Abstract

We propose an intrinsic optical method for in vivo neural recording using optic fiber-based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) phenomena. The fiber-based SPR method is electrical artifact free, labeling free, and feasible for a portable system compared with conventional in vivo neural recording systems. We simultaneously detected SPR signals and electrical neural activity from the rat somatosensory cortex evoked by electrical stimulation on the forepaw. Pharmacological analysis using a voltage-gated sodium channel blocker confirmed the neural origins of the optical signals. This fiber-based SPR system promises the enhanced ability to record in vivo neural activity for the investigation of neurons and their networks.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  2. C. Bjornsson, S. Oh, Y. Al-Kofahi, Y. Lim, K. Smith, J. Turner, S. De, B. Roysam, W. Shain, and S. Kim, J. Neural Eng. 3, 196 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  5. Grinvald, D. Shoham, A. Shmuel, D. Glaser, I. Vanzetta, E. Shtoyerman, H. Slovin, C. Wijnbergen, R. Hildesheim, and A. Sterkin, Modern Techniques in Neuroscience Research (Springer, 2001).
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    [CrossRef]
  7. Zepeda, C. Arias, and F. Sengpiel, J. Neurosci. Meth. 136, 1 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Lee and S. J. Kim, NeuroImage 51, 713 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Zhang, T. Atay, and A. Nurmikko, Nano Lett. 9, 519 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  15. J. K. Chapin, and C. S. Lin, J. Compar. Neurol. 229, 199 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  18. D. Monzon-Hernandez and J. Villatoro, Sens. Actuat. B 115, 227 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Piliarik and J. Homola, Opt. Express 17, 16505 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (2)

J. Lee and S. J. Kim, NeuroImage 51, 713 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Okun, A. Naim, and I. Lampl, J. Neurosci. 30, 4440 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

J. Zhang, T. Atay, and A. Nurmikko, Nano Lett. 9, 519 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Piliarik and J. Homola, Opt. Express 17, 16505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2006 (3)

D. Monzon-Hernandez and J. Villatoro, Sens. Actuat. B 115, 227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chang, Y. Chen, H. Kuo, and P. Wei, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 014032 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Bjornsson, S. Oh, Y. Al-Kofahi, Y. Lim, K. Smith, J. Turner, S. De, B. Roysam, W. Shain, and S. Kim, J. Neural Eng. 3, 196 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

R. Biran, D. Martin, and P. Tresco, Exper. Neurol. 195, 115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

Zepeda, C. Arias, and F. Sengpiel, J. Neurosci. Meth. 136, 1 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

Kalatsky and M. P. Stryker, Neuron 38, 529 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

R. Slavik, and J. Homola, Sens. Actuat. B 74, 106 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Potočnik, M. Tomšič, and F. Bajrović, Pflügers Archiv Eur. J. Physiol. 442, 193 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

V. Menon, J. Ford, K. Lim, G. Glover, and A. Pfefferbaum, Neuroreport 8, 3029 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Villringer and B. Chance, Trends Neurosci. 20, 435 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

T. Ebner and G. Chen, Prog. Neurobiol. 46, 463 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

K. Najafi and J. Hetke, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 37, 474 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

J. K. Chapin, and C. S. Lin, J. Compar. Neurol. 229, 199 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Monzon-Hernandez , D.

D. Monzon-Hernandez and J. Villatoro, Sens. Actuat. B 115, 227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Al-Kofahi, Y.

C. Bjornsson, S. Oh, Y. Al-Kofahi, Y. Lim, K. Smith, J. Turner, S. De, B. Roysam, W. Shain, and S. Kim, J. Neural Eng. 3, 196 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Arias, C.

Zepeda, C. Arias, and F. Sengpiel, J. Neurosci. Meth. 136, 1 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Atay, T.

J. Zhang, T. Atay, and A. Nurmikko, Nano Lett. 9, 519 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Baac, H.

Bajrovic, F.

