vannoni, S. Calusi, L. Giuntini, and M. Massi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 233903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Olivero, S. Calusi, L. Giuntini, S. Lagomarsino, A. Lo Giudice, M. Massi, S. Sciortino, M. Vannoni, and E. Vittone, Diam. Relat. Mater. 19, 428 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Greentree, P. Olivero, M. Draganski, E. Trajkov, J. Rabeau, P. Reichart, B. Gibson, S. Rubanov, S. Huntington, D. Jamieson, and S. J. Prawer, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18, S825 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Posselt, M.

M. Posselt, Radiat. Eff. Defects Solids 130, 87 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Prawer, S.

Prawer, S. J.

A. Greentree, P. Olivero, M. Draganski, E. Trajkov, J. Rabeau, P. Reichart, B. Gibson, S. Rubanov, S. Huntington, D. Jamieson, and S. J. Prawer, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18, S825 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Quesnel, E.

A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, A. V. Krasilnikova, E. Masetti, A. Duparre, E. Quesnel, and D. Ristau, Thin Solid Films 397, 229 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rabeau, J.

A. Greentree, P. Olivero, M. Draganski, E. Trajkov, J. Rabeau, P. Reichart, B. Gibson, S. Rubanov, S. Huntington, D. Jamieson, and S. J. Prawer, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18, S825 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Reichart, P.

A. Greentree, P. Olivero, M. Draganski, E. Trajkov, J. Rabeau, P. Reichart, B. Gibson, S. Rubanov, S. Huntington, D. Jamieson, and S. J. Prawer, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18, S825 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ristau, D.

A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, A. V. Krasilnikova, E. Masetti, A. Duparre, E. Quesnel, and D. Ristau, Thin Solid Films 397, 229 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rodenas, A.

Rubanov, S.

A. Greentree, P. Olivero, M. Draganski, E. Trajkov, J. Rabeau, P. Reichart, B. Gibson, S. Rubanov, S. Huntington, D. Jamieson, and S. J. Prawer, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18, S825 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schlapp, M.

M. G. Jubber, M. Liehr, J. L. McGrath, J. I. B. Wilson, I. C. Drummond, P. John, D. K. Milne, R. W. McCullough, J. Geddes, D. P. Higgins, and M. Schlapp, Diam. Relat. Mater. 4, 445 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sciortino, S.

P. Olivero, S. Calusi, L. Giuntini, S. Lagomarsino, A. Lo Giudice, M. Massi, S. Sciortino, M. Vannoni, and E. Vittone, Diam. Relat. Mater. 19, 428 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sellschop, J. F. P.

K. L. Bhatia, S. Fabian, S. Kalbitzer, C. Klatt, W. Krätschmer, R. Stoll, and J. F. P. Sellschop, Thin Solid Films 324, 11 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stoll, R.

K. L. Bhatia, S. Fabian, S. Kalbitzer, C. Klatt, W. Krätschmer, R. Stoll, and J. F. P. Sellschop, Thin Solid Films 324, 11 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tikhonravov, A. V.

A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, A. V. Krasilnikova, E. Masetti, A. Duparre, E. Quesnel, and D. Ristau, Thin Solid Films 397, 229 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tomljenovic-Hanic, S.

Townsend, P. D.

P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, and L. Zhang, Optical Effects of Ion Implantation (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2006).

Trajkov, E.

A. Greentree, P. Olivero, M. Draganski, E. Trajkov, J. Rabeau, P. Reichart, B. Gibson, S. Rubanov, S. Huntington, D. Jamieson, and S. J. Prawer, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18, S825 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Trubetskov, M. K.

A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, A. V. Krasilnikova, E. Masetti, A. Duparre, E. Quesnel, and D. Ristau, Thin Solid Films 397, 229 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vannoni, M.

