Abstract

We demonstrate a dual-comb spectrometer using stabilized frequency combs spanning 177 to 220THz (1360 to 1690nm) in the near infrared. Comb-tooth-resolved measurements of amplitude and phase generate over 4×105 individually resolved spectral elements at 100MHz point spacing and kilohertz-level resolution and accuracy. The signal-to-noise ratio is 100 to 3000 per comb tooth. Doppler-broadened phase and amplitude spectra of CO2, CH4, C2H2, and H2O in a 30m multipass cell agree with established spectral parameters, achieving high-resolution measurements with optical bandwidth generally associated with blackbody sources.

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2011

E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, A. M. Zolot, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, Phys. Rev. A 84, 062513 (2011).

2010

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, Phys. Rev. A 82, 043817 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, Nat. Photon. 4, 55 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Deschenes, P. Giaccari, and J. Genest, Opt. Express 18, 23358 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Yasui, M. Nose, A. Ihara, K. Kawamoto, S. Yokoyama, H. Inaba, K. Minoshima, and T. Araki, Opt. Lett. 35, 1689 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Adler, M. J. Thorpe, K. C. Cossel, and J. Ye, Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. 3, 175 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Nikitin, O. M. Lyulin, S. N. Mikhailenko, V. I. Perevalov, N. N. Filippov, I. M. Grigoriev, I. Morino, T. Yokota, R. Kumazawa, and T. Watanabe, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 111, 2211 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

M. Hirano, T. Nakanishi, T. Okuno, and M. Onishi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Michaels, T. Masiello, and P. M. Chu, Appl. Spectrosc. 63, 538 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2005

Adler, F.

F. Adler, M. J. Thorpe, K. C. Cossel, and J. Ye, Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. 3, 175 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Alonzo, J.

Araki, T.

Baumann, E.

E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, A. M. Zolot, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, Phys. Rev. A 84, 062513 (2011).

Bernhardt, B.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, Nat. Photon. 4, 55 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bise, R.

Brehm, M.

Chu, P. M.

Coddington, I.

E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, A. M. Zolot, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, Phys. Rev. A 84, 062513 (2011).

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, Phys. Rev. A 82, 043817 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cossel, K. C.

F. Adler, M. J. Thorpe, K. C. Cossel, and J. Ye, Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. 3, 175 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Deschenes, J. D.

Dimarcello, F.

Filippov, N. N.

A. V. Nikitin, O. M. Lyulin, S. N. Mikhailenko, V. I. Perevalov, N. N. Filippov, I. M. Grigoriev, I. Morino, T. Yokota, R. Kumazawa, and T. Watanabe, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 111, 2211 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fini, J.

Fleming, J.

Genest, J.

Giaccari, P.

Giorgetta, F. R.

E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, A. M. Zolot, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, Phys. Rev. A 84, 062513 (2011).

Grigoriev, I. M.

A. V. Nikitin, O. M. Lyulin, S. N. Mikhailenko, V. I. Perevalov, N. N. Filippov, I. M. Grigoriev, I. Morino, T. Yokota, R. Kumazawa, and T. Watanabe, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 111, 2211 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Guelachvili, G.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, Nat. Photon. 4, 55 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Mandon, E. Sorokin, I. T. Sorokina, G. Guelachvili, and N. Picqué, Opt. Lett. 33, 285 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hänsch, T. W.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, Nat. Photon. 4, 55 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hirano, M.

M. Hirano, T. Nakanishi, T. Okuno, and M. Onishi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Holzwarth, R.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, Nat. Photon. 4, 55 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ihara, A.

Inaba, H.

Jacquet, P.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, Nat. Photon. 4, 55 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jacquey, M.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, Nat. Photon. 4, 55 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kawamoto, K.

Keilmann, F.

Kobayashi, Y.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, Nat. Photon. 4, 55 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kumazawa, R.

A. V. Nikitin, O. M. Lyulin, S. N. Mikhailenko, V. I. Perevalov, N. N. Filippov, I. M. Grigoriev, I. Morino, T. Yokota, R. Kumazawa, and T. Watanabe, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 111, 2211 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lyulin, O. M.

A. V. Nikitin, O. M. Lyulin, S. N. Mikhailenko, V. I. Perevalov, N. N. Filippov, I. M. Grigoriev, I. Morino, T. Yokota, R. Kumazawa, and T. Watanabe, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 111, 2211 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mandon, J.

Masiello, T.

Michaels, C. A.

Mikhailenko, S. N.

A. V. Nikitin, O. M. Lyulin, S. N. Mikhailenko, V. I. Perevalov, N. N. Filippov, I. M. Grigoriev, I. Morino, T. Yokota, R. Kumazawa, and T. Watanabe, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 111, 2211 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Minoshima, K.

Monberg, E.

Morino, I.

A. V. Nikitin, O. M. Lyulin, S. N. Mikhailenko, V. I. Perevalov, N. N. Filippov, I. M. Grigoriev, I. Morino, T. Yokota, R. Kumazawa, and T. Watanabe, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 111, 2211 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nakanishi, T.

M. Hirano, T. Nakanishi, T. Okuno, and M. Onishi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Newbury, N. R.

E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, A. M. Zolot, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, Phys. Rev. A 84, 062513 (2011).

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, Phys. Rev. A 82, 043817 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nicholson, J. W.

Nikitin, A. V.