Potočnik, M. Tomšič, and F. Bajrović, Pflügers Archiv Eur. J. Physiol. 442, 193 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Biran, R.

R. Biran, D. Martin, and P. Tresco, Exper. Neurol. 195, 115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bjornsson, C.

C. Bjornsson, S. Oh, Y. Al-Kofahi, Y. Lim, K. Smith, J. Turner, S. De, B. Roysam, W. Shain, and S. Kim, J. Neural Eng. 3, 196 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Byun, K.

Chance, B.

Villringer and B. Chance, Trends Neurosci. 20, 435 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y.

Y. Chang, Y. Chen, H. Kuo, and P. Wei, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 014032 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chapin, J. K.

J. K. Chapin, and C. S. Lin, J. Compar. Neurol. 229, 199 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G.

T. Ebner and G. Chen, Prog. Neurobiol. 46, 463 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chang, Y. Chen, H. Kuo, and P. Wei, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 014032 (2006).
[CrossRef]

De, S.

C. Bjornsson, S. Oh, Y. Al-Kofahi, Y. Lim, K. Smith, J. Turner, S. De, B. Roysam, W. Shain, and S. Kim, J. Neural Eng. 3, 196 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ebner, T.

T. Ebner and G. Chen, Prog. Neurobiol. 46, 463 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ford, J.

V. Menon, J. Ford, K. Lim, G. Glover, and A. Pfefferbaum, Neuroreport 8, 3029 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Glaser, D.

Grinvald, D. Shoham, A. Shmuel, D. Glaser, I. Vanzetta, E. Shtoyerman, H. Slovin, C. Wijnbergen, R. Hildesheim, and A. Sterkin, Modern Techniques in Neuroscience Research (Springer, 2001).

Glover, G.

V. Menon, J. Ford, K. Lim, G. Glover, and A. Pfefferbaum, Neuroreport 8, 3029 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Grinvald,

Grinvald, D. Shoham, A. Shmuel, D. Glaser, I. Vanzetta, E. Shtoyerman, H. Slovin, C. Wijnbergen, R. Hildesheim, and A. Sterkin, Modern Techniques in Neuroscience Research (Springer, 2001).

Hetke, J.

K. Najafi and J. Hetke, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 37, 474 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hildesheim, R.

Grinvald, D. Shoham, A. Shmuel, D. Glaser, I. Vanzetta, E. Shtoyerman, H. Slovin, C. Wijnbergen, R. Hildesheim, and A. Sterkin, Modern Techniques in Neuroscience Research (Springer, 2001).

Homola, J.

M. Piliarik and J. Homola, Opt. Express 17, 16505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Slavik, and J. Homola, Sens. Actuat. B 74, 106 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kalatsky,

Kalatsky and M. P. Stryker, Neuron 38, 529 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D.

Kim, J.

Kim, S.

Kim, S. J.

J. Lee and S. J. Kim, NeuroImage 51, 713 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H.

Y. Chang, Y. Chen, H. Kuo, and P. Wei, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 014032 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lampl, I.

M. Okun, A. Naim, and I. Lampl, J. Neurosci. 30, 4440 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

Lim, K.

V. Menon, J. Ford, K. Lim, G. Glover, and A. Pfefferbaum, Neuroreport 8, 3029 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lim, Y.

C. Bjornsson, S. Oh, Y. Al-Kofahi, Y. Lim, K. Smith, J. Turner, S. De, B. Roysam, W. Shain, and S. Kim, J. Neural Eng. 3, 196 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. S.

J. K. Chapin, and C. S. Lin, J. Compar. Neurol. 229, 199 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Martin, D.

R. Biran, D. Martin, and P. Tresco, Exper. Neurol. 195, 115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Menon, V.

V. Menon, J. Ford, K. Lim, G. Glover, and A. Pfefferbaum, Neuroreport 8, 3029 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Naim, A.

M. Okun, A. Naim, and I. Lampl, J. Neurosci. 30, 4440 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Najafi, K.

K. Najafi and J. Hetke, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 37, 474 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nurmikko, A.