P. Olivero, S. Calusi, L. Giuntini, S. Lagomarsino, A. Lo Giudice, M. Massi, S. Sciortino, M. Vannoni, and E. Vittone, Diam. Relat. Mater. 19, 428 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Lagomarsino, P. Olivero, F. Bosia, M. Vannoni, S. Calusi, L. Giuntini, and M. Massi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 233903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vittone, E.

P. Olivero, S. Calusi, L. Giuntini, S. Lagomarsino, A. Lo Giudice, M. Massi, S. Sciortino, M. Vannoni, and E. Vittone, Diam. Relat. Mater. 19, 428 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, I. I.

A. V. Khomich, R. A. Khmelnitskiy, V. A. Dravin, A. A. Gippius, E. V. Zavedeev, and I. I. Vlasov, Phys. Solid State 49, 1661 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, J. I. B.

M. G. Jubber, M. Liehr, J. L. McGrath, J. I. B. Wilson, I. C. Drummond, P. John, D. K. Milne, R. W. McCullough, J. Geddes, D. P. Higgins, and M. Schlapp, Diam. Relat. Mater. 4, 445 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1999).

Yao, Y.

Zaitsev, A. M.

A. M. Zaitsev, Optical Properties of Diamond: A Data Handbook (Springer, 2001).

Zavedeev, E. V.

A. V. Khomich, R. A. Khmelnitskiy, V. A. Dravin, A. A. Gippius, E. V. Zavedeev, and I. I. Vlasov, Phys. Solid State 49, 1661 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, and L. Zhang, Optical Effects of Ion Implantation (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2006).

Ziegler, J. F.

J. F. Ziegler, M. D. Ziegler, and J. P. Biersack, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 268, 1818 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ziegler, M. D.

J. F. Ziegler, M. D. Ziegler, and J. P. Biersack, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 268, 1818 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Diam. Relat. Mater. (2)

M. G. Jubber, M. Liehr, J. L. McGrath, J. I. B. Wilson, I. C. Drummond, P. John, D. K. Milne, R. W. McCullough, J. Geddes, D. P. Higgins, and M. Schlapp, Diam. Relat. Mater. 4, 445 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Olivero, S. Calusi, L. Giuntini, S. Lagomarsino, A. Lo Giudice, M. Massi, S. Sciortino, M. Vannoni, and E. Vittone, Diam. Relat. Mater. 19, 428 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

A. Greentree, P. Olivero, M. Draganski, E. Trajkov, J. Rabeau, P. Reichart, B. Gibson, S. Rubanov, S. Huntington, D. Jamieson, and S. J. Prawer, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18, S825 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon. (1)

I. Aharonovich, A. D. Greentree, and S. Prawer, Nat. Photon. 5, 397 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

P. Kok and B. W. Lovett, Nature 444, 49 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B (1)

J. F. Ziegler, M. D. Ziegler, and J. P. Biersack, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 268, 1818 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Amplitude ratio Ψ and (b) phase Δ spectra for unimplanted and implanted samples (samples 1–4, relative to fluences of 1·1013, 5·1013, 1·1014, and 5·1014ionscm2, respectively). Only results for an incident angle of 67° are shown for clarity. (c) Corresponding OT spectra.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Measured refractive index n depth variation compared to TRIM- and C-TRIM-calculated vacancy density profiles for sample 3 (ϕ=1014ionscm2) at 638 nm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Overall refractive index (n) values for samples 2 to 4 (“s2,” “s3,” and “s4”) at 638 and 1550 nm as a function of calculated vacancy density ρV (log scale): the dotted curve is the linear (lin) fit of data relevant to 638 nm; the solid and dashed curves are exponential (exp) fits at 638 and 1550 nm, respectively.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Spectral variation of the measured refractive index for different vacancy densities. (b) Extinction coefficient k spectra from different irradiation fluences. The solid curves are the Lorentzian components of the spectrum at the lowest fluence.

Equations (2)

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αΦ(λ)α0=1d·ln[1Γ22·t·Γ2·(1+4·t2·Γ2(1Γ2)21)],
α0=1Dln((1R0)22T0R02·1+4T02R02(1R0)41)

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