Abstract

We report the observation, first to our knowledge, of optical waveguiding found beneath trenches etched in congruent lithium niobate using the recently reported etching during the indiffusion of Ti process. Observations of multi-mode and single-mode guiding at visible wavelengths and preliminary measurements of waveguide insertion losses are presented.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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2010

V. Sivan, A. Holland, A. P. O’Mullane, and A. Mitchell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 121913 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2007

J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, Appl. Phys. A 89, 127 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Hu, R. Ricken, W. Sohler, and R. B. Wehrspohn, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 417 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Sivan, A. Mitchell, L. Bui, A. Holland, S. Bhargava, and T. Priest, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231921 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

S. Kim and V. Gopalan, Mater. Sci. Eng. B 120, 91 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

L. Arizmendi, Phys. Status Solidi A 201, 253 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

1998

K. Singh, P. V. Saodekar, and S. S. Bhoga, Bull. Mater. Sci. 21, 469 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1992

O. Eknoyan, H. F. Taylor, Z. Tang, V. P. Swenson, and J. M. Marx, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 407 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1988

M. Armenise, IEE Proc. J 135, 85 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Arizmendi, L.

L. Arizmendi, Phys. Status Solidi A 201, 253 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Armenise, M.

M. Armenise, IEE Proc. J 135, 85 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bhargava, S.

V. Sivan, A. Mitchell, L. Bui, A. Holland, S. Bhargava, and T. Priest, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231921 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bhoga, S. S.

K. Singh, P. V. Saodekar, and S. S. Bhoga, Bull. Mater. Sci. 21, 469 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bui, L.

V. Sivan, A. Mitchell, L. Bui, A. Holland, S. Bhargava, and T. Priest, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231921 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Burghoff, J.

J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, Appl. Phys. A 89, 127 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Eason, R. W.

Eknoyan, O.

O. Eknoyan, H. F. Taylor, Z. Tang, V. P. Swenson, and J. M. Marx, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 407 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gawith, C. B. E.

Gopalan, V.

S. Kim and V. Gopalan, Mater. Sci. Eng. B 120, 91 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Herman, P. R.

Holland, A.

V. Sivan, A. Holland, A. P. O’Mullane, and A. Mitchell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 121913 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Sivan, A. Mitchell, L. Bui, A. Holland, S. Bhargava, and T. Priest, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231921 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hu, H.

H. Hu, R. Ricken, W. Sohler, and R. B. Wehrspohn, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 417 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.

S. Kim and V. Gopalan, Mater. Sci. Eng. B 120, 91 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mailis, S.

Marx, J. M.

O. Eknoyan, H. F. Taylor, Z. Tang, V. P. Swenson, and J. M. Marx, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 407 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, A.

V. Sivan, A. Holland, A. P. O’Mullane, and A. Mitchell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 121913 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Sivan, A. Mitchell, L. Bui, A. Holland, S. Bhargava, and T. Priest, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231921 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nejadmalayeri, A. H.

Nolte, S.

J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, Appl. Phys. A 89, 127 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O’Mullane, A. P.

V. Sivan, A. Holland, A. P. O’Mullane, and A. Mitchell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 121913 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Priest, T.

V. Sivan, A. Mitchell, L. Bui, A. Holland, S. Bhargava, and T. Priest, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231921 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ricken, R.

H. Hu, R. Ricken, W. Sohler, and R. B. Wehrspohn, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 417 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Riziotis, C.

Saodekar, P. V.

K. Singh, P. V. Saodekar, and S. S. Bhoga, Bull. Mater. Sci. 21, 469 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Singh, K.

K. Singh, P. V. Saodekar, and S. S. Bhoga, Bull. Mater. Sci. 21, 469 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sivan, V.

V. Sivan, A. Holland, A. P. O’Mullane, and A. Mitchell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 121913 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Sivan, A. Mitchell, L. Bui, A. Holland, S. Bhargava, and T. Priest, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231921 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smith, P. G. R.

Sohler, W.

H. Hu, R. Ricken, W. Sohler, and R. B. Wehrspohn, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 417 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Swenson, V. P.

O. Eknoyan, H. F. Taylor, Z. Tang, V. P. Swenson, and J. M. Marx, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 407 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tang, Z.

O. Eknoyan, H. F. Taylor, Z. Tang, V. P. Swenson, and J. M. Marx, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 407 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, H. F.

O. Eknoyan, H. F. Taylor, Z. Tang, V. P. Swenson, and J. M. Marx, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 407 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, Appl. Phys. A 89, 127 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wehrspohn, R. B.

H. Hu, R. Ricken, W. Sohler, and R. B. Wehrspohn, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 417 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wellington, I. T.

Appl. Phys. A

J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, Appl. Phys. A 89, 127 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

O. Eknoyan, H. F. Taylor, Z. Tang, V. P. Swenson, and J. M. Marx, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 407 (1992).
[CrossRef]

V. Sivan, A. Mitchell, L. Bui, A. Holland, S. Bhargava, and T. Priest, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231921 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Sivan, A. Holland, A. P. O’Mullane, and A. Mitchell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 121913 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Mater. Sci.

K. Singh, P. V. Saodekar, and S. S. Bhoga, Bull. Mater. Sci. 21, 469 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEE Proc. J

M. Armenise, IEE Proc. J 135, 85 (1988).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

H. Hu, R. Ricken, W. Sohler, and R. B. Wehrspohn, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 417 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. B

S. Kim and V. Gopalan, Mater. Sci. Eng. B 120, 91 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Status Solidi A

L. Arizmendi, Phys. Status Solidi A 201, 253 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

EDIT process: (a) Ti patterned LiNbO3 as bottom wafer, (b) place unpatterned LiNbO3 as top wafer, (c) after annealing in wet oxygen, material etched from top wafer and deposited onto bottom wafer.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) DIC image in reflection configuration indicating the etched trenches resulting from the EDIT process with 500 nm thick Ti strips with widths varying from 3 to 7 μm. (b) DIC image in transmission configuration. (c) Light intensity profile of region under the etched trenches for image in (b); etched surface profile.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Optical mode profiles for trenches etched by 3, 5, and 7 μm width Ti strips of 500 nm thickness for both TE and TM polarizations.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Etched surface profile for the wafer etched by 100 nm thick Ti strips.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Optical mode profiles for trenches etched by 3, 5, and 7 μm width Ti strips of 100 nm thickness for both TE and TM polarizations.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Insertion loss of the waveguides of length 27.5 mm etched using 100 nm of Ti for different strip widths.

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