J. Zhang, T. Atay, and A. Nurmikko, Nano Lett. 9, 519 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Oh, S.

C. Bjornsson, S. Oh, Y. Al-Kofahi, Y. Lim, K. Smith, J. Turner, S. De, B. Roysam, W. Shain, and S. Kim, J. Neural Eng. 3, 196 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Okun, M.

M. Okun, A. Naim, and I. Lampl, J. Neurosci. 30, 4440 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pfefferbaum, A.

V. Menon, J. Ford, K. Lim, G. Glover, and A. Pfefferbaum, Neuroreport 8, 3029 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Piliarik, M.

Potocnik,

Potočnik, M. Tomšič, and F. Bajrović, Pflügers Archiv Eur. J. Physiol. 442, 193 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Roysam, B.

C. Bjornsson, S. Oh, Y. Al-Kofahi, Y. Lim, K. Smith, J. Turner, S. De, B. Roysam, W. Shain, and S. Kim, J. Neural Eng. 3, 196 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sengpiel, F.

Zepeda, C. Arias, and F. Sengpiel, J. Neurosci. Meth. 136, 1 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shain, W.

C. Bjornsson, S. Oh, Y. Al-Kofahi, Y. Lim, K. Smith, J. Turner, S. De, B. Roysam, W. Shain, and S. Kim, J. Neural Eng. 3, 196 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shmuel, A.

Grinvald, D. Shoham, A. Shmuel, D. Glaser, I. Vanzetta, E. Shtoyerman, H. Slovin, C. Wijnbergen, R. Hildesheim, and A. Sterkin, Modern Techniques in Neuroscience Research (Springer, 2001).

Shoham, D.

Grinvald, D. Shoham, A. Shmuel, D. Glaser, I. Vanzetta, E. Shtoyerman, H. Slovin, C. Wijnbergen, R. Hildesheim, and A. Sterkin, Modern Techniques in Neuroscience Research (Springer, 2001).

Shtoyerman, E.

Grinvald, D. Shoham, A. Shmuel, D. Glaser, I. Vanzetta, E. Shtoyerman, H. Slovin, C. Wijnbergen, R. Hildesheim, and A. Sterkin, Modern Techniques in Neuroscience Research (Springer, 2001).

Shuler, M.

Slavik, R.

R. Slavik, and J. Homola, Sens. Actuat. B 74, 106 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Slovin, H.

Grinvald, D. Shoham, A. Shmuel, D. Glaser, I. Vanzetta, E. Shtoyerman, H. Slovin, C. Wijnbergen, R. Hildesheim, and A. Sterkin, Modern Techniques in Neuroscience Research (Springer, 2001).

Smith, K.

C. Bjornsson, S. Oh, Y. Al-Kofahi, Y. Lim, K. Smith, J. Turner, S. De, B. Roysam, W. Shain, and S. Kim, J. Neural Eng. 3, 196 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sterkin, A.

Grinvald, D. Shoham, A. Shmuel, D. Glaser, I. Vanzetta, E. Shtoyerman, H. Slovin, C. Wijnbergen, R. Hildesheim, and A. Sterkin, Modern Techniques in Neuroscience Research (Springer, 2001).

Stryker, M. P.

Kalatsky and M. P. Stryker, Neuron 38, 529 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tomšic, M.

Potočnik, M. Tomšič, and F. Bajrović, Pflügers Archiv Eur. J. Physiol. 442, 193 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tresco, P.

R. Biran, D. Martin, and P. Tresco, Exper. Neurol. 195, 115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Turner, J.

C. Bjornsson, S. Oh, Y. Al-Kofahi, Y. Lim, K. Smith, J. Turner, S. De, B. Roysam, W. Shain, and S. Kim, J. Neural Eng. 3, 196 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vanzetta, I.

Grinvald, D. Shoham, A. Shmuel, D. Glaser, I. Vanzetta, E. Shtoyerman, H. Slovin, C. Wijnbergen, R. Hildesheim, and A. Sterkin, Modern Techniques in Neuroscience Research (Springer, 2001).