A. V. Nikitin, O. M. Lyulin, S. N. Mikhailenko, V. I. Perevalov, N. N. Filippov, I. M. Grigoriev, I. Morino, T. Yokota, R. Kumazawa, and T. Watanabe, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 111, 2211 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nose, M.

Okuno, T.

M. Hirano, T. Nakanishi, T. Okuno, and M. Onishi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Onishi, M.

M. Hirano, T. Nakanishi, T. Okuno, and M. Onishi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ozawa, A.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, Nat. Photon. 4, 55 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Perevalov, V. I.

A. V. Nikitin, O. M. Lyulin, S. N. Mikhailenko, V. I. Perevalov, N. N. Filippov, I. M. Grigoriev, I. Morino, T. Yokota, R. Kumazawa, and T. Watanabe, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 111, 2211 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Picqué, N.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, Nat. Photon. 4, 55 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Mandon, E. Sorokin, I. T. Sorokina, G. Guelachvili, and N. Picqué, Opt. Lett. 33, 285 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schliesser, A.

Sorokin, E.

Sorokina, I. T.

Stockert, T.

Swann, W. C.

E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, A. M. Zolot, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, Phys. Rev. A 84, 062513 (2011).

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, Phys. Rev. A 82, 043817 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thorpe, M. J.

F. Adler, M. J. Thorpe, K. C. Cossel, and J. Ye, Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. 3, 175 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Trevor, D. J.

Udem, T.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, Nat. Photon. 4, 55 (2010).
[CrossRef]

van der Weide, D.

Watanabe, T.

A. V. Nikitin, O. M. Lyulin, S. N. Mikhailenko, V. I. Perevalov, N. N. Filippov, I. M. Grigoriev, I. Morino, T. Yokota, R. Kumazawa, and T. Watanabe, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 111, 2211 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wisk, P.

Yablon, A. D.

Yan, M. F.

Yasui, T.

Ye, J.

F. Adler, M. J. Thorpe, K. C. Cossel, and J. Ye, Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. 3, 175 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yokota, T.

A. V. Nikitin, O. M. Lyulin, S. N. Mikhailenko, V. I. Perevalov, N. N. Filippov, I. M. Grigoriev, I. Morino, T. Yokota, R. Kumazawa, and T. Watanabe, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 111, 2211 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yokoyama, S.

Zolot, A. M.

E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, A. M. Zolot, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, Phys. Rev. A 84, 062513 (2011).

Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem.

F. Adler, M. J. Thorpe, K. C. Cossel, and J. Ye, Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. 3, 175 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc.

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

M. Hirano, T. Nakanishi, T. Okuno, and M. Onishi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer

A. V. Nikitin, O. M. Lyulin, S. N. Mikhailenko, V. I. Perevalov, N. N. Filippov, I. M. Grigoriev, I. Morino, T. Yokota, R. Kumazawa, and T. Watanabe, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 111, 2211 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, Nat. Photon. 4, 55 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, A. M. Zolot, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, Phys. Rev. A 84, 062513 (2011).

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, Phys. Rev. A 82, 043817 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Experimental schematic. Free-space optical paths indicated by dashes. EDFA, erbium-doped fiber amplifier; PBC, polarization beam cube. The digitizer signal, i.e., interferogram, is for a 40THz SC recorded in 1/Δfr=10ms. (b) Sample signal (red) and LO (blue) comb optical spectra. Green arrows mark the two reference-cavity-stabilized cw laser frequencies. (c) Magnitude of the rf multiheterodyne spectrum from dual-comb interference, comprised of well-resolved 1Hz teeth separated by 95Hz, as shown in the top 140Hz wide trace. The rf spectrum maps to the optical via 0νA, frep/2νNyq. (d) Corresponding comb-tooth-resolved optical spectra in 5GHz windows across the 2ν3 P5 lines in CH4, ν1+ν3 P15 line in C2H2, and ν1+ν3 P6 line in H2O. Structured H2O line shapes result from differential absorption in the low-pressure multipass cell and in the high-pressure interferometer free-space path. Typical comb tooth extinction ratios are 5001.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Time-domain SNR without (black) and with (red) linear phase correction as a function of acquisition period, tAV. The SNR increases as tAV1/2 (dashed gray). (b) The measured spectral magnitude, |S0(ν)|, (red) and the corresponding in-phase noise, σI, (blue) and out-of-phase noise, σQ, (green) for prism-filtered data near 180THz. The dips are methane absorption lines. Also shown are shot noise (black) and detector noise (gray dashes).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Spectral SNR measured across the full SC (black), and for filtered spectra (red). The full SC data spans 40THz or 4×105 individual spectral elements with SNR>100. For the filtered data, the broadband SNR exceeds 3000, yielding a phase noise of 1/SNR=330μrad and absorbance noise of 2/SNR=6.6×104. The full SC and prism-filtered data give normalized SNRs of 16s1/2 and 53s1/2 near 181THz, respectively, including the time for the normalization spectrum acquisition.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Measured absorbance (blue) and phase (green) spectra. (b) Expanded view of the prism-filtered CH4 2ν3 R8 region and C2H2 ν1+ν3 P9 line. The symbols are the 100MHz spaced measurements at the frequencies of comb teeth. Solid lines are fits to Doppler-limited line shapes, Gaussian function for the absorbance, and Dawson function for the phase [4].

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