Villatoro, J.

D. Monzon-Hernandez and J. Villatoro, Sens. Actuat. B 115, 227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Villringer,

Villringer and B. Chance, Trends Neurosci. 20, 435 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wei, P.

Y. Chang, Y. Chen, H. Kuo, and P. Wei, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 014032 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wijnbergen, C.

Grinvald, D. Shoham, A. Shmuel, D. Glaser, I. Vanzetta, E. Shtoyerman, H. Slovin, C. Wijnbergen, R. Hildesheim, and A. Sterkin, Modern Techniques in Neuroscience Research (Springer, 2001).

Zepeda,

Zepeda, C. Arias, and F. Sengpiel, J. Neurosci. Meth. 136, 1 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, T. Atay, and A. Nurmikko, Nano Lett. 9, 519 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Exper. Neurol. (1)

R. Biran, D. Martin, and P. Tresco, Exper. Neurol. 195, 115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

K. Najafi and J. Hetke, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 37, 474 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

Y. Chang, Y. Chen, H. Kuo, and P. Wei, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 014032 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Compar. Neurol. (1)

J. K. Chapin, and C. S. Lin, J. Compar. Neurol. 229, 199 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Neural Eng. (1)

C. Bjornsson, S. Oh, Y. Al-Kofahi, Y. Lim, K. Smith, J. Turner, S. De, B. Roysam, W. Shain, and S. Kim, J. Neural Eng. 3, 196 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Neurosci. (1)

M. Okun, A. Naim, and I. Lampl, J. Neurosci. 30, 4440 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Neurosci. Meth. (1)

Zepeda, C. Arias, and F. Sengpiel, J. Neurosci. Meth. 136, 1 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

J. Zhang, T. Atay, and A. Nurmikko, Nano Lett. 9, 519 (2009).
[CrossRef]

NeuroImage (1)

J. Lee and S. J. Kim, NeuroImage 51, 713 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Neuron (1)

Kalatsky and M. P. Stryker, Neuron 38, 529 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Neuroreport (1)

V. Menon, J. Ford, K. Lim, G. Glover, and A. Pfefferbaum, Neuroreport 8, 3029 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Pflügers Archiv Eur. J. Physiol. (1)

Potočnik, M. Tomšič, and F. Bajrović, Pflügers Archiv Eur. J. Physiol. 442, 193 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Neurobiol. (1)

T. Ebner and G. Chen, Prog. Neurobiol. 46, 463 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuat. B (2)

D. Monzon-Hernandez and J. Villatoro, Sens. Actuat. B 115, 227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Slavik, and J. Homola, Sens. Actuat. B 74, 106 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Trends Neurosci. (1)

Villringer and B. Chance, Trends Neurosci. 20, 435 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

Grinvald, D. Shoham, A. Shmuel, D. Glaser, I. Vanzetta, E. Shtoyerman, H. Slovin, C. Wijnbergen, R. Hildesheim, and A. Sterkin, Modern Techniques in Neuroscience Research (Springer, 2001).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the fiber-based SPR system for in vivo neural recording. A gold-coated optical fiber and tungsten electrode were closely located (right inset) to the target region, and the intensity change of reflected light caused by the SPR phenomenon was recorded (left inset).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Electrical and optical recordings of neural activity from the rat somatosensory cortex. (a) Electrical recording shows a stimulation artifact and the following two peak responses. (b) Optical signals recorded by the fiber-based SPR system are distinguishable from the noise after averaging 500 and 2000 cycles. The arrow indicates the timing of the electrical stimulation on the rat forepaw.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Effect of lidocaine on the optical SPR recordings. The averaged SPR neural signals evoked by the current stimulations were monitored before and 20 min after blocking voltage-gated sodium channels (500 trials, respectively). The second peaks (gray arrows) of the optical signal were clearly suppressed by the application of lidocaine. The first peak diminished slowly over time.

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